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BY  THE  REV.  J.  S.  BREWER.  M.A. 





ffi'-  -iOH— 


IAN     7    !8-j6 







pni.i.RR,  VOL.  III.  n 




|T.  PAUL  gave  a  great  charge  to 
Timothy  to  bring  the  cloak  which  he 
left  at  Troas,  but  especially  Uie  parcli- 
ments.  Here  we  have  the  inventory  i  Tim.  \\ 
of  a  preacher's  estate,  consisting  of  a  few  clothes 
and  books,  what  he  wore,  and  what  he  had  written. 
But  the  apostle's  care  was  not  so  much  concerned  in 
his  clothes  (which  might  be  bought  new)  as  in  his 
writings,  where  the  damage  could  not  be  reptured. 

>  [This  Lionel  Crantielil  was 
the  second  earl  of  Middlesex, 
and  hii  fitther,  who  bore  the 
sanie  name,  was  in  great  credit 
Bt  court  in  tlie  reign  of  Jameal., 
until  his  fall,  and  prosecution 
by  the  commons.  "  A  gentle- 
"  man  be  was  hj  birth,"  gays 
Dr.  Heylyn,  "  but  had  his 
'■  breeilin^r  in  the  city,  (being 
"  originally  a  merchant,)  from 
■•  whence  by  his  onn  wit  aiid 

"  industry  he  preferred  himself 
*'  into  the  court,  where  he  was 
"  first  made  master  of  the 
"  wardrobe,  afterwards  master 
"  of  the  wards,  and  finally  ad- 
"  vanced  by  the  power  and 
"  favour  of  the  duke  [of  Buck- 
"  inghani],  one  of  whose  kins. 
''  women  he  had  married,  to 
"  the  office  of  lord  treasurer, 
"  and  the  honour  of  being 
"  made  the  fin>t  earl  of  Mid- 


I  arn  Madly  M*iiHibl«*  (thougli  far  be  it  fr««i  bk  to 
rorii|iap-  »'<TiliMiii;r  with  wripture)  what  the  l^n^k  «.fi 
liliran  ^•••iMTially  of  iiianuv*ript^)  i*  l«»  a  zxunKrf. 
v>\in^.t'  Kookn  liavr  |>:iswhI  Kuch  hand*  which  made 
rp|«l:iiirf«  of  iiiuiiv,  litit  havixr  f»f  more. 

WaM  it  tiot  rriH'ltv  to  torture  a  librarr.  hr  maimittr 
aiifl  iiiaii;;liii;;  tlu*  authon»  therein?  neither  k-avix^ 
nor  takiii;^'  th«'iii  oiitin*.  Would  they  had  toa^k  k*9*. 
that  HO  ^hat  th(*y  h*ft  niif^ht  have  lieen  U3<*ful  to 
iii«\  or  left  h*«H,  that  k<»  wliat  they  took  mi^t  haw 
Im'I'ii  imrfiil  to  oth«*rH.  Whereos  now,  misichieTtiaf 
i;rnoniii«'i*  «li(l  a  pnjudice  to  me,  without  a  pf^vfit  la 
it-i'ir,  4»r  aii\  hoilv  rUe. 

Kilt  woiilfl  to  (loil  all  niv  fellow  lirctlin>n,  whkk 
with  nil*  iN'iiioan  tlie  loss  of  their  IxMikM,  with  mr 
iiiijrht  al-o  njoirt*  for  the  recovery  thereof,  thooj^ 

'*  (lIoM'X.     Ill  tliiH  otliot*  Ik*  hud 

"  (li^'liii'^nl    ttii*    |iritu-c    uheii 

"  ho    WAS    ill    Spain,    hy    ili'»- 

"  Hiijfliii;;  ami   iliviTtiti^  thoM* 

■•  Liri:!'     «ii|»jih«-H    \*hii"li    \\ri«' 

**  ri'<|«iiriMl  t"i»r  ihi*   ii..uiit  niiiiij* 

"  «•!"  Iitn  |Mi*t  ill  .1  ftiri*ii:ti  kin;:- 

"  flmn.    Ami  hi*  hill  ilt^i)hii;:«-tl 

"  t!ir  iliik'V  hv  joiiiiti'^  in  *^«iiiii* 

•  »i-trr!   pr  ii  tin-H  to  ir.:iki'  him 

"  ','r<i%«    h*«  •  uml  l^«^  in  hi^t  iii.u 

•    *\  ^     1 1". iitir.       'rh«'V     h.ul 

•p.i».    ••r^iil  tl..-  turn   i»f  th«' 

>    It  :i..iii«.     i!i     ilr.i\«in^     the 

biri/    h\    iht-ir    iiililUitMl    ilil- 

"  i^-.fl'.i.if.*  •    fii     i!>*4»l\r    xhf 

*r«   i*\   .       »T,'!     *),•■      i-ii!i.ii:iin« 

II  't'i    iifr-%    Mri«*    tlii-ir    ttirii 
,r     »■»■••*  •  '1*11.  •    •  I         I.   ill    til 

I  !•■     -        I       .  I  1  !••   •! 

..       U  )..<  h 

•  M  •  1 1 '  t  .• . .  V 

**  th:it  in  the  «nd  hr 
**  tonri*d  in  thr  hcm«r  of 
**  to  bi*  «l«*pririNl  <»f  thr  i* 
**  of  hirtl  hif;h  trrasurvr  otf 
**  Kn^ljiul.toU*  fined  5s.  i^:;/  . 
**  and  ri'in.iiii  a  |iri«t>uer  in  iW 
"  Toucr  dtirin};  hi«  majealTt 
*'  uill  and  pU^uurc.  It  vm 
**  iiiitvrd  :il<u>  tti  def*radr  kia 
••  frnin  all  tiller  of 
**  hilt  in  that  the  biUiom  tj 
"  hu  friond*.  and  dA«lird  tW 
**  nu»tii>n"  Lifo  of  L^ud.  p- 
12:  S  mil*  MCn»ant  of  tk» 
nohlrnian  k  father  and  famdf 
liia\  ai^i  In*  found  IB  TW 
\Vort)iit*«.  \o  Art.  I^^Miuo. 
p.  :  1  I .  I'd  fii!.  i^''*;.  And  tr.c«T 
I'nIU    in  (•ootlinan'«    MctDo«n. 

I  ,. 



not  the  same  numerical  volumes.  Thanks  be  to 
your  honour,  who  have  bestowed  on  me  (the  treasure 
of  a  lord-treasurer)  what  remained  of  your  father's 
library.  Your  father,  who  was  the  greatest  honourer, 
and  disgracer  of  students,  bred  in  learning.  Honourer, 
giving  due  respect  to  all  men  of  merit:  disgracer, 
who  by  his  mere  natural  parts  and  experience 
acquired  that  j)erfection  of  invention,  expression  and 
judgment,  to  which  those  who  make  learning  their 
sole  study  do  never  arrive. 

It  was  a  gift  I  confess,  better  proportioned  to 
your  dignity  than  my  deserts,  too  great,  not  for  your 
honour  to  bestow,  but  for  me  to  receive.  And  thus 
hath  God  by  your  bounty  equivalently  restored  imto 
me  what  t/ie  locusts  and  the  palmer*  wormy  Sfc.  have 
devoured ;  so  that  now  I  envy  not  the  pope's  Vatican, 
for  the  numerousness  of  books,  and  variety  of 
editions  therein,  enough  for  use,  being  as  good,  as 
store  for  state,  or  superfluity  for  magnificence.  How- 
ever, hereafter  I  shall  behold  myself  under  no  other 
notion  than  as  your  lordship's  library  keeper,  and 
conceive  it  my  duty,  not  only  to  see  your  books 
dried  and  rubbed,  to  rout  those  moths  which  would 
quarter  therein,  but  also  to  peruse,  study,  and  digest 
them,  so  that  I  may  present  your  honour  with  some 
choice  collections  out  of  the  same,  as  this  ensuing 
history  is  for  the  main  extracted  thence,  on  which 
account  I  humbly  request  your  acceptance  thereof; 

whereby  you  shall  engage  my  daily  prayers  for  your 


.  .i,«..i,«*.4f     iihI     til*     lOiiMCje^^     •€     1'Ur 

..f'  -<*riii    Hi«v  i  iliiTnan   irstrrr. 
'..»■     'hi II Til     »r    irn     ii-^-afi*-!    HfjCOcrr— c^a 

'     'ml    II*    iml    ii»vi»r   H**^    ^••^•Tiirrir-i    in' 

.•  Ml-       -'ii'/      iii'v    v'liisii'     !!•    :ni«»rTu:t    i::--'  ^ 

M..t .?     iii-rr  .iiiit.iui    "niii(':iiv**nf^#K.  "::t-   -r-w* 

..1.,...-  ,1    iitit  ■•j»iiinii*niii**i  "lii*!r  H*!U"»-ai*if    ::*^>• 

I  »   ..  •  I   i-ii  'iii-ni    iitMiinir    ui    ur^-^nxt-?:'.  » 

ii.i.i.»    >»•■   *t'T.  w!iirn   Tn*  lev^r    ">r  %-?^ 

II  ...  >.   w i»f   '  nt-^'T  uiv  r^^tini-'.Iiact  c  xa» 







|0D  hath  always  heen  ambitiouB  to  pre-A.D.  igoi. 
serve  and  prefer  little  things,  the  Jews  ''vil'' 
the  least  of  all  nations  i   David  their  p^^ 
king,  least  in  his  father's  family ;  '''''^ '^^IVSL 
Benjamin    the    ruler ;    little    Hill    o/9^'» pro- 
ffermon  ;    the  Virgin    Mary,  the  lowliness   of  thy 
handmaiden :  God's  children  severally  are  styled  his 
little  ones,  and  collectively  make  up  but  a  little  fock. 
And    surely   it   renders   the   work   of  grace  more 
visible  and  conspicuous,  when  the  object  can  claim 
nothing  as  due  to  itself.     A  pregnant  proof  hereof 
we  have  in  divine  Providence,  at  this  time  preserving 
the   inconsiderable    pittance   of  iaithfiil    professors 
against  most  powerful  opposition.     This  handful  of 
men  were  tied  to  very  hard  duty,  being  constantly  to 
stand  sentinels  against  an  army  of  enemies,  till  God 
sent  Luther  to   relieve   them,  and  the  work   wa.9 

8  Thr  Church  Hutory  book  v. 

A. n.  1501  made  Ii^lit4*r,  ^itli  nion*  liaiulH  to  do  it,  a^  in  the 

I  «   llf  tirv 

vii.  '  M'4|nrl  of  our  st4)n\  (mm!  williiijr,  will  appear.   M 

tiiiH*  wf  iiiiiM   n'lneiiilHT,  that   Ilenrv  Deaii*  uuc- 
riiMliiI  in  the    place   «»f  arrhlH«*hop  Mortoiu  latc^lj 
(h-reaMNi,  and  eiijovnl  his  honour  but  two  vearn,  then 
h*a\iii);  it  to  William   NVarham,  one  well  qualified 
^\X\\  l«*aniin^  and  diHcretion. 
^«ni.     2.  Now  it  is  no  small  praise  to  BuckiiijiftianiHhire, 
Ih^imM.     that  lH*ip;r  one  of  the*  l(*SM*r  counties  of  Knjrlaiid,  it 
if^oiur    had  nion»  niartvr*  and  confi^M»rs  in  it,  lK*fon*  the 
tiMtniiii.    ijj^j^,  of  liiitlier,  than  all  the  kiiifrdom  l>4^ide<i:  where 
William  TvUworth  waw  bunit  at  Amersham'',  (the 
A.D.  i5o6.ri*nde/vouM   of  (ioil's  childn*n   in   thosi>  days)  and 
•loan  his  4»idy  «lau^hter,  and  *'a  faithful  woman,  wa4 
'*  com|H*lhsl  with  her  own  hand;*  to  s(*t  lin>  to  her 
••  dear  father.*'     At  the  same  time  sixty  pri»f(*?«v>ri 
an<l  alKJve  did   luMir  fa^^»t*i  for  their  iH»iianct\  and 
Wen*   eiijoinni  to  we:ir   on   their   ri^ht    ••ht'ves  fur 
Mime  yiiir*  aft^T,  a  Mjuan»  piece  of  cloth,  as  a  di.*- 
f^nxci*  to  theniMdvi***,  and  a  dirt\»n*nci»   from  other*. 
But   ^hat   is  nioHt    n*niarkahle,   a  new  punishment 
was  uow  found  out,  of  l)ran«lin)f  th(*m  in  the  ch«*<*k. 
The  nianiM*r  thus**:  tln^ir  iie(*ks  were  tie<l  fast  to  a 
|Hi^t  \iith  tovif*ls«  aiifl  their  han«ls  h«dd<*n  that  tlie; 
mi;rht  not  ntir;  and  m»  the  hiit  in»n  ^it«*  put  to  tlitii 
chifk-.      It  '\H  not  certain  whether  hrande^l  uith  L 

f«»r  L^J/firtl.  or  //  for  I/n'tilr,  or  uhi'tln-r  it  \ia-  nnU 


a  fi»nnli**H  print  of  inm,  (yi»l  nevrrtln-h-^s  |iainful.» 
tluH  in  '•uri',  that  thru  hnn*  in  (htir  /MH/tf%  fh*  in»:rk^ 
9*1  th*   A^/i'/ .A  WM**.      And  no  doulit  thev  had  m*  \irll 

11'  •!.««!     *.    l.ji.U'th.   1;  An;:l    p.  1;: 

K«  *•    »;  ;    .»ri  !  •%4«  ^iiivit-t1«fl  ^  [K«»\.  Act*  \f  I  p    i-i     ) 

I  \   W    ■ :  .        *  *.n  w  o  isi't  !I.  t!  '   Fi»i.  I'    I '  r  • 

M    •    :  I'lrk.  n    All.  •*  Ua\    *:    i- 


of  Britain, 

leame<l  our  Saviour's  precept,  that  rather  than  they  a.  d.  1506. 

a  a  Henry 

would  have  revenged  themselves  by  unlawful  means, 
to  them  that  smit  them  on  the  one  cheeky  they  would 
have  turned  the  other  also^.  Surely  ecclesiastical  consti- 
tutions did  not  reach  thus  far,  as  to  impose  any  corporal 
torture:  and  whether  there  be  any  statute  of  the 
land  that  enjoins  (not  to  say  permits)  such  punish- 
ments, let  the  learned  in  the  laws  decide.  This  I 
am  sure,  if  this  was  the  first  time  that  they  fell  into 
this  (supposed)  heresy,  by  the  law  they  were  only  to 
abjure  their  errors ;  and  if  it  were  the  second  time, 
upon  relapse  into  the  same  again,  their  whole  bodies 
were  to  be  burnt.  Except  any  will  say,  that  such  as 
by  these  bloody  laws  deserved  death,  were  branded 
only  by  the  favour  of  William  Smith,  bishop  of  Lin- 
coln ;  and  one  may  have  charity  enough  to  incline 
him  to  this  belief,  when  considering  the  same  Wil- 
liam (foimder  of  Brasenose-college  in  Oxford)  was 
generally  a  lover  of  learning  and  goodness,  and  not 
cruelly  disposed  of  himself  ^  However,  some  of 
God's  children,  though  burnt,  did  not  dread  the  fire. 
And  lather  Rever,  alias  Reive,  though  branded  at 
the  time,  did  afterwards  suffer  at  a  stake  ^;  so  that 
the  brand  at  the  first  did  but  take  livery  and  seisin 

«  Matt.  V.  39. 

'  [Born  at  Faru worth  in  the 
pari!^  of  Prescot  in  Lancashire; 
educated  either  at  Oriel  or 
Lincoln  colleges^  or  perhaps 
successively  in  both.  Retiring 
from  Oxford  for  fear  of  the 
plague,  he  became  fellow,  and 
afterwards  master  of  Pembroke 
hall  in  Cambridge.  About  the 
same  time  he  was  made  arch, 
deacon  of  Surrey,  dean  of  the 
cIiajK'l,    St.  Stephen's,   West- 

minster, doctor  of  divinity,  and 
incorporated  in  the  same  degree 
at  Oxford.  In  1492  he  was 
created  bishop  of  Litchfield; 
in  1495  removed  to  Lincoln, 
and  died  in  1513.  The  in- 
scription which  was  engraven 
on  his  tomb,  with  an  account 
of  his  benefactions,  is  printed 
in  Wood's  Athenae,  I.  p.  650. 
See  also  Godmn  de  Prscsul. 
p.  299.  323.] 
%  Fox,  p.  101 1. 

10  The  Church  Huiory  book  v. 

A.iii5</>.  in   tun  cluH^k,  in  token  that  hi^  whole  body  nhoukl 
viT '  afterwanlH  tie  in  the   free   and    full    |)Offiemon    of 
the  fin*. 

TWcrtMi  8.  They  who  de«ir<»  further  information  of  the 
nunilMT  and  nanu^fi  f»f  nuch  nn  MitTert**!  aU^ut  thb 
time,  may  n^fmir  to  the  Acts  and  Monumentn  of 
Mr.  Fox ;  only  ThomaM  ChaM»  of  Amernham  must 
not  Im»  lien*  imiitte*!,  In-inji:  Imrlmnuixly  lMitchen*«i  by 
bhxMly  liandn  in  the  prinon  of  WiMibunie**.  Who 
to  rover  their  cruelty,  gave  it  out  that  he  luul 
hanp*^!  him^Of,  ami  in  colour  tliereof,  cau««<Mi  hiM 
bixlv  to  Ih»  buriiNl  bv  the  hiirhwavH*  hide,  when*  a 
Ntake  kn4N*ktHl  into  the  ffrave  in  the  monument  ^*ik^ 
rnllv  enH*te<l  for  fi^lonn  ///•  sr,  Fmr  wpt  fhtur^  Maith 
iniT  Saviour,  who  kill  the  Itfnly^  and  nfi^nrftrffM  harr 
no  morf  that  ihnf  ran  do:  Imt  tlM*«<»  men'n  malict* 
end(*av4»unM|  to  do  mon*,  having  killtNi  hi««  IxmIv,  U\ 
munhT  luH  niemorv*  with  slandenm?*  n'|M>rt?i,  althimgh 
all  in  vain.  Vox  the  priMm  it^Of  did  |>lea4l  for  the 
inuiMvnee  of  the  priMiner  lienMU,  Inking  a  place  <i«i 
liiw  ami  little,  that  he  could  not  fitand  upright. 
Ik*^ilh'««,  thi*  uonian  that  naw  hi*i  d(*ad  InhIv,  (a  ximM 


com|H»tent  \*itne^H  in  thifi  ca>i4»,)  dt^clan^l  that  he 
ua*«  Ml  hiadtMi  with  manacles  and  inms  that  he 
couhl  not  well  mov(*  either  hand  or  frwit.  Ittit  we 
K*nve  tin*  full  diM«UHsing,  and  tinal  dtH*iding  hi*n*<if  to 
llini  ulio  niaki*^  inquinition  for  bhNNl.  at  that  da% 
i»ht'n  ••urii  iliingH  n**  have  Ini^n  dfin«»  in  M-cn^t  '•hall 
In*  niadf*  manifrM. 
Ti»#r«i*  I.  Hv  tlii»»  time  we  mav  Inildlv  «iv,  that  all  the 
limp  VII  am%ip*  of  money  flue  to  thi*  |ni|h>,  fur  |ianlon«»  in  the 

^*      "III   till'   l»t«ht>|r%  |irt«Hi  cmllrtl    LiUlc   KaiM**    My%   V\.%\. 

1.   |i.    ICI  I    ] 


of  Britain, 


year  of  Jubilee,  five  years  since  were  fully  collected,  a.  d.  1506. 

'I'l  Henry 

and  safely  returned  to  Rome  by  the  officers  of  his     vii. 
holiness,  the   lagging   money  which  was   last  sent  share  the 
thither  came  soon  enough  to  be  received  there.   We^oL^be- 
wish  the  sellers  more  honesty,  and  the  buyers  more  ^^***  ^®™' 
wisdom.     Yet  we  envy  Rome  this  payment  the  less, 
because  it  was  the  last  in  this  kind  she  did  generally 
receive  out  of  England.     Meantime  king  Henry  the 
Seventh  did  enter  common  with  the  pope,  having 
part  allowed  to  connive  at  the  rest^     Thus  whilst 
pope  and  prince  shared  the  wool  betwixt  them,  the 
people  were  finely  fleeced.     Indeed  king  Henry  was 
so  thrifty,  I  durst  call   him  covetous,  not  to  say 
sordid,  had  he  been  a  private  man,  who  knowing 
what  ticklish  terms  he  stood  upon,  loved  a  reserve 
of  treasure,  as  being  (besides  his  claims  of  conquest, 
match,  and  descent)  at  any  time  a  good  title  ad 
con'oborandum.     (And  we  may  the  less  wonder  that 
this  money  was  so  speedily  spent  by  his  successor ;  a 
great  part  thereof  being  gotten  by  sin,  was  spent  on 

i  [Parker's]  Antiq.  Brit, 
[p.  452.  But  lord  Bacon,  in 
his  History  of  the  reign  of 
Hen.  VII.  is  of  opinion  that 
the  king  had  no  part  in  it.  That 
writer  speaks  thus;  "It  was 
*'  thought  the  king  shared  in 
*'  the  money.  But  it  appeareth 
*'  by  a  letter  which  cardinal 
'*  Adrian,  the  king's  pensioner, 
*'  wrote  to  the  king  from  Rome 
'*  some  few  years  after,  that 
*'  this  was  not  so.  For  this 
"  cardinal  being  to  persuade 
"  P.  Julius  on  the  king's  be- 
*'  half  to  expedite  the  bull  of 
'*  dispensation  for  the  marriage 
*•  between   prince   Henry  and 

*  the  lady  Katharine,  finding 
'  the  pope  difficile  in  granting 
'  thereof,  doth  use  it  as  a  prin- 
'  cipal  argument  concerning 
'  the  king's  merit  towards  that 
'  see,  that  he  had  touched 
'  none  of  those  deniers  which 
'  had  been  levied  by  Pons 
'  [the  pope's  commissioner  for 
'  effecting    the    exchange    of 

*  money  for  indulgences,  &c.] 

*  in  England."  p.  200.  (Eng- 
lish ed.  1629.)  Archbishop 
Parker's  words,  as  referred  to 
by  Fuller  are,  **  At  ne  rex 
**  tantse  fraudi  obstaret  pro- 
'*  misit  ei  papa  suae  prscdte 
*'  partem."] 

12  The  Chunk  lintory  siHti  i. 

A.I).  150H.  Hill.)  Was  it  then  charity  or  remorse,  pirinir  cr 
^vii.*  restoring,  that  liereu|)oii  king  ilcnnr  the  S-Ti-nth 
founded  the  rich  hospital  of  the  Savoy  in  the  Strunl 
with  the  finishing  whereof  he  enchnl  his  own  lifr. 
And  it  is  (|uestionablt*  whether  his  ImnU'  \\i*>  in  ni«irr 
niagniKct*nce  in  that  stately  and  costly  tonih  and 
chaiH*!  of  his  own  crtn^ting,  or  whether  his  iiii*iii«iry 
liv(*s  nion*  histingly  in  that  k^anunl  an4i  cun«»o« 
history,  which  the  lord  Bacon  hath  written  cif  hi4 
reign  ? 
iimry  5.   Ileiir}'  the  Eighth,  his  son,  succc<Hle<l    hini\ 

c0fdc«h  hii  OIK*  of  a  lM*autiful  |K'rson,  and  niaji'stic  pre^-ikce. 
iiiMmnich  that  liis  |iictun*  in  all  placin,  is  knomii  at 
the  first  sight.  As  for  the  chanicti»r  of  his  mind,  all 
tlu*  virtues  and  vices  of  all  his  pHMh^ce^^sors  from  the 
<*on(|nt*st  may  s4H*ni  in  him  fully  n*|)n^*nt«HL  Uith  to 
their  kind  and  degree,  h*aniing,  wiMlom,  vah»ur, 
ma<rnifieence,  cnudtv,  avari<'e,  fiir>*.  and  lu-t ;  fnl- 
lowing  liis  plcasun^s  whilst  lu*  was  young.  anH 
making  tln^m  c«imc  tn  him  wh(*n  he  was  tdd.  Manv 
nu*mt»nihh»  altcnitioim  in  chun*h  and  state  ha|»|H*mil 
in  liJH  age,  as,  (hmI  willing.  hcn»after  shall  ap|N-ar. 

A.p.  l5o<^      ().  On   tin*   third  dav  of  Juiu*    \\v   was    Mdcmnk 

II  '  * 

riKhiiM*     marrinl   to  th<*   lady    Katliarinc   dowagi«r,   fomii-riy 

JJ^JJ^*"'  \MtV  to  his   linither  princv  Arthur,  dcHH-aseil.     Two 

Arthur      pnjH'^i  took  tln*  niatt4*r  in  hand  to  di^tcu-H  ami  fI«*<Mile 

tin*   la\U'uhH-**H  th4'n*<if,   Al«*xand4*r  the   Sixth,    and 

V\\\^  tli«*  Tiiird  ;   Kut    iMith  dird   lN*fon*  the  l»u*>in«^^ 

Ma**  full\  I'tVectcd'.      At  hint  conn***  |ni|h*  .luliu**  the 

^     April  :i.  1;   «/  '  rinl.    Hut  arrlil»i«h«>p  W^rham 

N.inili'r^  ill'  M'li;«*   An-  liatl     s**     |hiv«4*%%i<«1     thr     V\t^ 

^luvlitl.  I    p    -     [Tin*  tir^t  l»till  i&|:.tiii«C    It,   that    111    Junr     i*. 

i%*f   i  mirai'tin^    thi«    :i:jrria|{e  K    >.  th<*  priniv  by  hi%  fjt}i«'r'« 

^%  I*   ntit    Dit-     :'•.    '^''V  ruttiiiijiiil  mode  .1  iirotr^tdtHui 

ii|M*ii    \4l.ii!i    t!i«-\    \\\tv    mar.  a^aiiMt    it.  uhicli  hr  tkx'laml 

The  fhurrh  J/ittuiy 


JLD.tiat.wUIU  contintwd  utd  tnenaaocl  on  the  |MM>r 
'vnT  (m  tbey  call  tb«ii>  after  slyiinlion.  forreil  to  i 

~the  fiwhion  of  a  bggotwrouj^t  in  tlircnil.  ur  } 

on  duir  left  ileereii,  nil  tlip  tlavH  '>r  titnr  liTcn; 

beii^  death  to  put    ott  tlinr  rlntlien  Kitliuut  iti 

eogninnoe.     Ami  imlovfl  (o  pmir  |>i<«pU>  it  « 

pDt  it  oC  and  t'e  liurned,  ktv|i  it  on.  unl  Iv  i 

mmng  none  ncncmllr  wnuld  PK't  ttmn  <»n  wotfc  | 

nurietl  tbat  badjte  almut  ihom', 

A-D.I1II.     8.  On  this  arcount  William   SvetJng  : 

•Ml  Bn«-  Urowster  wen*  n*-iiiipri«out>(l.     lo  vain  <i 

*"         'pl«wl  lliat  ii4'  H-BM  ronintandnd  U*  leavv  off 

bv  th<^  rontmllcr  «r  lh«*  earl  or  OzTnrd'a*  I 

waa  Dut  111  ixmtrol  tbp  ordera  of  the  I 

And,  as  littU-  did  Htn-tiag'a  plea  | 

[NU»on  of  Mary  Ma);vlalenr*a  in   Colehoator-j 

htm  t»  laT  Ilia  fiigjP't  attide^.     ThMc.  like  1 

baro  tbvir  fitfofotN  on  tbuir  barlu,  wliicb  i 

bare  Ibcsn,  tbejr  botb   beiqg  burned 

Soiithfield.    TW  fmfiaU  rc^ioft,  tbat  lb 

at  their  death  attain  to  al^jim*  their  i 

truth  whcTPof  iow  <lar  Nhall  Rpitnu*. 

true,  let  tlir  mi|ianial  Imt  judgi-  which  ^ 

fankj.  tbeae  poor  nwn  for  want  of  coRMtanry  I 

defiai^  or  their  jodgea,  for  want  »r  rbarity  in  i 

Mccfitfaig  their  abhuatiaB. 

*;P.i/i»      9-  Rirlianl  lliinno,  a  wi-altb;  citisrn  of  I 

W^m*    '  impriMmi-*!  in  Ixlbu^l'i  towvr  for  maintaiiiin|f  t 

,1     ^    t    ttf  WickllO^'n  o|»iiiioiia,  bad  bia  neck  therein  i 

pwwrfiMp  ■■iwi*  them.  M« 
ftuwl't  M.\  p.  u.] 

-  [Ukm  6,  Vm.J 

rPov.  Acu,  *cll.  p-ii. 

rif  fratn  lu»i."   Fm,  ia.]  * 


of  Britain, 


broken"'.  To  cover  their  cruelty,  they  gave  it  out  ad.  1514. 
that  he  hanged  himself;  but  the  coroner's  inquest  vin7 
sitting  on  him,  by  necessary  presumptions  found  the 
impossibility  thereof,  and  gave  in  their  verdict,  that 
the  said  Hunne  was  murdered.  Insomuch  that  Par- 
sons hath  nothing  to  reply,  but  that  the  coroners 
inquest  were  simple  men,  and  suspected  to  be 
infected  with  Wickliffian  heresies*.  But  we  remit 
the  reader  to  Mr.  Fox  for  satisfaction  in  all  these 
things,  whose  commendable  care  is  such,  that  he 
will  not  leave  an  hoof  of  a  martyr  behind  him, 
being  very  large  in  the  reckoning  up  of  all  sufferers 
in  this  kind. 

10.  Cardinal  Bainbridge,  archbishop  of  York,  being  a.d.  1514. 
then  at  Rome,  was  so  highly  offended  with  Rinaldus  CanUnai 
de  Modena,  an  Italian,  his  steward,  (others  say  his  why  p^sra. 
physician,  and  a  priest,)  that  he  fairly  cudgelled  him.^*^*^*^®* 
This  his  passion  was  highly  censured,  as  inconsistent 
with  episcopal  gravity,  who  should  be  no  striker^. 
But  the  Italian  shewed  a  cast  of  his  country,  and 
with  poison  sent  the  cardinal  to  answer  for  his  fact 
in  another  world,  whose  body   was  buried  in  the 
English  hospital  at  Rome^. 

'  [Fox,  Acts,  &c.  II.  p.  13. 

Burnet's  Reform.  I.  p.  27.] 

>  Examination  of  Fox  his 
Mart,  for  the  month  of  De- 
oemb.  p.  279.  282. 
*  I  Tim.  iii.  3. 
^  Grodwin  de  Frees.  Ang. 
p.  700.  [Christopher  Bain- 
bridge was  born  at  Hilton 
near  Appleby  in  Westmoreland, 
educated  in  Queen's  college, 
Oxford,  of  which  society  he 
became  provost.  After  hold- 
ing several  dignities    in    the 

church,  he  was  in  1505  made 
dean  of  Windsor  and  master 
of  the  rolls,  in  1507  bishop  of 
Durham,  and  next  year  arch- 
bishop of  York.  In  15 11  the 
pope  created  him  cardinal  of 
S.  Praxedis  for  the  service 
which  the  archbishop  had  ren- 
dered him  in  persuading  king 
Henry  VIII.  to  take  part  with 
the  pope  in  his  wars  against 
Lewis  XII.  of  France.  He 
was  succeeded  by  Wolsey. 
See  Wood's  Athense,  I.  p.  65 1 .] 


7'/ir  Church  Ht>(oty 

»ooi  \. 

A.i>.  151^.      II.  Uiclmni   Fox,  luHhon  of  Wincliet^tiT,  foun€|<>il 

'viTi7  and  mdowtMl  Coqms-diristi  college  in  Oxforti,  lie- 

Thrfcittiia.  Htowing  then*on  landx  to  the  yearly  value  of  four 

!!!!LniKMi  hu"<l'^'J  and  one  |K)undMy  eight   shillingx,  and  two 

?!;";«*.'"    iH»nre^.  AntI,  wherea.^  thiH  foundation  in  charactemi 

hy  an  Oxford  man  to  )>e  cjt  omnibtui  minimum^  ret 

cf^tr  tx  mhiimix  unfim\  at  thin  day  it  ac<]uittelb 

itHcOf  in  more  than  a  middle  equi|iage  amongvt  other 

foundations.     KraHmuH  in  very  large  in  the  prmine 

thereof,  highly  affectiHl  with  a  library,  and  study  of 

tongues,    which,   acc4)nling   to   tlie    founders    wilt 

fl4>urishe<i  then*in ;  insomuch  that  for  some  time  it 

was    t4*nne<l,    Tlie    college    of    the    thnn*    leametl 


P^t  l<Knis  Oxonii.  possum  appelUro  triHngut* 
Musa*uin,  a  Cliristi  Corpon*  nomen  habensT. 

Sun*  I  am.  that  for  all  kind  of  learning,  di\ine  an<l 
human,  this  houM^  is  {paramount  for  eminent  persons 
bre<l  therein. 




1516.  John  i  Urimmd. 
I5j;.  R4il«tt  Morwcnt. 
i«ftM.  WiUuMn  CltM Hin 
I55«^  Wtlham  BuitImt. 
15^1    TbiHnM  iirmt 
I  «AM.  WOliam  Coir. 
I  ((/I.  John  lUrnaUa 
•  60;.  Jnhn  Spmvr. 
1 1*14.  'Tliiwna*^  AiuAu. 
i6iy    fjohn-  ll'iit. 

i<V40   (lUilvn  Nt^lin.; 
164I.  [Rilmun^]  ScM 


John  J0mri. 


Bmf/mttmr§.     '  t^tmrtkeH 



Hufh  OUham,  j  it^w^r 
biahof  <i#  Ex  -  I     n^^ 

■  fJohn  Jr««a 
iUy.  ,  [Jdhn         R47'. 

Mr.     [Rulwrt]       rr. 
Monrmu^tr.     Bruut    Tvyaa^ 
c%mA       pom-        tlir     induacn- 
4tfnt.;  '     (MM  ftBU^uam 

WOlMin  FrtMi.        UiHiat^. 

Mf%    M.VWV.  I>r   JarkMT^ 

I>r.  JokA  IUy. 

Sr      ihvrjgt 
Paul,  kn^t.   ; 

«  OcKiviin  in  \he  liuhop*  of 
Winche»trr,  i>.  3^7  [WcmmI'i 
AanaU.  vol.  11.  p.  7.     Hbuify 

of  Col U»|(rA,  he,  1.  p.  3H2.] 
■  Pitura*   dr  Acad.   Okcmi. 


of  Britain, 


So  that  a  president,  twenty  fellows,  twenty  scholars,  A.D.1516. 
two  chaplains,  two  clerks,  and  two  choristers,  be-     vin7 
sides  oflScers  and   servants   of  the   foundation   are 
therein  maintained,  which  with  other  students,  anno 
1634,  made  up  threescore  and  ten. 

12.  This  Huffh   Oldham,  in  the  front  of  bene- Hugh  pM. 

ham  his 

factors,  because  he  was  bishop  of  Exeter,  for  names-  bounty. 
sake  intended  his  bounty  to  Exeter  college.  But, 
suffering  a  repulse  from  that  society,  (refusing  at  his 
**request  to  make  one  Atkin  a  fellow,)  diverted  his 
liberality  to  Corpus-Christi  college ;  so  bountiftil 
thereunto,  that,  as  founder  is  too  much,  so  bene- 
factor is  too  little  for  him.  He  was  one  of  more 
piety  than  learning,  courteous  in  his  deeds,  but  very 
harsh  and  rugged  in  his  speeches,  making  himself 
but  bad  orations,  yet  good  orators,  so  many  eloquent 
men  were  bred  by  his  bounty.  Nor  let  it  be  for- 
gotten, that  as  Fox,  the  founder  of  this  house,  was 
fellow  and  master  of  Pembroke  hall,  so  Oldham  also 
had  his  education  in  Queen's  college  in  Cambridge*^; 

y  John  White,  [Diacosio- 
martyrion,  p.  86.  ed.  1553.] 

«  [Wood  reckons  twelve  bi- 
shops to  1782.] 

^  See  more  of  him  anno 

^  Godwin  in  the  bishops  of 
Exeter,  p.  473.  [Holinshed, 
p.  839.  The  same  writer  gives 
the  following  account  of  Old- 
ham*s  bene&ction.  *'  Bishop 
«'  FoK  was  of  the  mind  and 
"  determination  to  have  made 

the  college  for  religious  men. 

But  bishop  Oldham  (whether 
*'  it  was  b^»use  he  flavoured 
"  not  those  sects  of  cloistered 
'*  monks,  or  whether  he  foresaw 




"  dissuaded  bishop  Fox  what 
"  he  could  from  that  his  pur- 
*'  pose  and  opinion,  and  said 
*•  unto  him ;  '  What,  my  lord, 
*'  shall  we  build  houses  and 
"  provide  livelihoods  for  a 
"  company  of  bussing  monks, 
'*  whose  end  and  fall  we  our- 
selves may  live  to  see  ?  No> 
no,  it  is  more  meet  a  great 
'  deal  that  we  should  have 
care  to  provide  for  the  in- 
*'  crease  of  learning,  and  for 
*'  such  as  who  by  their  learning 
'*  shall  do  good  in  the  church 
"  and  commonwealth.'  "p.  840.] 
c  See  Jo.  Scot  his  tables.  [At 
the  end  of  Isaacson's  chrono^ 




any  fall  toward  of  those  sects)     logy.] 


Sfl  TV  ChurrA  ttutan/  »ooi  « . 

AD.  I1IK.IIO  mnrh  hath  Oxfrrrd  bn*n  liehnlilinf;  to  bcT  nc>ptH*w'» 
I  viiL     or  Mittfr'«  t*l)iMr(>n.     Biit  hh   ntm'  Kphmn  nuij  (<• 

^^^  AbnUiAm,  ll'ifil  in  thai  /mitriji  tk*^  aud  m**f  n, 

^^^k  Mich   ihvir   tniituftl    kflL'Ttimi.   ft   nwlton    not   wtiM 

^^^^L  fiiTciur  one  utater  fm^lT  br^toweth  nti  Ihc  otbrr. 

^^^^iQtW^  13.  John  (.'ok-t,  Avtu\  of  PniilX  tliott  thin  jfor,  in 
^^^H^Si^th(>  finy-thinl  Tear  nf  his  nffi'.  "f  ■  |>t<^ilfntfml 
^^^HQI^  ■wi'Attnfr,  nt  Sh*-no  in  Surrrj.  Ho  wmi  Ibc  vXArtt 
^^^m  (Mill    Htio    nirvivinji:)   child    of   rir    llrnry   Colrt. 

^^H  mi^nH^T,  twice  loni  iiujur  of  I^ndon.  who  with  hi* 

^^^H  k^  w>nH  AtiH  aji  miutT  ihiu);1ilcni  uv  (Irjiirttn]    in  • 

^^^H  1^***   wimhiw  iin  tb«-  north   iii<li>  of  St.  Anthutir'ii, 

^^^H  (romijillj^  St.  AntlinV)  tu  which  Hiurrh  ho  wm  m 

^^^H  (ir^**!  bont'fiirlur'.     Ilin  no  John  foiui<lo<l  the  frt^p* 

^^^m  Khotil  of  St.  PsulV  aii()  it  »  bard  to  mt,  wbothor  he 

^^^  IcA   bvtKrr  taw*   for  tbe  gQwrament.  or  bada  far 

nuiatoouee  tbcicoC 
r«f  14.  A  fWiCHKhool  Indeed  to  all  nativM  or  fonHign* 
en  of  what  mtinlrr  socrcr,  hort>  to  havp  tbrir  odo- 
eation,  (none  bt-iny  i-xotuilei|  hr  their  nalivHy. 
^^^^^^^_  which  excliulo  n«t  theni«elTL«  by  thdr  unwortlit- 
^^^^^^^h  arw.)  to  the  niimhcr  of  uim>  hundred  fiflr  and  Xhnn, 
^^^^^^^B  (ao  many  fifths  a*  wore  mught  in  the  net  by  tlie 
^^^^^^^1  :^ioatlea*,>  whrnnif  cverr  Ti«r  Kiini*  appearing  oral 
^^^^^^^Kffegiiuit  (by  unpartial  cxoniinatjon)  harv  lalariw 
^^^^^^^r  ■llowed  thorn  for  xort-n  ymn,  or  until  they  gal 
belter  luvfennvnt  in  the  rhurrh  or  univfinty. 
^  15.  It  nuy  flctiu  (Um?  Latin.  Oiat  tfaia  ColM 
n    bebig  dean  of  Sc  PaulN,  the  aebocd 


•  tM 

[Aoori.    Km.    Hn   Kai|kt^   Ufe  if 
»«•  aMl  tlMa  dMglrtwm,  ^        •Jount.M. 

i-fcB   Cairt   «W   tW  Mly   MM 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  19 

St.  Paul,  and  distanced  but  the  breadth  of  the  street  a.  d.  15 19. 
from  St.  Paul's  church,  should  not  be  entrusted  to  viii. 
the  inspection  of  his  successors,  the  dean  and  chapter 
of  Paul's,  but  committed  to  the  care  of  the  company 
of  the  mercers  for  the  managing  thereof.  But 
Erasmus  ^  rendereth  a  good  reason,  from  the  mouth 
and  mind  of  Colet  himself,  who  had  found  by 
experience  many  laymen  as  conscientious  as  clergy- 
men in  discharging  this  trust  in  this  kind,  conceiving 
also  that  whole  company  was  not  so  easy  to  be 
bowed  to  corruption  as  any  single  person,  how 
eminent  and  public  soever. 

16.  For  my  own  part,  I  behold  Colet's  act  herein.  Out  of  pro- 
not  only  prudential,  but  something  prophetical,  asldence.^'^ 
foreseeing  the  ruin  of  church  lands,  and  fearing  that 

this  his  school,  if  made  an  ecclesiastical  appendant, 
might  in  the  fall  of  church  lands  get  a  bruise,  if  not 
lose  a  limb  thereby. 

17.  William    Lily   was    the    first    schoolmaster  w.  LUy 
thereof,  by  Colet's  own  appointment.     An  excellent  mut^. 
scholar,  bom  at  Odiham  in  Hampshire,  and  afterward 

he  went  on  pilgrimage  as  far  as  Jerusalem :  in  his 
return  through  Italy  he  applied  himself  to  his 
studies^.  And  because  some  perchance  would  be 
pleased  to  know  the  Lilies  of  Lily,  (I  mean  his 
teachers  and  instructors,)  know  that  John  Sulpitius 
and  Pomponius  Sabinus,  two  eminent  critics,  ware 
his  principal  informers.  Returning  home  into  his 
native  country  well  accomplished  with  Latin,  Greek, 
and  all  arts  and  sciences,  he  set  forth  a  grammar, 

^  In  his  Epistle  unto  Jodo-     this  letter  he  gives  a  general 
cos  Jonas.   [Epistolse  XV.  14.     account  of  Colet's  life.] 
p.  697.  ed.  Lond.  1642.     In         %  Pitz  in  Vita,  p.  697. 



The  Churrh  History 

»OOI    V 

A.n.  1519.  which  8tin  ffiK*H  uniler  his  immo,  and  i^  univfrwiIlT 

*  ViiT.'^  taujfht  all  oviT  Kiiplftml^'. 

II »  cT«m.       18.  Many  wen*  the  tMlitioim  of  thi^  pmnmmr*,  tho 

^»^  fii^t  wt  forth  aniui  1513,  (when  PaiirH  whmil  \ia.« 
foun<UMK)  ns  ap{M»an>i  hy  that  instanre,  meruit  suh  rtp^ 
in  dallia,  n»latiiip  to  Maximilian  thi'  (M^nnan  rni- 
|H»n»r,  \s\\n  then  at  th«»  sicp*  of  TlM'nivt'nnc  in 
FlaniU»iN  fonj^lit  nrnhT  tlu»  Imnner  of  kinp  Henry  th«* 
Kiphth.  taking  an  lunnlnMl  eniwn-  a  <Iay  for  hi« 
|>jiy^.  Anotlier  t'^lition  anno  15*20,  wlu*ii  aitHitn 
rnft'  IhprtJtrruinm  /^rnfiriAri,  n'fi*rH  to  tln»  kin*f'« 
hjKHMly  jounny  into  (  aiiterlmr}",  then*  Uf  pve  i»nt<T- 
tainineiit  to  (1iarlc*fi  the*  fifth  eni|H>ror,  lately  lainhNl 
at  Dover. 

^  [He  vnu  a  dem\  of  Ma^. 
daleti  cnllri^  Oxfctrd  in  148^). 
U*in;;  tht*n  i*i);ht4*i*n  ytnim  «}f 
■Kt*.  Having  taken  hiii  di'gree, 
lio  travel  led  almiad,  and  Im.*< 
tidm  rial  ting  Jeruudum,  on  hit 
rrtnrn  made  Mitne  utav  at 
Rhode*,  where  he  probahlj 
acquired  a  proficiency  in  the 
Cireek  language.  He  wa»  tkiu 
pointed  to  the»ter*hip 
of  Ht.  Fault  school  in  151a, 
which  he  iiniiie«liatelir  raiaed  to 
auch  a  reputation,  that  Kraa. 
mnt  in  one  of  hia  letters.  ( ibted 
1514.)  speaking  of  the  progresa 
of  a  lad  entrusted  to  his  charge 
to  educate  in  Latin,  ohaerret : 
"  lUud  andacter  afinnabo,  il- 
"  lum  plu«  scire  I^olinitatia 
"  quatn  fu(*rit  in  ulla  schoU, 
*'  ne  Lilianam  quidetii  evcipio, 
*' triennit)  consecuturus.*'  iK- 
ptst  p.  436.)  He  wms  upon 
term  ft  of  the  greatest  intimacy 
with  the  celebrated  sir  Thomas 

More,  who  in  one  of  hit  letter* 
addresscnl  to  dean  Colet  sav« , 
'*  I  jvuM  my  time  with  Hu*^ 
**  cine.  Linacre,  and  Lillie 
'*  the  first  being  as  you  kn«>w 
••  the  director  of  mr  life  ta 
**  )<)ur  absence,  the  necood  the 
*'  master    of  mr    studies,    tW 


*'  third  my  roost  dear  coou 
'*  panion."  More's  Life  cif  sir 
Thomas  More,  p.  34.  e«l.  1716. 
Lily  died  of  the  plaeue  ia 
1533-3,  and  was  buried  in  iW 
north  yard  beUmging  to  the 
cath^-dnd  church  oi  H(.  Psnl's. 

His  epitaph,  uhich  was  eiu 
graren  on  a  brass  plate,  and 
five<l  near  the  great  iH»rth  d«mr 
of  St.  Paul's,  is  quoted  by  Ful- 
ler in  his  Ap|>eal,  part  11. 
p.  56.] 

*  [See  an  acomnt  %»i  thaa 
and  his  other  works  in  Wood's 
Athena*.  I.  16.] 

i  (fodwin's  Annales,  p.  ilL 
[ed.  i^>5.V^ 

CKNT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  21 

19.  Formerly  there  were  in  England  almost  asA.D.  1519. 
many  grammars    as   schoolmasters,   children   being  '  Vin.'^ 
confounded  not  only  with  their  variety,  but  some-  And  pnW- 
times  contrariety  thereof,  rules  being  true  in  the  one  JS^orfty. 
which  were  false  in  the  other.     Yea,  which  was  the 
worst,  a  boy  when  removed  to  a  new  school  lost  all 

he  had  learned  before :  whereupon  king  Henry  en- 
deavoured an  imiformity  of  grammar  all  over  his 
dominions;  that  so  youths,  though  changing  their 
schoolmasters,  might  keep  their  learning.  This  was 
|>erformed,  and  William  Lily's  grammar  enjoined 
universally  to  be  used.  A  stipend  of  four  pounds  a 
year  M'as  allowed  the  king's  printer  for  printing  of  it, 
and  it  was  penal  for  any  publicly  to  teach  any  other. 
I  have  been  told  how  lately  bishop  Buckeridge 
examining  a  free-school  in  his  diocese  of  Rochester, 
the  scholars  were  utterly  ignorant  of  Lily's  rules,  as 
used  to  others ;  whereat  the  bishop  exclaimed.  What ! 
are  there  puritans  also  in  grammar^  ? 

20.  I  deny  not  but  some  since  have  discovered  since 
blasted  leaves  in  our  Lily,  observing  defects   and  by  many, 
faults  therein;  and  commendable  many  persons'  pains 

in  amending  them ;  however  it  were  to  be  desired, 
that  no  needless  variations  be  made,  and  as  nmeh 
left  of  Lily  as  may  be :  the  rather,  because  he  sub- 
mitted his  syntaxis  to  the  judgment  of  Erasmus 
himself,  so  that  it  was  afterward  printed  amongst  his 
works^.  Indeed  Qure  genus  was  done  by  Thomas 
Robinson,  and  the  Accidens  (as  some  will  have  it) 
by  other  authors,  after  Lily  was  dead,  and  prince 

J    [In  1530  tbe  couvocation  shortly  after    "by  tho    king's 

finding  that  uniformity  in  this  *'  proclamation  the  matter  was 

matter  had  not  been  effected,  **  generally  effected. "    See  the 

|)ii8sied  an  act  enjoining  obedi-  Appeal,  ^c.  part  11.  p.  56.] 
ence  to  the  king's  wishes,  and         ^  Pitz.  ib.  697. 

C  3 

tl  TAr  CAktcA  ffitlory  mxw  v. 

A.ixu^Edmrd  born,  of  and  for  wbom  U  wm  mU,  Gd- 

Tiii.    nrdiu  i»  my  proper  name'.      And  ihtta  we  take 

our  leavu  botb  of  Lily  and  Paul's  M^hool.  Sooiiildiig 

at  thin  ilar  on  mneb  oa  ever,  nndor  tbo  txn  of  Mr. 

Jobn    Lanf^ir,  tlio  alilu  uid   rellgiottii  MhoolBnHter 


Kwii'"'      ^'-  KirifT  lltTirv  luul  laU'ly  M_>t  frtrtb  a  book  apumt 

v'tMb        Lather,  omlearourin^  thr  confutation  of  hi<t 

faitTr      ai  novel  and   umound.     None   vuqioct  Ihii 

lack  of  Icuratng  (tboogh  nuui;  bii  laek  or 

ftom  hb  pleawrea)  for  soeh  a  dengn ;  bowtrrer' 

probable  MMne  other  gardener  gatbeivd  the  flowen; 

(made  the  ootleetkmi.)  tboagfa  king  Henry  bad  tho 

hononr  to  wear  the  posy,  earryfaig  tbe  crvdit  in  tbe 

title  lliereof". 

itrM  kf        88.  To  requite  his  palna,  the  pope  honoured  bfm 

DvillXrifand  Us  anccnaon  with  a  speciotu  litlf,  a  iVfender 

^''*^  ot  the  FUth".     Indeed   ft  ii  tbe  bounden  dntjr  of 

•  tPnfrim  MM  tmrittu,  and  of  Fabw,  that  U  «m  giwiwDy 
Jt  to  fTMwiift.  with  tka  Bag-  MpfiMnd  to  karc  bcm  wrkMa 
lU  faMrprMMka,  w«ra  niimd  hj  dMt  fnfato :  l^lip.  f.  jfll 
«bA  pabliA«d  hf  Join  Rk-  ad.  1739:  wke  aaJtrtnofc  Ito 
wlM,  Ulr's  MMMMT,  abtwt  Mran  of  it  aaiMt  ' 
1530.]  InrtaMwvrof  Mwtfa 

•  [- AjHTtio  M|«Mi  acn-    b  •  work  aatilMt  " 
1  adnnu  Mmia.    ~  lio  nfia  ■■wrtioiih 


"  tvtlMrwB,  adita  ob  faivietb-    "  BabjrloBkw    auiii*{Mi 
"shw    Aai^    at    Fiaacla     Golan.  1515.  aad  AMw.  ijaa, 
"  raga,  at  do.  ItybirBia  Haiu    accnrdit  to  Snypa'a  3lta.L 


"  rtnt  M«a   aaaaiafa    octara."  40.] 

PriM»d  by  yjuaua.  Jdy  istb.  ■  [Tkb  «m  by 

1511.    Km  hm  X.  WH  M  mw  tkb,   tW    ■ 

««n  atUad  with  tUi  6mm-  bam  vaad  I7  iom  JbUm  A 

aMifaa  ti  Hanr'a  loydty  to  to  Hawy  Wl  (P«.  II.  m.  U 

tW  olbofie  ^Btb.  that  h«  aad  by  tba  wUnnity  •/<)•. 

aiMliitoantbawadma^lt  bed  ta  ibajr  a44n»  to  B«^ 

lafclgiaeifcftaayaatB.«d  V.iat4i4.  8aa WOkiaa' Oaa> 

fl»«MyyMdrafaM.(wMaaar    dL  ml  IIL  p.  j6o.     Sa«  dta 
iMT  dan  i  I  Mimaa  Lmt.)        flMhM'a    Olanary    ■•    *• 
lUt  daO  aMaa  ia  hfa  Ufa    »^  .idaacla..] 


of  Jiritain, 


©very  Christian,  earnestly  to  contend  for  the  faith  a.J),\s2\, 
which  once  wa^  given  to  the  saints^ ^  but  it  is  the  dig-     vifi.  ^ 
nity  of  few  men,   and   fewer  princes,   to   be   able 
effectually   to   appear  in   print  in   the   vindication 

23.  There  is  a  tradition,  that  king  Henry's  fool  His  jester's 
(though  more  truly  to  be  termed  by  another  name) 
eoming  into  the  court,  and  finding  the  king  trans- 
ported with  an  unusual  joy,  boldly  asked  of  him  the 
cause  thereof,  to  whom  the  king  answered,  it  was 
because  that  the  pope  had  honoured  him  with  a 

style  more  eminent  than  any  of  his  ancestors ;  "  O 
good  Harry,''  quoth  the  fool,  "  let  thou  and  I  defend 
one  another,  and  let  the  faith  alone  to  defend 
**  itself."  Most  true  it  is,  that  some  of  his  successors 
more  truly  deserved  the  title  than  he  to  whom  it 
was  given :  who  both  learnedly,  then  solidly  engaged 
their  pens  in  the  asserting  of  true  religion. 

24.  At  this  time,  though  king  Henry  wore  theWoiseyhis 
sword,  cardinal  Wolsey  bare  the  stroke  all  over  the  JJ^^ and 
land*i;  being  legate  rf(?  latere^  by  virtue  whereof  lie^"**®* 
visited  all  churches  and  religious  houses,  even  the 

friars  observants  themselves,  notwithstanding  their 
stoutness  and  stubbornness  that  first  opposed  him^. 



o  Jade,  ver.  3. 

P  [Burnet's  Ref,  I.  p.    37. 


<l  [*'  For  although  the  king 
bore  the  sword,  yet  he  (Wol- 
sey) bare  the  stroke,  making 

"  in  a  manner  the  whole  realm 
to  bend  at  his  beck,  and  to 
dance  after  his  pipe."    Fox, 

Acts,  &c.  II.  p.  243.] 

r  Fox,  Acts,  &c.  II.  p.  243. 

[Hairs  Chron.  in  Hen.  VIII. 

f.  35.     Bishop  Burnet  in  his 





Hist,  of  Ref.  I.  p.  39,  says  that 
Wolsey  obtained  a  bull  from 
liome  for  this  purpose,  by  vir- 
tue of  which  he  intended  to 
visit  and  suppress  the  mona^- 
steries,  and  convert  them  into 
bisliuprics,  cathedrals,  colle- 
gmte  churches,  &c.  And  though 
he  w<is  diverted  from  this  de- 
sign for  fear  of  the  scandal  it 
would  cause,  **  yet  he  coninm- 
•'  nicated  his  desinn  to  the 
**  king,  and  his  secretary  Crom- 

c  4 

A.D.  igii 

■  jttwT 


S4  The  Chmrek  HUlary  warn  v. 

Phpal  Mnl  royal  power  met  hi  Urn,  bei^  the  ehM»> 
raltor  of  the  land,  and  keeping  lo  many  biabopriM 
rn  ettmmeHJam,  hh  Trarif  nuMMUO  in  laid  tn  eqnal  If 
not  eioeed  the  rcTenoc*  of  the  crown*. 
I  S5.  Tlip  mure  tho  pitj.  tltat  liavin^  of  hfai  own 
(fwli  a  flock  of  preferment,  notliinff  but  the  poor 
nuui's  i-wi-  lamh*  would  ple«M)  him ;  m*  that  bvfa^  lo 
fiKind  two  enllfgci.  be  adiod  on  iwi  finrt-r  than  fbttj 
Muall  noMUteriM;  twnfng  tbrir  uihaUtantf  out  of 
boiBO  and  boiws  and  converting  tbHr  nteam  ptfn- 
dpalljr  to  a  eolh^  in  Oxford.  Thk  alieaatiaa  ««■ 
nmfinni>d  Xtj  the  ivcaent  pope  Cieoent  the 

"«iU  aadMMndfK  ^  «»• 
«'llwMbr  iMlnMM    how  to 

vmmosAm  MHib  whnuwy 
**mal  ibMtt  Um  lotal  mb- 
'■■II  III  «HI»«niii«itlii.- 
TW  £M(J«n  «wtnwl.  at 
■id  10  W  wammimA  bjr  Dr. 
ABm    Md  Cnmvn    ia  IW 

"HI"!  ■  •'  *~  "~; 
iWriw,  WMant  ifwtMaMaf 

riM  aitkk  uT  kh  imfttA- 
■HaL  Oot  WoImt'i  L««Mr  ia 
kli  awa  Miam  to  ib«  kioa, 
■aJ  Ka%lK'i  Lmm  In  WaT. 
■rf .  Stela  I^iHfi,  rol.  I.  pn. 
1^.  366.  la  tUa  laticr  tW 
witMi  Mn  I  "  1  hara  linij 
-Ika  lda(  aid  ■  lili.i. 
'mmk  laaidiUa  |1|I|«|  af 
•  ia  m  •<  Mr.  Ahra  lad 

"CVia n.'    OrDr.AIka. 

aa  rw.  Aatk  ka.  IL  ^  m] 


-  arai  aida  bUa- of  Uaaila 
"  wUHi  aaa  Um  k«  fciifcii|ita 
■  »Ua  Ml  >aM  la  lUi  Vtf 
■d— .aftaf  IfcalapaaiwJaal 
"Ihaibridia    U   dMt    b 

-  BvUd  aU  Uacola  aad  aaa 
••da  ankbUap  aT  Vack, 

'  aad  Wab  W_  da-tia^ 

*  tiMt  m»  mm  oivaa  la  kto| 
'  tka  tW  ikk;  a(  9l  AIHB 

*  aai  8**aa  la  Um  im  m^ 

*  Mfarfaw  ;    ha    aatt   pvHA 
-  aiili  Dull  nd  Wala  id  |M 

*  tW    lanhuwic    of    OafMB 
audi    W      - 


•HI  am  ba  a  Hat  <ai  bb  aia. 

"T'f^  Ha    a_    im    -ada 
•Uik>r°'Taanar    ' 

till  llllrf 
.  MhaAadi 
»  Oal  ka  kad  la  U>  an  lall^ 
-Ikt  Hat  aiaalid  »a  a  Mi 
*.idaaaf  J)l» 


of  Britain. 


so  that  in  some  sort  his  holiness  may  thank  himseIfA.D.  1594. 
for  the  demolishing  of  religious  houses  in  England",      viii. 

26.  For  the  first  breach  is  the  greatest  in  effect :  a  precedent 
and  abbeys  having  now  lost  their  virginity,  (diverted  ?owed7  ^^ 
by  the  pope  to  other,)  soon  after  lost  their  chastity, 
prostituted  by  the  king  to  ordinary  uses.     And  now 

the  cardinal  was  busied  in  building  his  college,  con- 
sisting of  several  courts,  whereof  the  principal  is  so 
feir  and  large,  it  would  have  equalled  any  prince's 
palace,  if  finished  according  to  the  design,  all  the 
chambers  and  other  offices  being  intended  suitable  to 
the  magnificent  hall  and  kitchen  therein^. 

27.  Indeed  nothing  mean  could  enter  into  thiswoheya 
man's  mind,  but  of  all  things  his  structures  werewnger"' 
most  stately.     He  was  the  best  harbinger  that  ever 

king  Henry  had,  not  only  taking  up  beforehand,  but 
building  up  beautiful  houses  for  his  entertainments, 
which  when  finished,  as  White-hall,  Hampton-court, 
&c.,  he  either  freely  gave  them  to  the  king,  or 
exchanged  them  on  very  reasonable  considerations^. 

n  [Who  granted  him  a  bull, 
April  3, 1524,  to  suppress  the 
monastery  of  8.  Frideswide  in 
Oxford^  which  was  followed  by 
many  other  bulls  for  other  re- 
ligious houses  and  rectories 
that  were  impropriated.  They 
are  mentioned  in  Wood's  Hist, 
of  Colleges,  I.  p.  414.  sq.  See 
Bumet*s  Ref.  I.  p.  45.] 

▼  [Wood's  Annals,  vol.  II. 
p.  23.  Hist,  of  Coll.  I.  414.] 
'w  ["  That  Hampton  Court 
was  either  freely  given  by 
Wolsey  or  otherwise  ex- 
changed on  very  reasonable 
terms,  I  shall  grant  as  easily ; 
"  but  Whitehall  was  none  of 
"  hia  to  give,  as  belonging  to 







"  the  archbishop  in  the  right  of 
'•  the  see  of  York,  and  then 
"  called  York  place.  But  the 
"  king's  palace  at  Westminster 
being  lately  burnt,  and  this 
house  much  beautified  by  the 
"  cardinal^  the  king  cast  a 
"  longing  eye  upon  it ;  and 
'*  having  attainted  the  cardinal 
**  in  a  prosmunire,  he  seized 
"  upon  this  house  %vith  all  the 
"  furniture  thereof,  as  a  part 
"  of  the  spoil.  Which  when 
'*  he  found  he  could  not  hold, 
"  as  being  the  archbishop's 
"  and  not  the  cardinal's,  he 
"  sent  an  instrument  unto  him 
'*  to  be  signed  and  sealed,  for 
*'  the   sorrendry   of   his  title 


6  The  Ckimh  /tistory  wmK  v. 

38.  Some  njr  be  intended  Uiii  hi*  colkycn  to  be  an 
vtii.     unirpnily  tn  ma  vadrenity,  tn  that  it  fthnuld  have 
ilu>Hi     thordti  br  itMtlf  |iroftMsnn  nf  all  ofte  and  tteiennw: 
'  but  «v  niny  bplK>vi>  that  all  tlxio  gn  but  )ir  jpusM,  aa 
Dnt  knowing  tlu'  nuilinal'i  mind,  (wbo  kmtw  mi  hia 
own.)  ilallr  ttahnting  new  dcrigna  of  magnWcWMe 
tw  the  vmerfeacy  of  every  oceaiioa.     Yet  kt  not 
till'  ^«tn«as  of  his  baildinft*  ffwallow  up  io  i 
th[>  DKinory  and  commembtMo  doTotion  of  1 
Illti|^  arrhbMio])  itf  C'antcrbunr,  who  fuundi*d  Can- 
lerbnry  ooUf>gu,   taken   in   witb  thu  cardinal's  mi- 
finislifd  foundation. 

S9-  However,  too  tart  and  bittir  waa  the  ex- 
praanon  of  Uofliilphus  (iualtcnn.  a  (jcttBan,  friw 
oomparinf;  thu  canlirial'a  imijert  with  hia  ywfiww* 
maeo,  aud  of  him,  iiutituit  ciJI^tHm  tt  tA»otril  pufi- 
WUH.  "ho  bcftan  a  colU-jfi*  and  ttiiilt  a  kitrhen*." 
For  had  he  not  been  avilly  dvfunct,  U-fon.'  natnrallj 
dead,  not  a  pane  of  f[laa^  nor  pq  of  wood  had  beco 
wanting  In  that  edifies. 

SO.  More  wit  than  truth  waa  in  anothcr't  return, 
who  bt4ng  denuuidt^l  wbal  lie  Iboii^it  ronermlng 
tlio  amplenesa  of  this  foumlatioD,  nuidi<  tbi*  hanu>> 
nyniont  annrer,  Fmmdatitme  nikU  mmpUiu,  **  Tliefo  b 

"Mi  MtatollMMis:  aaaaot  "  llw wililiiAinii rf Ytk wUk 
"  <MUM  to  Imm  fannl  k  "  aaoilM  hamt  hiloagiw|  ihn 
"  tftm  Uh.  iJw  <wdiMl  W     "  to  Um  m*  of  Nonridk  aaJ 

"  MMir  aKWim  itk  JMhiUtf  "mw   «im   y«riutMM».' 

*■  to  Mukv  fMA  llw  innt.  \m  H*%\im  im  "  TW  AmaT  4 

"cMMiidlbtdMn  Md«hMMr  p.B.p,S7-   >w8Um^«8ar« 

•-•rYarktofliaiMlWMM  of  LmU.  MlitiM  by  IT 

"  Mto  U«  mJot  tMr  «M-  fol.  tl.  |k.  Mo.  A 

"  WON  wil  fai  Am  tmnt  til  kw  t  ■bova  wwigiii  i , , 

"wkidi  bni«t    sla^anl    ud  pdlf  to  1m*»  bm  4«i««d.) 
'-  MwJi   MiM   bntMNd    apm        •  [Fu.  Acu,  Itc  raL  IL 

«  It  to  b«  p.  Jo>.] 



of  Britain, 


"nothing  more  (or  more  stately)  than  this  founda-A.D.  1524. 
*^  tion ;"  whereas  indeed  had  not  he  himself  been  viii. 
unexpectedly  stripped  of  his  estate,  he  had  left  more 
and  better  lands  to  this  house,  than  king  Henry 
conferred  upon  them,  who  conceiving  church  means 
fittest  for  Christ-church,  exchanged  many  of  their 
best  manors  for  impropriations. 

31.  This  college  did  thrice  change  its  name  in  Three 
seven  years,  accounting  it  no  small  credit  thereunto,  one  college. 
that  it  always  ascended,  and  was  advanced  in  every 
alteration ;  first  called  Cardinal's  college,  then  King's 
college,  and  at  last  Christ's  Church,  which  it  retain- 

eth  at  this  day. 

32.  King  Henry  took  just  offence  that  the  car-  The  pride 
dinal  set  his   own  arms  above  the  king's,  on  the  cardinal 
gate-house,  at  the  entrance  into  the  college^.     ThiSoUi^rs.     ^ 
was  no  verbal,  but  a  real  ego  et  rex  meuSy  excusable 

by  no  plea  in  manners  or  grammar ;  except  only  by 
that  (which  is  rather  fault  than  figure)  a  harsh  down- 
right hysteresis ;  but  to  humble  the  cardinal's  pride, 
some  afterwards  set  up  on  a  window  a  painted 
mastiff  dog',  gnawing  the  spade-bone  of  a  shoulder  of 

y  [Wake  s]  Rex  Platonicu8> 


*  Idem,  p.  45.     [But  Wake 

states    that    Wolsey     himself 

placed   it   there :    "  quasi   nee 

"  sui  immemor,  nee  parentelse 

''  pudens."  A  similar  reproach 

was  also  cast  upon  Wolsey  on 

another    occasion.     The   king 

licensing  him  to  "\\q  in   his 

'*  mannor  of  Richmond"  upon 

his  resigning  Hampton  Court, 

the  common  people,  and  such  as 

had  seen  how  much  Henry  VII. 

esteemed  that  place,  exclaimed, 

*'  See  a  butcher's  dog  lie  in  the 

"  mannor  of  Richmond  !"  Fox, 
Acts,  &c.  II.  p.  244.  Dr.  Fiddes 
however,  in  his  Life  of  Cardinal 
Wolsey,  p.  5,  discredits  the 
tale  of  the  cardinal  being  a 
butcher's  son :  and  observes 
upon  this  passage  of  our  au- 
thor, that  *•  there  is  now  over 
"  one  of  the  windows  in  the 
••  front  of  Christ  Church  di- 
••  rectly  over  the  cardinal's 
^  arms  a  dog  gnawing  a  bone 
*'  but  not  the  spade-bone  of  a 
••  shoulder  of  mutton.  Yet 
*'  that  figure  seems  to  be  placed 
"  there  by  mere  accident,  there 


ne  Ckurth  History 


A.ii.  iti4.Tnuttotu  to  mind  the  canliiial  of  Xiia  extraction,  Unn^ 
*  vin'^  the  Hon  of  a   butcher,  it  l)ein;j  utterly  improbable 

(that  Mome  have  fancieti)  that  that  picture  \%a«  }>lare<l 
then*  bj  the  caniinars  own  ap|Nuntment,  to  be  U\ 
him  a  monitor  of  humilitv. 






I'*  it;. 


Jiihfi  liyi(il'Ni.* 
Or.  M««iirr> 
Jiilin  flljrrr 
Kta-Kani  C '<!««>. 
Kkfuinl  MvtUl. 
(^ruTifr  r«jprw. 
TV«iuu  SunpMm. 

THiiatM  i  't*9fmr. 
Jiilitt  l*im. 
T<il»v  Malliev. 
WiUuun  JjuiM**. 
TImicium  Katjrv. 
Jiihii  Ktrn«t. 
WtUiAiii  (l^«iil«vn. 
KirlianI  CVvfwt. 
Itnaii  I>«i|tfitt. 
[.Niniurl    FHl. 
i!4l«i«nl  Kr)ii«J*l*. 
«luhn  0«ru. 

Hiskop^        I   Utntjmcimt, 

KM-li*nl     Tov. 
ThnraM     iUA- 


Thtwn.  C4 


Jiibn         l*trrt, 


Mrrf^rt  Wf^u 
|»)iAJtn|C,  bi- 
•Invfi  i4  He- 

tii»htifiof  l)ur> 

Km  h.      C  oH^rC, 

tHt)w>|»  f/  Nar> 

«i  N  h 
\l  iIIiAtn    l*MT«. 


mmI  UVIU.      iHipptt, 

(niM>  NVhoi. 
•cm,  mtr  uf 

Moo/,     in 
and     fur. 
ni%hinif  a 
fair  li l»rarv 

l^mmtd  irrtl^rs. 

>ir  Plult|»  ^«l. 

William'   1*4 

Itilvrt  I  Ml 

*'  Immiij  u|ii>n  the  •aim*  roiiti. 
**  iiianl  Itm*  utth  it  iki*\«ral 
••  iilluT  Biitto  at  pr^n^•r  ili»- 
*'  taitct*^.  iiitoiidetl  arci»rtlin};  to 
••  X\w  arvliittvturo  at  tiiiu* 
*•  i%*f  tin*  cTi'^Atrr  il«ti»rati.»i»  t»f 
*•  ilif  IhiiUImi^."  Sit*  a!***  C'a- 
%«*iHit%h    L  ti*  •!  \Vo!%*'\.  !».'»'>, 

»  [Stf  iho  K-tt4*ra.|Kit<*tit  ot 
the  kiii^  apiHiiiitiii);  J«»lin  \\\f,' 
lion  to  thi*  oilici*  of  clt*cui  m 
thi«  ci»t!t*p*.  4ii«l  John  Ro|«*r. 
Johnt  '«*ttt«ti>ril.  KichjU'dC*n»ke, 
Hichartl  C  urrcnt.  and  Wilium 
Frrfklidiii.  A%  |tn»ff"«M>n  of  thciu 
l*V7  *  HoUrt  I'ortrr,  J«ilio 
IlaaUiigB.  TbucnAS  Cuaimt, 

CKHT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  29 

Here  I  omit  the  many  eminent  writers  still   sur-A.  0.1524- 
viving,    Dr.   Meriek    Casaubon,    and    Dr.   George  ^  viii.'^ 
Moriey,  both  no  less  eminent  for  their  sound  judg-  ' 

ments  than  patient  sufferings ;  Dr.  Barton  Holiday, 
and  Dr.  Jasper  Main,  who  have  refreshed  their 
severer  studies  with  poetry,  and  sallies  into  pleasant 
learning,  with  many  more  in  this  numerous  founda- 
tion.  Beholding,  as  for  his  wealth  to  king  Henry 
the  Eighth,  so  for  a  great  part  of  the  wit  and 
learning  thereof  to  his  daughter  queen  Elizabeth, 
whose  schoolboys  at  Westminster  become  as  good 
schoohnen  here,  sent  hither  (as  to  Trinity  college  in 
Cambridge)  by  her  appointment ;  so  that  lately  there 
were  maintained  therein,  one  dean,  eight  canons, 
three  public  professors  of  divinity,  Hebrew,  and 
Greek,  an  hundred  and  one  students,  eight  chap- 
lains, eight  singing  men,  an  organist,  eight  choristers, 
twenty-four  almsmen ;  at  this  present  students  of  all 
sorts,  with  officers  and  servants  of  the  foundation,  to 
the  number  of  two  hundred  twenty-three. 

33.  Kjiow  that  John  Hygdon,  first  dean  of  thisPer»e- 

««  t,  cudon  in 

college,  was  a  great  persecutor  of  poor  protestants,  the  cart- 
as by  the  ensuing  catalogue  will  appear.  I^  ^^' 

^^  John  Gierke.  Bayley. 

John  Frythe.                        -f-  John  Friar. 
Henry  Sumner.  Goodman. 

ward  Leyghton,  Henry  Wil-  in  Wood's  Hist,  of  Colleges, 

Ijams,  Joim  Robyns,  and  Ro-  I.  p.  437.] 

belt   Wakefeld,   bachelors    of  c  [Wood  reckons  seventy- five 

theology,   as    secular    canons,  bishops  to  the  year  1783.] 

18  July,  [153a.]  Cat.  ofTran-  **  Such    whose    names    are 

scripts  for  the  Foedera,p.  174.]  noted  with  a  cross,  did  after- 

^  [Moore*s  name  is  not  men-  wards  turn  zealous  papists, 
tioned  among  the  list  of  deans 

Tht  Churrh  ItUtuty 

>6  11-1*7 

^  NMbntu  Ilftrmiui. 
+  MifducJ  Drunumi''. 
William  UMt^'. 

[Thaauu]  Lkmnej. 
RiohanI  Cos'. 
Iti«)ianl  Tsvomar  *. 

AH  ihnte  wcir  questionct)  for  their  ivIigioD.  hinnfr 
out  into  a  [iriaon  hi  a  (U<u|)  cave  unltT  i^ntuiMla 
U'horv  tlio  mlt  Ash  of  the  t-ollcgi'  wu  ki*|it,  Um 
irtdich  whi-n.-«)f  iiuuk*  tioinc  »>t  tlii'in  tu  Hkr  mmiq  after* 
anil  nthcrs  omv|niI  with  grrat  diflicHill}-.  l^renMr 
mu  exccllnillj-  nkilkHl  io  music,  on  which  i 
ho  escaptNl.  itioti^li  Tt>b4.>m<>ntt7'  accuwd,  the  c 
|>1<ttillng  for  him,  that  bo  was  bat  a  miuieiiui,  ti 
■ftcrwanl  hu  repented,  to  hare  aet  ttuMi 
manr  |Ktjiuh  rltttiea^. 

34.  \\v  must  xuA.  forirct  that  all  in  the  f 
cntalopie,    whu«e   Chriotian   namca    are  cxfM 
'  wrre  originally  C'ambriilge  men,  and  iaritnl  I 
conlinal  im  (>romlM<  of  prefennviit,  to  plant  I 
Ibiinclatian;   houdu  >*lon.-i)C(.%  a  DumtuJcan,  i 
Akon*  and  nuuijr  ninrv  famiHtN  for  thi-ir  lei 
which  at  tfala  time   n-mnvitl  to  OxfunI,  i 
both  wHb  good  hfinun^  and  true  religiua*. 
W-A-T-*        35.  Know  abo  this.  John  llygdon,  flivt  deu.  «M 

'   [Strrpc  c^k    luB   Joka.  p.  j.  4.  Pukvr,  5.] 

Life  i>r  ParW.  |>.6i   »  •!»  '  [r<n.  AMi.Sm.  Il.p.)04-] 

don  L'kiu*  Uo  AntM|.  CUteh.  '  Cuu    <U    Antiq.     Ctac 

p.  IO].]  Aad.    [p.    SOI.    vd.     156I, 

•  [A  mbIou  BfoltMnU,  af-  ' 
'     riaphhi    M    Abbs 

lit  dU  aboM  I  j)}  oMvMidtRUMupCnMMr 

lit dM  aboM  isn  iilikHiaiHliliiilii 

or  icM.  tmi  wMMMMtdM^  lad  hilMr.  tbta  ■ 

•nUUop  Pkriwr.     SVTP**'  ■>    Cm^MV'     •»  I 

hAar.  p.  7.]  CruwNv.  p,  j.    Fofcaibl 

'[AlbtwwdtfayMpurKlf.]  AadbtaidntlMMir 

t[AthMtw»nMiarflM«igf  iito. 

ibMt  pOTMM  b  |[iTM  b;  Fos.  Clwr 

b  hb  A<«^  fcc  II.   p.  yay  Bm  CkriMM*  Lkhvi\ 

^  ia  Ml] 


of  Britain. 


he,  of  whom  cardinal  Wolsey  (when  fallen  into  dis-A.D.  1524. 
tress)  did  borrow  two  hundred  pounds,  therewith  to     viii. 

pay  and  reward  some  of  his  poorest  servants,  giving 
them  money  on  this  condition,  that  hereafter  they 
should  serve  no  subject  but  only  the  king  himselfj, 
as  if  this  had  been  suscipere  gradum  SimeoniSy  for 
those  who  so  long  had  attended  on  a  lord-cardinal. 
But  this  happened  many  years  after ;  we  return  to 
this  proud  prelate,  while  he  flourished  in  the  height 
of  his  prosperity. 

36.  Their  heads  will  catch  cold,  which  wait  bare  wdsey 
for  a  dead  pope's  triple-crown.  Wolsey  may  be  an  waitbiginto 
instance  hereof,  who,  on  every  avoidance  of  St.*^®"^ 
Peter's  chair,  was  sitting  down  therein,  when  sud- 
denly some  one  or  other  clapped  in  before  him. 
Weary  with  waiting,  he  now  resolved  to  revenge 
himself  on  Charles  the  emperor,  for  not  doing  him 
right,  and  not  improving  his  power,  in  preferring 
him  to  the  papacy,  according  to  his  promises  and 
pretences.  He  intends  to  smite  Charles  through  the 
sides  of  his  aunt,  Katharine  queen  of  England,  en- 
deavouring to  alienate  the  king's  affections  from  her^. 
And  this  is  afiirmed  by  the  generality  of  our  his- 
torians, though  some  of  late  have  endeavoured  to 
acquit  Wolsey,  as  not  the  first  persuader  of  the 
king's  divorce*. 

J   Wake's  Rex    Platonicus, 

P-  43- 

^  [See  Antisandenis^  p.  10. 

Mach  unfortunately  of  the  his- 
tory of  this  divorce  has  been 
taken  by  Fuller,  Herbert  and 
Bnmet  from  this  very  apocry- 
phal book.  It  is  written  in 
the  shape  of  a  dialogue,  and 
pretends  to  be  the  report  of  a 

conference  held  at  Venice  by 
some  Roman  catholics,  touch- 
ing the  divorce  of  Henry  VIII. 
It  was  printed  at  Cambridge 
in  1593,  4to.  with  the  initials 
of  A.  L.  Its  credit  appears  to 
be  of  about  the  same  value  as 
that  of  the  book  against  which 
it  was  written.] 

1  [Fox,  Acts,  &c.  II.  p.  326. 


TAr  Chunk  Wtton/  aooi  t. 

S7.  In<lc<ed  ho  was  hcholilinff,  fur  the  ftnt  biat 
tlicnitf.  to  tho  SiiBiiiartiji  tlu-inwlTp*.  For,  when  tbe 
LmIt  Marr  wu  tit)<U>n>4)  in  marriaffe  to  Philif\  prtnee 
nf  S[«in,  tliu  SpaaUk  amlNMvlijni  m>4>i»04]  to  make 
wniM*  ilifficultT  tbrreof.  and  to  doubt  bi-r  nttntctimi, 
M  iM^den  on  a  luotlirr  rurmerly  iitamod  to  bar 
liiwliand'ii  rldiT  brotht-r.  Wu1m*v  now  put  tb»  scniple 
iulo  the  hfad  of  bi>tho|i  Uitigtancl.  ilic  kinfr's  cdo* 
ftvBor,  and  he  iosmuatv]  tbi>  totnp  into  the  king'i 
roiwrictK^' :  advbiiiig  him  hrn-anor  to  abtliuD  fima 
the  rompuiT  of  hiit  (|ti«>n,  to  whom  ho  wai  utUaw- 
fullr  iiuuTJiil.  Addiii];  morPOTcr.  thai  after  a  divurw 
proeuntl  (which  the  p«i|K>  in  jiuUre  could  not  dM^ 
tlw*   kin^   might   diapoae    bia   a&«iioai 

F        ass 

BbtoM'*  Rtfbnn.  I.  p.  3. 
It  M  Mnr  *«TTgHMmU)r  ina. 
Mdad  tliU  WdlNjr  wu  oot  tfc« 
H^orMftUbmalc.  Aisnrd. 
tag  i>  WAh  Bomrt  (Elirt. 
Bt  L  a.  76.^  tW  Um  Ua. 
Ur  ^    BAwwn^b    At 

Ofuft   rVBOCdf  WW 

mtnaoav    of    Dr. 



pM.     -IlMTChMtdl] 

"  ant  ST."  uhMiM  H 
ia  Ui  MS.  Bh  flf  A  1 

iiiiinMlawUwbMfcofrflia.    Mm)  -  tlM  b  oaa  mU  Aft  I 
oola  (Laagfaad)  £1  M  Mg'    **  bUion  (HmI  ruawar  na  ^is 
■Ml  ihHi  iiflw  1   bat  t£i    "  UaibihUaMtur;  aalA^ 

CttHi  iiflMl   bat  tfca 
J  Mag  BOMMd  Willi  ibaai 

»    fer  Am 

ta  ttMt  ikMa.     Thk  k  ■fan 

ffmdr  tka  Mwaat  wUdi  U. 

wJtAglTairftiifc  aHUM-la 

kh  lifc  «l  We 


wvtk'a  wt*.    Bm  Falbr  hi* 

Q Wooold     -Bott,  «■ 

•  lircd  to  kaow  of  Uai  tba 
hnsk  tbe  BMitar  aftar  llM 


Mt  «l  WsIht.  p.  104.     ••  Ui 
ep.i*i.MdDr.W«f^    "ddi 

ritlrahu  mmAm  of  WoWy '• 

laariag  ••  !*■>  tU  ■■•  Mnpit 

■'  aatO  Im  had  won  Ua  M  alw 
hk  aoaMBt,  tt  wkM  hb 
ddap  W  aid  famkhk  1^ 
-  MtfHidMMBMdaAwwwiki'* 
Nm  awwd  ia  VU>f^%  Ub 
■f  Mr  TlwaM  llet*.  a.  )k 
ffifiri  ad.  iBt),  aad  Cb«m> 
dkfc.  Ufc  of  Wolwy.  p.  uu 
Sw  aka  liib  «r  ndwr.  p.**.] 


of  Britain. 


pleased^.  And  here  Wolsej  had  provided  hun  a  a.  0.1547- 
second  wife,  viz.  Marguerite,  duchess  of  Alen9on,  vnL 
sister  to  Francis  king  of  France ;  though  heayens 
reserved  that  place,  not  for  the  mistress  but  her 
maidy  I  mean  Anna  Boleyn,  who  (after  the  return  of 
Mary  the  French  queen  for  England)  attended  in 
France  for  some  time  on  this  ladj  Marguerite^. 

88.  Tinder  needs  no  torch  to  light  it,  the  least  The  king 


spark  will  presently  set  it  on  flame  ^     No  wonder  if  embr»oeth 


>B  Qln  1522  when  the  em- 
peror Charles  was  engaged  in 
war  with  Francis  the  French 
king,  and  found  it  to  his  ad- 
vantage to  keep  on  good  terms 
with  Henry,  he  came  personally 
to  England  when  a  new  league 
was  agreed  upon  between  them, 
and  it  was  sworn  on  both  sides, 
that  the  emperor  should  marry 
oer  verba  de  pnrsenii  the 
lady  Mary,  the  king's  only 
child  by  Katharine,  when  they 
came  <^  age,  under  pain  of  ex- 
communication and  forfeiture 
of  100,000/.  But  five  years 
after,  when  the  emperor  had 
succeeded  in  his  projects  and 
was  desirous  of  uniting  Portu- 
gal to  his  dominions,  he  not 
only  broke  off  his  sworn  al- 
liance with  the  king  of  En- 
gland, but  did  it  with  an  heavy 
imputation  on  the  lady  Mary, 
asserting  that  she  was  illegiti- 
mate, and  bom  in  an  unlawful 
marriage.  See  Fox,  Acts,  &c. 
II.  p.  326.  Burnet's  Ref.  I. 
p.  9.  The  same  demur  was 
also  made  by  the  French  am- 
bassador Gabriel  de  Orammont 
bishop  of  Tarbes,  in  1537. 
Upon  what  grounds  see  Bur- 
net, ib.  p.  73.  See  also  the 
State  Papers,  vol.  I.   p.  197, 


where  Wolsey  in  a  letter  to  the 
king  details  a  conversation 
with  the  archbishop  of  Canter- 
bury of  the  knowledge  of  the 
divorce  coming  to  the  ears  of 
the  queen,  and  how  he  had  told 
her  that  nothing  had  been  done 
except  for  discovery  of  the 
truth  ''proceeding  upon  occa- 
'•  sion  given  by  the  French 
"  partie,  and  doubts  moved 
•*  therein  by  the  bishop  of 
"  Tarbes."  See  also  p.  199.] 
^  [Appeal,  &c.  p.  II.  p.  59.] 
o  [The  first  dispatch  upon 
this  business  was  directed  by 
the  cardinal  to  sir  Gregory 
Cassali  the  king's  ordinary  am- 
bassador at  Rome,  dated  5  Dec. 
1527.  (See  the  heads  of  it  in 
Burnet's  Hist.  Ref.  I.  p.  90, 
and  entire  in  the  coll.  N.  3. 
p.  19.)  A  dispensation  was 
granted  about  the  end  of  the 
same  month,  for  the  cardinal  to 
hear  and  discern  the  cause. 
This  however  being  deemed  in- 
sufficient, on  Feb.  10,  1528, 
Stephen  Gardiner  and  Edward 
Fox  were  dispatched  to  RomQ 
to  obtain  a  bull  with  all  the 
strongest  clauses  which  could 
be  imagined  (Burnet,  I.  p. 
104.  Strype's  Mem.  I.  p.  89.): 
by  their  management  Camp^io 

M  Tkr  ObarA  HUtory  KNW  V. 

A.D.ijiT.kiDf  Hemy  greedily  rcMRitifd  ttw  motloo.     MJb 

'*^ii7  ime  be  nnicb  wanUv).  and  ■  ycnuig  female  mam  tm 
wbom  to  beget  itP.  Aa  far  qneca  Kalhadne^  Iw 
rmtbt-f  rvwpeeied  than  aflertcd ;  ratbf  r  hoooared,  tbaa 
loTuil  lier.  She  had  gut  an  habit  of  miacmnyfa^ 
acareo  cuiable  in  one  of  her  af(p,  intimated  in  one  of 
the  kiogfa  priratc  pa)»pr«,  ««  moHnu  imcmrwUi§\. 
Yet  pablicty  ho  dl-vit  laid  oitber  Eralt  or  defeekjo 
bcr  diargt' ;  that,  not  dialike  of  her 
tiona,  but  only  princtplea  of  pom 
teem  to  put  him  upon  endeaToon  of  a  dnrofve. 
•  rf»  99.  Tho  buKJnoaa  is  hnmglit  into  the  court  of 
""^  Roni«.  tburo  to  be  ibjcidMl  by  |Mip(>  Clemtnit  tlM 
•eventh.  But  the  [x>[m.*  nt  this  time  waa  not  mi 
jmiit  bring  a  prisoner  to  tlie  emperor,  wbo  eoi^ 
■lantly  kept  a  guard  about  h[^l^  So  that  ooe  ^Mfy 
mU,  it  «M  DOW  moat  true,  P^ta  mm  foletl  trrm% 
"The  pope  could  not  wander,"  aa  eoopod  np  aad 

mm  affotelsd  ImM*  is  «>  ta  "  ni 

It^ail  to  tiy  t£«  vilUHr  ol  "  hum    aboirt 

tk  iwriMw    ia   flaniaactioa  **  ptnlj     of    bar 

wkh  <Mdte)  W«b>r.  wIm  dk  -  tiMM.  ud  liT  mmm  it  Hat 

kjrad  ko"***"  p(o««*<lfa«  lU-  "  1  «iNiU  NMMw  hn  M  liMl* 

Ikar    tai    Ottob*    iBUoirfa^  -  m  I  nur   mm.~     Sm  ^ 

**  Mag   ion    vmad    W    t£a  Mcntwy  Vwt»\  Lmtm  to  Wfll> 

"  aoM.'  weoHiag  to  C«vm-  ht    la    llie    mmm    Vm\Utlntm, 

da.Luw«fw«iw7.]  a.1.} 

r  [la  tW  OoOMtiMi  of  SUU  4  [CvdiMl    Wokn    i«    b 

ftyw^  4t«.  I  lie  ml.  I.  p.  1,  lantr  to  Jolui  C«Mali  iW  ^k 

h  a  IMMV  to  Wobn  from  tU  ba—Jar'i  hrMlMr.  ia  »kM  W 

Um,  rdadH  hb  mj  gnai  Wh^p  iwikM  aU  tka  «b». 

aaoMjr  w  ha*«  «Mlwr  day.  mmMb  wUck  ■  mwm  mi  mm 

la  dHb  btaw  W  mm.  "  T«*  adad  aoaU  iavwi.  to  iadM* 

**  tUafi  tb««  W  wkiBh  b«  to  llw  pop*  w  KTaat  iW  kJMs 

*■  iMnt  tliat  tiMT  mam  ma  at  Jwiwi.  vi^[    m    mmmm 

*  tUitiattowiWtojrBNai;.  fwy  daiiW  to  dkn;  ifin^l 

"mU:  tk«  OM  i*.  dMt  I  Innt  de  am  iad  it  ia   mj   a/  fc 

"  tfct  fBMM  ■;  Witt  bt  with  kiM'a   tftwn.     rW    Ownm'* 

-  (UM.  iW  MUr  b  Uw  <4kr  R«t  Cull.  nJ.  I   p^  j;.] 

-  fMat  why  I  aai  to  laih  to  '  [BanM't  Ref.  I.  f. »«.] 

cBHT.  XTi.  of  Britain.  85 

confined.     Yet^  after  some  delays,  the  pope  at  last,  a.  d.  1528. 
to  satisfy  the  king,  and  clear  his  own  credit,  dis-  ^Viil7 
patched  a  commission  to  two  cardinals,  Wolsey,  and 
Campegins,  an  Italian",  at  London  to  hear  and  deter- 
mine Uie  matter. 

40.  Campegins  was  the  junior  cardinal,  and  there-  The  ch». 
fore  the  rather  procured  by  Wolsey  to  be  his  col- campigiui. 
league  m  this  business,  whose  pride  would  scarce 
admit  an  equal,  but  abhorred  a  superior,  that  any 
foreign  prelate  should  take  place  of  him  in  England  ^ 
Ab  Wolsey's  junior,  so  was  he  none  of  the  most 
mercurial  amongst  the  conclave  of  cardinals,  but  a 
good  heavy  ioian,  having  ingenium  par  negotio^  nei- 
ther too  much  nor  too  little,  but  just  wit  enough 
for  the  purpose  the  pope  employed  him  in.  Wolsey 
might  spur  Campegins,  and  Campegins  would  bridle 
Wolsey,  keeping  them  both  strictly  to  the  letter 
of  their  instructions.  Wolsey  hearing  Campegins 
was  come  to  Calais,  with  an  equipage  not  so  court- 
like as  he  could  have  desired,  and  loath  that  his  own 
pomp  should  be  shamed  by  the  other^s  poverty, 
caused  him  to  stay  there,  till  he  sent  him  more 
splendid  accommodations  (at  least  in  outward  shew) 
and  then  over  he  came  into  England.  But  see  the 
spite  of  it.  As  the  cardinal's  mules  passed  Cheap- 
side,  out  of  unmliness  they  chanced  to  break  the 
trunks  they  carried,  which  were  found  full  of  nothing 
but  emptiness,  which  exposed  his  mock-state  to  the 
more   scorn   and   contempt".     Empty  trunks,    the 

>  [At   that  time  bishop  of  XIV.  p.  29.] 

Salisbury^  which  bishopric  the  ^  [Fox,  Acts  ,  .  p.  243.] 

king  gave    him    in  the    year  ^  QFox,  ib.,  says   that   the 

1524  at  such  time  as  he  was  treasure  of  the  cardinal  caused 

the  pope's  ambassador  here  in  no  small  scorn  and  laughter, 

England.    Cavendish,  Life  of  "  especially  of  boys  and  girls, 

Wolsey,  208.    Rymer's  Feed.  "  whereof  some  gathered  up 




nW  CAmk*  Uiitary 

Hrdy  emblcni  of  tliif  oanHnkTi  legmcy,  coming  hither 
with  intent.  «ih1  lilstniotJon  to  do  little,  and  gutng 
hoDcv  hftTtng  done  notlUiig  at  alL  Howertr  k  coint 
ia  •olemnljr  odlcd,  uid  the  eudinab  (baviqg  int 
read  their  oommiMkm)  wt  themaelTei  to  *— "^hw 
the  matter. 

41.  It  «a«  fiwhioiulile  omongit  the  faeatbeiu  at 
the  celebnUiun  of  their  niiti'imrr  aolenuUtiea,  wUefa 
n^umod  but  onn>  in  nn  bundrcd  jeam,  to  have  an 
boialil  |>ubllclj  tn  proclaim.  "Come  liither  to  behold 
**  what  juu  never  «w  befon*,  and  oeTcr  ore  Ukdj  to 
**  He  again."  But  bfn>  liafpened  nich  a  ipecCade 
(in  a  great  room  call^-d  tlio  [mriiament-cbainber  faa 
Dlark-Friam)  m  never  before,  or  after. 
Kngluiil,  \\x.  king  Heitrr  summoned  in  hit 
lanil  to  appear  beforu  two  jud](«a,  ttie  one  W< 
diieetljr  his  nitgect  by  birtli;  the  other  hfai  nifajerC 
oeoaiionally  b^  bin  piffomient.  C'iint|>t>puji  being 
lately  modu  bisbnp  of  Silinbunr.  SimimiiDod.  ha 
appeared  peivoaallr,  and  the  (|uc(^i  did  the  Uk«  the 
fint  day,  but  afterwards  b«>tb  by  their  doctoci ". 
M,  For  Um  Mi«.  For  tbo  qoMo. 

gilh  flMi|Mon *.  Jaha  Ball ',  Km.  WmI,  W^dtOj^i 
INrtarand  Jain  Ti^r«vWL  John  Fiiber.  UihG^  U 

RoohMter;  liw.  8tM- 

-piMM  of 

nber  faa 

••  *  BikoU  Mv  is  MT  lord  ar-  -•  im  m  trWrn  te  hk  mn 

••  AHTMmMivr'BMCBvn.  "  wkbvMi  Ttrntim  Bw, 

«*  Irik  a  nn  M9mwM  ufa,  "  dm  IWtli  pW** 

AmOJ  haw  bm  ml— iiJt  n..         >  (Pui. 

«t««l  M  WiifcfcMlli.  ari  m  Lvd    llrt 


ArtB.  Ace.  ILp  laS. 

ii>^i  iim.  Vin. 

f.ifii.  Ilarsrt'*  K«f.  L  p.  141. 
lair*  Lifr  of  pMbv,  p.  74.] 

csKT.  XVI .  of  Britain.  37 

Here  the  queen  orose^  and  after  her  respects  dealt  to  a.d.  1599. 
the  cardinals,  in  such  manner  as  seemed  neither  un-  ^  vin!^ 
civil  to  them,  nor  unsuiting  to  herself,  uttered  the 
following  speech  at  the  king's  feet,  in  the  English 
tongue,  but  with  her  Spanish  tone,  a  clip  whereof 
was  so  far  from  rendering  it  the  less  intelligible, 
that  it  soundeth  the  more  pretty,  and  pleaisant  to 
the  bearers  thereof.  Yea,  her  very  pronunciation 
pleaded  for  her  with  all  ingenious  auditors,  pro- 
viding her  some  pity,  as  due  to  a  foreigner  far  from 
her  own  country.     But  hear  her  words : 

«  Sir, 
**  I  desire  you  to  take  some  pity  upon  me,  and  Q"««^ . 
**  do  me  justice  and  right :  I  am  a  poor  woman,  a  her  speech. 
**  stranger,  bom  out  of  your  dominions,  having  here 
**  no  indifferent  council,  and  less  assurance  of  friend- 
ship. Alas!  wherein  have  I  offended,  or  what 
cause  of  displeasure  have  I  given,  that  you  intend 
thus  to  put  me  away  ?  I  take  God  to  my  judge, 
I  have  been  to  you  a  true  and  humble  wife, 
ever  conformable  to  your  will  and  pleasure,  never 
gainsaying  any  thing  wherein  you  took  delight, 
without  all  grudge  or  discontented  countenance; 
**  I  have  loved  all  them  that  loved  you,  howsoever 
"  their  affections  have  been  to  me-ward ;  I  have  borne 
you  children,  and  been  your  wife  now  this  twenty 
years ;  of  my  virginity  and  marriage-bed,  I  make 
God  and  your  own  conscience  the  judge,  and  if  it 

▼  [Wolsey's  chaplain,  after-  places  Dr.  Ridley.    Hist.  Ref. 

wards  bishop  of  Chichester.]  I.  p.  1 46.    So  also  does  Caven- 

^  [Afterwards    bishop     of  dish.  Life  of  Wolsey,  p.  213. 

Worcester.    Cavendish,   ib.  p.  Several  other  names  are  men- 

21a.]  tioned  by  Hall,  Life  of  Fisher, 

»  [Instead  of  West.  Burnet  p.  33.] 

D  3 



Tht  ChvrA  Hutory  wmk  *. 

A.D.  igiv  "  ntlKVwido  be  pmvod.  I  am  conUmt  to  be  pat  from 
'  Till  "  you  with  nhamo.  The  king  jroiir  father,  tn  kls 
"  time  for  windom  we«  knnwn  tn  Iw  a  Rerood  S(4o- 
**  Dion ;  and  Fenlinandn  of  Spain  my  hthcr,  wv 
"  cnuiited  the  wJMitit  UDoog  their  kings ;  rotild  thcj 
**  In  thia  matrh  be  fto  fiir  oventeen,  nr  an*  then  now 
"  wiser  and  more  K-aniL-d  men.  (hitn  at  that  tine 
"  wviv?  Surely,  it  neemeth  wtinderful  to  me,  tkat 
"  my  marriap*  after  twenty  yean  Rhuuld  be  tbni 
"  called  in  quotion,  with  new  invention  agabut  mc^ 
"  who  never  intendod  buC  bcmoity.  Alaa,  air !  I  im 
**  I  am  wmnged.  having  DO  oonneil  to  qnak  for  we, 
-  but  Buch  u  are  jonr  ntl^eeU,  and  cannot  be  laBl- 
"  lerent  upon  my  part.  Tht*Rrforp  I  mnat  hombly 
"  baaeech  you.  even  in  charity  to  irtay  Ihio  mane. 
■*  oDtil  I  have  adTi<^c  and  couq»*1  from  Hpain ;  if 
"  Dot.  your  graee's  phiaiiro  be  done  '." 

This  her  Kpcc<eb  ended,  Ae  departed  the  eoart. 

and  thuugb  often  reenlled.  wotdd  not  return :  wbcfv- 

opon    ahe    was   prooooiiMd   ooatuniaf-ious.      ftlany 

•uding  the  frentocH  <4  her  njMrtt,  and  more 

T  BbmJ,  (hi  IIm.  VIU.  a.  (lf«a  nmOm  mifaa  of  iWa 

id.  |.  69.    TUi  ifMch  MfM  MMdi.  ofaMrvfa^  OiMk  wm 

Uub  cIm  l^a  ■■  ■hritoxal  delinrad  la  Pr»di.  wU  Ite 

at  Hm  ^Mva's  wmnh  m  Ca*  W  lud  '•—'-—'  h  m  wM  m 

"  '      Uh  ml  WalMjr.  o.  1m   nmU    hum    Um   aam  if 

I  h**e  mat  hmm  Mm  oardiaal  f'trntfi^ 

tmy  MS.,  mm  io  1  Bmrmt  }m  npi 

flma  whaM  daeUadaiifakMi  ■!«■  Aa  j 

Ct..|  t. 

I  Of  !■■  ■■•«■  •  wmmat  tm 

[  *mi\A.   Uh  J  Wttmy. 

K  •i4.bMl  h**e  Mt  faMB  I 

m  m  AMmr  »r  ms.,  »  d 

■  lUik  tkat  SpMrf.  Aow  »1 

W  WMmmifM  K  iwMkhwl 

[^  BMcb  H  h  ttM  imD*  atl« 

I  fat  b    wadiMca  wiUi 

I  <rfifawiiyi.>hi 

I  Ifa  Hums,  fat  wtMwd 

[  MOOT.    Aad  tU>  b  midi 

■MM  iiMbahki  fa  ifa  Ml 

MM   «r  Hall.   A»  fa«   I 

Hv  of  tfaw  • 

a/R«r  III.  P.S9.   Ul 

«4. 1,  p 

fat   la    ■»wbHiiw    Willi   %hm  Traetk.  vnl.  I.  11.  33, 

of  Itaw  Jayi.  •farf4  Rfjr  of  tkit  u»d  oiIm 

wteiwd  tJw  sttanrf  at  tlw  trial.  > . , 

Ami  tUa  la  raaJawJ  fron  a  dHacatil  watc* 


of  Britain, 


oondemning  the  stoatness  of  her  stomach,  as  every  a.  d.  1519. 
one  stood  affected.  viu. 

49.  The  most  pmigent  passage  in  this  her  speech,  Thetting 
was  her  appeal  to  the  king's  conscience,  that  he["J^ 
found  her  a  virgin,  when  first  coming  to  her  bed  ^ 
Her  words  gained  the  more  credit,  because  coming 
from  one  generally  known  to  be  spare  of  speech,  and 
such  may  be  rationally  presumed  to  take  best  aim 
at  the  truth,  who  so  seldom  discharge  in  discourse ; 
the  rather,  because  she  saying  it,  and  the  king  not 
gainsaying  it,  many  interpreted  his  silence  herein 
consent.  Whilst  others  imputed  the  king's  silence 
to  his  discretion,  because  both  of  them  were  parties 
who  though  they  knew  the  most,  were  to  speak  the 
least  in  their  own  cause,  remitting  It  to  the  trial  by 
the  testimony  of  others*. 

«  [Of  this  however,  see  Bur- 
net's Ref.  I.  p.  68.  Cavendish 
Snts  a  long  and  very  impro- 
able  speech  in  the  mouth  of 
the  king,  in  which  he  is  fol- 
lowed by  Hall  in  his  Life  of 
Fisher,  and  other  Roman  ca- 
tholic writers.] 

•  ['•  Upon  May  31,  the  king 
**  by  a  warrant  under  the  great 
**  seal  gave  the  legates  leave  to 
**  execute  their  commission 
upon  which  they  sat  the 
same  day."  (Burnet's  Ref. 
I.  p.  143.)  After  the  usual 
oaths  had  been  taken,  the  le- 
gates "ordered  a  peremptory 
*'  citation  of  the  king  and 
"  queen  to  appear  on  the  i8th 
'*  of  June  between  nine  and 
"  ten  o'clock,  and  so  the  court 
"  adjourned.  The  next  session 
"  was  on  the  iSth  of  June, 
"  where  the  citation  being  re- 



"  turned  duly  executed,  Ri- 
'*  chard  Sampson  dean  of  the 
'*  chapel,  and  Mr.  John  Bell, 
"  appeared  as  the  king's 
'^  proxies.  But  the  queen  ap- 
*'  peared  in  person,  and  did 
*'  protest  against  the  legates 
*'  as  incompetent  judges,  al- 
"  leging  that  the  cause  was 
*'  already  advocated  by  the 
**  pope,  and  desired  a  compe- 
**  tent  time  in  which  she  might 
"  prove  it.  The  legates  as- 
'^  signed  her  the  list,  and  so 
"  adjourned  the  court  till  then." 
Burnet,  ib.  On  the  aistthe 
king  and  queen  were  present 
in  person,  when  the  queen 
spoke  (if  we  may  credit  our 
chroniclers,  as  Stowe,  p.  543. 
HoUingshed,  p.  907.  God- 
win's Annals,  p.  127.)  in  the 
manner  here  related.  The 
court  then  adjourned  to  the 

D  4 

TAt  CUmrtk  Uutorf  WMC  t. 

l^^m-     44.  A«  for  the  qoero'ti  rooiMcl,  (wbich,  ihoogh 

Till.    MBJguM  to  her,  appear  itot  dcart;  kcoepled  hf  hci; 

rt     OS  chown  mthpr  by  nthem  for  her.  Uuui  by  hv  fcr 

''^  hemeir.)    I   finr)   at   tliin    present   little   of  memmt 

pl(.4ulo«).  or  jierfDnupd  hr  tbum.    Only  biihnp  Ftakir 

mffinnnl.  that  no  more  nrvdcd  to  be  aaid   for  the 

vmliditj  of  tbo  inarriafre,  than.    Whom   6W  AaCA 

joined  togtAer,  let  no  man  pul  atmuter.     A  ooit 

true  {MMition  in  iliclf,  if  ho  oouM  have  dearrd  the 

applw^ion  thcrpof  to  his  roral  rlient,  bat  Aoe  mkt 

praianditm  :  the  contnuy,  "  that  God  never  jobmi 

-  tbem  toge^er,"  being  vebementljr  tugged  lay  htr 

■dvermriea  *. 

4S.  Not  withstand  infT  the  qaocn'a  ahaeoee^  the 
rourt  pronx'dptl :  and  fimt  the  king*!  proeCocs  put  ia 
their  cxceptionH  a^iwt  both  bull  and  breve  of  pofe 
Juliuii  the  wvoni).  dixpetwing  with  the  king^  mil 
rtago  with  hi*  hmther'a  wife;  riz. 

I,  Tliat  they  were  n<*t  to  be  fonod  amongii  the 
original  reoonls  in  Itonie. 

ii.  That  they  were  not  extant  in  CbartaphytadB^ 

Rcf.  I.  p.  I  jj,),     fne»t^mp  m 
tobcr.     Mbr* 

I  chaliMi  for 

•ahmwd    aU    the 
•  tflltlM>  iKoT  Oe- 

I  tW  51I1  «f 


a^jowwd     Aafut  witk 

*;  IW    Uai'i    aau>l    n>        k  (Br  Wolajr 
WltMk]  Omm  loth*  Mik.     UftofW^lMy.l 

CM  ll»  <Ikrf 

WolajrUaafe  «■ 

41k.    UbclVilmj.f.aU'] 

cswT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  41 

amongst  the  king  of  England's  papers  (most  con- a.d.  1529. 
cemed  therein)  but  found  only  in  Spain,  amongst  the    vm. 
writings  of  a  state  officer  there. 

iii.  That  in  them  it  was  falsely  suggested,  as  if  the 
same  were  procured  at  the  instance  of  Henry,  prince 
of  Wales,  who  then,  not  being  above  thirteen  years 
old,  was  not  capable  of  such  intentions  ^. 

iv.  That  the  date  thereof  was  somewhat  discre- 
pant from  the  form  used  in  the  court  of  Rome. 

46.  After  this,  many  witnesses  on  the  king's  sidesecreum^ 
were  deposed :  and  though  this  favour  is  by  custom  J^jj; 
indulged  to  the  English  nobility,  to  speak  on  their  J^^y  '*• 
honours ;  yet  the  canon  law  taking  no  notice  of  this 
their  municipal  privilege,  and  for  the   more  legal 
validity  of  their  testimonies,  required  the  same  on 
oath,  though  two  dukes,  one  duchess,  one  marquis, 
many  lords  and   ladies  gave  in   their  depositions. 
These  attested, 

i.  That  both  were  of  sufficient  age,  prince  Arthur 
of  fift;een  years,  the  lady  Katharine  somewhat  elder. 

ii.  That  constant  their  cohabitation,  at  board  and 
in  bed. 

iii.  That  competent  the  time  of  the  same,  as  full 
five  months. 

iv.  That  entire  their  mutual  affection,  no  difference 
being  ever  observed  betwixt  them. 

V.  That  Henry,  after  his  brother's  death,  by  an  in- 
strument produced  in  court,  and  attested  by  many 
witnesses,  reftised  to  marry  her,  though  afterwards 
altered  by  the  importunity  of  others^. 

c  [See  Wolsey's  letter  to  the  were  started  by  the  cardinal.] 
king.    State    Papers,    vol.  I.         ^  [Printed  in  Burnet's  Ref. 

p.  201.   From  which  it  appears  book  11.  No.  2,  of  the  CoUec- 

that  these  and  other  objections  tion.     See  also  vol.  I.  p.  71.] 

4£  The  Church  Hisiary  Moi  v. 

A  Ujtu^.     y\^  That,  by  several  expremiom  of  prinoe  ArtlmrX 
%'nf     it  appeare«l  he  had  carnal  knowledge  of  the  lady 

The  tiedN  cif  private  |>enon8  are  comfiaflKd  with 
curtatniit  of  princes  veile<l  also  with  canopiea,  to  con-* 
real  the  pawtagefi  therein,  to  which  modeitT  ad- 
niitti'tli  no  witneMCfi.  Pity  it  \%  that  any,  with 
Pharaolu  hIiouM  discover  what  is  exchanged  betwixt 
Isaac  and  Ilcbekah;  all  which  are  best  stifled  io 
secresy  and  silence.  However,  such  the  nature  of 
the  pn^si-nt  cause,  that  many  privacies  were  therein 


A^irw4       47.  C)tNK*rve   by  the  way,  that,  whereas  it 

gi*ni*rally  alh^ginl  in  favour  of  the  queen,  that  prinre 
Arthur  hail  not  carnal  knowledge  of  her;  becanae, 
soon  after  his  marriage,  his  consumptiontsh  body 
MH^minl  unfit  for  such  |ierfonnances ;  this  was  r^ 
tfirti^l  by  ti*Htimonies  on  the  king's  side,  his  wit* 
n<*sM('s  ilc*|MMiing,  that  generally  it  was  reported  and 
twIifviNi,  the  princ<*  im|iainHl  his  health,  by  his  over 
lilNTal  imynient  of  duf  lifuevolence. 

An«ti4in  4H.  It  wa«  ex|Hrt4Hl  that  the  canliiuils  should 
now  pnNH*<»«l  to  a  definitive  Hent4>nc(\  according  as 
mnttrnt  wi»n»  nllogi'^1  and  provctl  unto  them*.  TTie 
rathi*r  lM*cauH4*  it  ww*  g«*nerally  re|M>rt<Hl,  that  Oun- 
|M*gio  brtiu^lit  over  with  him  a  ImiII  d(vn»tal,  to  pn>> 
nounn*  a  nullity  of  the  niat(*h,  if  he  saw  just  cause 
for  the  turner  Which  rumour  (like  the  silken  fly 
when*with  anglem  clH*at  the  tiMh<-*i)  was  only  given 
out  to  t4*nipt  king  Ihniry  to  a  longi*r  patience,  and 

*    llumrt't  Hr(.  I.  n.  149  ]  hare  i*nfif(miidrd   it   willi   an- 

'  [  It  citinnt  U*  «loiitA<Hi  but  (>tlH*r  pnirrYed  in  the  (ottos 

that  t  Ani|M*Kio  du\  fifing  a  bull  Librmrr.     Srr  Biimrt**  Rcf.  1. 

iaio    l^gktMl.  AillMMigli   Mjmc  p.  ten/,  it6.  tq.] 

cEMT.xvi.  of  Britain,  48 

quiet  expectation  of  the  OTent.     But  by  this  time  a.  d.  1529. 
queen  E^tharine  bad  privately  prevailed  with  the    viu. 
pope,  to  advoke  the  cause  to  Rome,  as  a  place  of 
more  indifferency  for  a  plea  of  so  high  concernment. 
Whereupon  Campegio  took  his  leave  of  the  king, 
and  returned  into  Italy  9. 

49«  The  papists  tell  us,  that  cardinal  Campegio  Loire  letten 
sent  over  before  him  some  amatorious  letters,  which  Hm^kept 
passed  written  with  the  king's  own  hand,  betwixt  yj^^^ 
him  and  his  dear  Nan,  as  he  termed  her.  These  are 
said  to  import  more  fiuniliarity  than  chastity  betwixt 
them,  and  are  carefully  kept,  and  solemnly  shewn  in 
the  Vatican  to  strangers,  especially  of  the  English 
nation,  though  some  suspect  them  to  be  but  forged  \ 
For  though  the  king  had  wantonness  enough  to  write 
such  letters,  yet  Anna  Boleyn  had  wit  and  wariness 
too  much  to  part  with  them.  It  would  more  ad- 
vance the  popish  project,  could  they  shew  any  return 
from  her  to  the  king  accepting  his  offers,  which  they 
pretend  not  to  produce.  Our  authors  generally  agree 
her  denials  more  inflamed  the  king's  desires.  For 
though  perchance  nothing  more  than  a  woman  was 
wished  by  his  wild  fancy,  yet  nothing  less  than  an 
husband  would  content  her  conscience.  In  a  word, 
so  cimning  she  was  in  her  chastity,  that  the  fiEtrther 
she  put  him  from  her,  the  nearer  she  fastened  his 
affections  unto  her. 

50.  Still  was  the  king's  cause  more  delayed  in  the  No  haste  to 
court  of  Rome.     If  a  melancholic  schoolman  can  king*!  cause 
spin  out  a  speculative  controversy  with  his  pro's^^^"^' 
and  con%  to  some  quires  of  paper,  where  the  profit 

K  [On  the  19th  of  July  the  net.  Ref.  I.  p.  153.] 
pope  sent  a  messenger  with  the        ^  [Published  in  the  Harleian 

aTocation  to  England  with  a  Mis<^lany.    See  also  Tytler's 

letter  '*  to  the  cardinal."   Bur-  Life  of  Henry  VIII.,  p.  245.] 

A.n.ijtv-i"  Hule  to 
"vut^  fyinfr  hk 

CAurrA  Hittary 

i  aom  to  himwir.  i 

•  [»[' 



~  wonder  if  the  eamiift«  at  Rome  (tho»e  euni 
Uts  of  (leftlirf)  roiild  lonj(tI»*n  out  a 
high  conrrnirtH-nt,  luid  »o  jrw^*'?  b«iHI( 
thcin.  For.  Ktiglixh  ^iIvit  now  itm  nim-nt,  and  war 
^ilii  volant  in  tlir  pofK''!)  oourta.  v-hithtrnioh  niaaHa 
of  iiiouf?j  dmlly  were  tn[u<|>ortL*d,  Kngland  knew  net 
oerteinlj  what  waa  expeoded,  nor  Romr  what  rc>- 
oejved  bcrolD.  Yf»,  for  mtcq  fcan  wa«  tfau  Kdc 
depending  in  the  pope's  conrt ;  after  which  appnn- 
tloeditp,  the  indentun-8  woru  nut  intended  to  be 
flBiwdled,  hat  the  eauw  Htiil  to  lie  kept  on  fooC  k 
balllf  for  the  intcroil.  to  hnre  it  alwars  in  doing  and 
DBVar  done.  For,  wIiIIm  t(  defieadiMl,  t)ie  pope  ww 
aura  of  two  great  fricudt;  but,  when  it  wan  ooeo  de^ 
ddod,  he  waa  aura  of  ooe  great  foe,  cither  the  «■- 
penir,  or  oar  king  of  fogtand. 

I        Al.  It  wa«  a  maxfnrtrue  of  all  men,  but 
king    llenFT,    OmMin   mwa  frmpmniii   mimi 

^  (who  would  have  not  only  what,  but  wbun 
hinuelf)  waa  voxcd  with  an  many  dek] 

ferringi,  ivtaidliigi,  proragatioaa,  

crsMination*.  lietwixt  two  p»|*oii  (an  one  majr  aav) 
t'temi-nt  that  wm*.  and  Wolsey  that  woiiM  be.  He 
that  all  this  while,  after  mi  murh  ado,  there  waa 
nothing  done  id  hta  boainaB,  whirh  now  waa  ne 
neanr  to  a  flnal  oooeiuaiao,  than  at  the  tint  begin- 
afalg  tbofeof.  Yea.  now  began  cardinal  Wolaejr  •■ 
deeUne  fai  tlw  king'a  bvoor,  ao^ierting  him  for  atl 
cwdial  in  Ut  cvtto.  and  aacribing  much  of  the  ddi^ 
to  hie  backwrnrdncai  bert-in.  More  hot  did  the  di^ 
pleaauie  of  queen  Katharine  bum  againal  him.  be» 
hoWog  Un  aa  the  chief  engine,  who  M-t  the  matter 
of  bcr  df  Tone  bit  in  motioo. 


of  Britain. 


52.  Be  it  here  remembered,  that  in  persuading  a.d.  1529. 

3 1  nciirv 

the  king's  divorce,  Wolsey  drave  on  a  double  design;    viii. 
by  the  recess  of  the  king's  love  from  queen  Katha- ^j^^^j^^ 
rine,  to  revenge  himself  of  the  emperor;    by  the  looks  two 

WRV8  Id 

access  of  his  love  to  Marguerite  of  Alen^on,  to  oblige  this  design. 
the  king  of  France.  Thus  he  hoped  to  gain  with 
both  hands,  and  presumed,  that  the  sharpness  of  his 
tveo-edged  policy  should  cut  on  both  sides:  when 
God,  to  prevent  him,  did  both  blunt  the  edges,  and 
break  the  point  thereof.  For,  instead  of  gaining  the 
love  of  two  kings,  he  got  the  implacable  anger  of 
two  queens;  of  Katharine  decaying,  and  Anna 
Boleyn  increasing  in  the  king's  affection  ^  Let  him 
hereafter  look  but  for  few  fair  days,  when  both  the 
sun-rising  and  setting  frowned  upon  him^. 

i  [Burnet,  Ref.  I.  p.  158.] 
^  []•*  I  heard  it  reported" 
(says  Cavendish »  narrating  the 
interview  of  Wolsey  and  Cam- 
p^o  with  the  king  at  Graf- 
ton) "by  them  that  waited 
'*  upon  the  king  at  dinner^  that 
'*  mistress  Anne  Boleyn  was 
'^  much  offended  with  the  king, 
'*  as  far  as  she  durst,  that  he  so 
"  gently  entertained  my  lord, 
'*  saying  as  she  sat  with  the 
"  king  at  dinner^  in  communi- 
*'  cation  with  him, '  Sir/  quoth 
"  she,  '  is  it  not  a  marvellous 
"  thing  to  consider  what  debt 
^  and  danger  the  cardinal  hath 
*'  brought  you  in  with  all  your 
*'  subjects  ?*  '  How  ao,  sweet- 
"  heart?'  quoth  the  king.  '  For- 
"  sooth,'  quoth  she,  '  there  is 
**  not  a  man  within  all  your 
"  realm  worth  5/.  but  he  hath 
**  indebted  you  unto  him,' 
"  (meaning  by  a  loan  that  the 
*'  king  had  lent  late  of  his  sub- 
••  jecto.)  '  Well,  well,'  quoth 
'*  the  kilig»  *  as  for  that  there 

'*  is  in  him  no  blame ;  for  I 
'*  know  that  matter  better  than 
•  *  you  or  any  other.'  *  Nay  sir/ 
*'  quoth  she,  *  besides  all  that, 
'*  what  things  hath  he  brought 
"  within  this  realm  to  your 
''  great  slander  and  dishonour? 
"  There  is  never  a  nobleman 
"  within  this  realm,  that  if  he 
'*  had  done  but  half  so  much 
'^  as  he  hath  done,  but  he  were 
"  well  worthy  to  lose  his  head. 
*'  If  my  lord  of  Norfolk,  my 
^'  lord  of  Suffolk,  my  lord  my 
"  father,  or  any  other  noble 
''  person  within  your  realm  had 
"  done  much  less  than  he.  but 
"  they  should  have  lost  their 
'*  heads  ere  this.'  '  Why  then, 
"  I  perceive,'  quoth  the  king, 
"  '  ye  are  not  the  cardinal's 
"  friend  ?'  '  Forsooth  then,' 
''  quoth  she,  '  I  have  no  cause, 
"  nor  any  other  that  loveth 
''  your  grace,  no  more  have 
'*  your  grace  if  ye  consider 
"  well  his  doings.' "  Life  of 
Wolsey,  p.  241.] 

SKCT.   II. 





Corner  Minmt  (twft  waiis  metling  in  ihem)  art  poliskM 
with  i/tr  more  cHrioiily,  aitd  piaced  triih  mart  carrfmi- 
pteMM.  So  aUo  rffntrr  btines  {om  I  fna^  iay)  wkick  do 
dtmblr  #/M/y ,  nfid  allend  Ihe  aervice  of  l%rojamlM^  (mi  ike 
eihtHc  and  knte^)  are  rarely  Jised  Ay  the  provuirmee  ^ 

Thh  MeetioM  being  in  Ihe  Inntimg  of  rtligkmu^  {I he  goimg 
onl  iff  Ihe  o/f/,  and  coming  im  of  Ihe  nnr,)  oaghi  lo  kmre 
beepi  done  with  nnut  induniry^  dificnity  meeting'  thereim 
with  dark  in$trnetionM.  Hdwet-er  I  hafe  eHdemnxtmred 
my  Htmfuttf  {tknngh  falling  $hort  of  the  merit m  of  the 
pnatter^)  and  dtmht  not  but  jfom  will  be  as  enndkl  im  ike 
pernMing^  at  I  have  detired  to  be  earefnl  in  the  wriiiifg 

*  [Arm*.    i;til«>«,    a  cUUpliiii     friend  Mr.  fWiuMi. 
It  vmbmrrd.  or.     C>f  Uits     I  bcc«   shW   to 
iadivtaiial    nritWr    km     my     fmiker  pwtkskfft.) 

CBNT.  XVI.         The  €hurch  History  of  Britain. 


The  f^.««n^«u 

his  servant. 

NOW  now  in  the  next  year,  the  lords  ^•'^•'sso. 
in  parliament  put  in  a  bill  of  forty-    viii. 
fonr  particulars  against  Wolsey*'.     The  Accused  in 
most  material   was   his  exercising   ofSdJ^* 
power-legatine,  without   leave,   to  theJ^'^Srf* 
prejudice  of  the  king's  crown  and  dignity*^. 
bill  is  brought  down  into  the  house  of  commons, 
where  Mr.  Cromwell,  then  servant  to  the  cardinal, 
chanced  to  be  a  burgess.     Here  he  defended  his 
master  with  such  wit  and  eloquence,  that  even  those 
who  hated  the  client,  yet  praised  the  advocate  who 
pleaded  in  his  behalf**.     This  was  the  first  time  that 
public  notice  was  taken  of  Cromwell  his  eminent 
parts,  and  advantageous  starting  is  more  than  half 
the  way  in  the  race  to  preferment,  as  afterwards  in 
him  it  came  to  pass.     As  for  Wolsey,  though  at  this 
time  he  escaped  with  life  and  liberty,  yet  were  all 
his  goods  of  inestimable  value,  confiscated  to  the 
king,  and  he  outed  of  most  of  his  ecclesiastical  pro- 

b  [Burnet,  Ref.  I.  p.  i6i.] 
c  [This  was  an  extreme  in- 
justice, since  a  l^atine  power 
had  been  procured  and  exe- 
cuted for  the  last  hundred 
years  in  this  realm,  notwith- 
standing the  statute  of  pramu- 
nire,  which  from  1428  or  there- 
abouts was  never  acted  upon. 
And  still  more  flagrant  was  the 
injustice  of  involving  the  clergy 
in  the  penalties  of  the  same, 
whilst  tne  commons,  many  of 
whom  were  liable,  were  par- 
doned without  further  trouble.] 
d  [Burnet,  Ref.  I.  p.  349. 
Whether  Cromwell  obtained 
favour  with  the  king  ham  his 
conduct  towards  Wolsey  I  can- 

not tell.  It  is  certain  however 
that  he  was  gaining  much  in- 
fluence with  Henry  at  this 
time,  and  according  to  cardinal 
Pole,  who  had  the  account 
from  Cromwell  himself,  he  ad- 
vised the  king  to  take  the  suit 
into  his  own  hands,  and  declare 
himself  head  of  the  church 
(Poll  Epist.  I.  p.  120.)  See 
Wolsey's  letter  to  him  in  State 
Papers,  vol.  I.  p.  356,  and 
Cavendish,  Life  of  WolseVt 
pp.  259.  275.  Undoubtedly 
Cromwell  saw  the  bent  of  the 
king*8  mind  towards  Wolsey .3 
^  [Upon  which  occasion  an 
Act  was  passed  "  that  no  per- 
"  son  or  persons  shall  sustain 


The  Ckurck  HUiary 


AD.  1530.     S.  Court*faTourito9»  when  it  is  once  past  noon«  it 
'ViiT'^  ^  presently  night  with  them^  as  here  it  fared  with 
WoliH'y.     His  enemies,  of  whom  no  want,  follow  the 


llL^!^  blow  ifiven  unto  him.  For  they  beheld  him  rather 
^  in  a  swoon,  tlian  as  yet  dead  in  the  king*s  favour, 
and  fi»ared  if  his  submission  should  mec*t  with  t!ie 
kiufi^^s  remembrance  of  his  former  services,  they 
might  prinluce  his  full  restitution  to  {>ower  and  dig- 
nity. Tlie  rather  l)ecause  the  cardinal  was  cunning 
to  improve  all  to  his  own  advantage,  and  the  king 
(as  yet)  not  cruel,  though  too  |>erfect  in  that  k*»«on 
afterM'anls.  His  enemies  would  not  trust  the  car- 
dinal to  live  at  Lfcmdon,  (nor  at  Winchester  within 
fifty  milt^s  thereof,)  but  got  the  king  to  command 
him  away  to  York,  sending  him  thither,  whither 

*'  any  prrjadice  by  infant  of 
*'  the  AtUinder  of  the  lord  car- 
"  dinal,  hv  mean*  that  tlie  naid 
*'  cardinal  wtkn  ■rix4*d  in  their 
**  landi  t(>  dirert  u«ei."  S««e 
the  Auth.  (\)lli*cti(>ti  of  the 
Statute*,  rol.  III.  p.  316. 
Among  the  new  tranacripit  for 
the  Fcrtlera  by  the  Record 
CocnniiMionem  there  u  an  in- 
dentarr,  dated  Oct.  3  3,  1539, 
between  the  king  and  WoUey, 
in  which  the  curdinaJ  acknow. 
ledges  that  he  it  guilty  of  a 
prgnmmmire  by  pretence  of  boUa 
obtained  br  him  front  the  court 
of  Rome,  which  he  haa  prcu 
cured  by  divert  meant  to 
attain  tundry  etfectt  amtrary 
to  the  pwd  ttatutea  of  Kng. 
land  ;  that  he  haa  inquieted  aa 
well  the  prektea  at  other  th« 
ktng'ttubjecta,that  accivrdingly 
be  datervet  to  tuffer,  not  oolj 
tbs  psnahiea  ordaiAed  by  tbs 

ttatute  of  proriaion,  but  ako 
perpetual  impritonment  for  th» 
tame,  and  to  forfeit  to  the  kiag 
for  ever  all  hit  landt,  oftcea. 
goodt,  Ace.  ;  in  conatderatioci  of 
which  he  grantt  to  the  king  all 
hit  nid  potactainni,  wHb  all 
the  rerenuet  anting  from  tbe 
teet  of  York  and  Wtncbeatcr, 
the  abbey  of  St.  Albana  and  aU 
other  hit  aptritual  beoeftcea. 
The  king  on  hit  part  tIaUa 
that  he  doea  not  intend  in  cvm. 
tideratioci  of  the  taid  conce*" 
tiona,  to  forbear  any  tuit  aa 
may  hereafter  be  cutnmeiicpd, 
by  proceat  of  ftntmmmire  agaiw< 
the  nid  legate.  See  (  bftMi. 
Cat.  of  Matenak  fnr  the  Fow 
dera,  p.  167.  To  thia  tades* 
ture  he  probably  refera  in  kia 
letter  to  Cromwell,  {fkum 
Fapert  I.  p.  360.)  See  boar* 
erer  R3mier»  rol.  XIV.  p.  57 1.3 


of  Britain. 


his  conscience  long  since  should  have   sent  him,  a. d.  1530. 

•  •*."■•  1  •  1*^  Henry 

namely  to  visit  his  diocese,  so  large  m  extent,  and    viii. 
reride  therein. 

3.  Indifferent  men  thought  that  he  had  enough,  La»«e 

means  al- 

his  foes  that  too  much,  only  himself  that  too  little  lowed  him. 
was  left  unto  him.  Pride  accounts  the  greatest 
plenty,  if  without  pomp  no  better  than  penury. 
Yet  he  had  the  whole  revenues  of  York  arch- 
bishoprick  (worth  then  little  less  than  four  thousand 
pounds  yearly)  besides  a  large  pension  paid  him  out 
of  the  bishopric  of  Winchester.  Was  not  here  fuel 
enough,  had  there  not  been  too  much  fire  within, 
such  his  covetousness  and  ambition  ? 

4.  Earthly  kings  may  make  men  humbled,  God  "e  states  it 
alone  humble.     Wolsey  began  to  state  it  at  York  as 

high  as  ever  before,  in  proportion  to  his  contracted 
revenues  ^  Preparation  is  made  in  a  princely  equi- 
page for  his  installation,  attracting  envy  from  such 
as  beheld  it^.     All  is  told  unto  the  king,  and  all 

'  [During  the  whole  time  of 
his  impeachment  Wolsey  was  at 
fisher,  a  house  near  Hampton 
Court,  where  he  continued  for 
the  space  of  a  month,  "  without 
*'  beos,  sheets,  tahle  cloths, 
**  dishes,  &c.,  and  was  com- 
**  pelled  to  borrow  dishes  to 
**  eat  his  meat  in  from  the 
**  biahop  of  Carlisle."  Caven- 
dish, p.  257.  From  Esher  he 
removed  to  Richmond  early  in 
Feb.  1530.  See  the  Letters  in 
the  State  Papers,  vol.  I.  p.  348 
sq.  and  note  at  p.  356.  Thence 
to  Southwell  where  he  remain- 
ed from  April  27  to  the  end  of 
Aug.  1530.  (lb.  n.  p.  361.)] 

%  [This  was  a  mere  calumny. 
The  very  plea  used  by  his  ad- 
versary Norfolk  to  the  king  to 
induce  him  to  send  Wolsey  to 


York,  was  that  his  presence 
might  be  a  stay  and  support  to 
the  country.  And  though  the 
enthronization  of  the  arch, 
bishops  was  a  magnificent  cere- 
mony,  as  they  were  the  greatest 
ofiicers  of  the  county,  yet  the 
fi;randeur  of  Wolsey's  instal- 
lation fell  rather  below  than 
above  the  usual  mark.  When 
preparations  were  making  for 
the  ceremony,  and  it  was  ob- 
served that  he  ought  to  go 
upon  cloth  from  St.  James's 
chapel  to  the  Minster,  which 
cloth  was  afterwards  distri- 
buted to  the  poor ;  Wolsey  re- 
marked :  "  Although  our  pre- 
"  decessors  went  upon  cloth 
"  right  sumptuously,  we  do  in- 
"  tend  God  willing  to  go 
"  a-foot  from  thence  without 


Thg  ObrreA  HiOvrjf  looi  v. 

Lftii^iiMde  wmw  hj  t«llinfc  H.  oomplainittg  WolMjr  would 

^VuT^  Devor  toaw  hU  pmlu,  till  Ulb  Hnt  left  btm.     Hb 

~  old  fiuilto  are  reiiTed  uid  afgrniTBted,  aiid  the  I 

fnceiUMKl  afrMb  sftaiiMt  him. 

*.auiB.     5.  The  tsri  of  Nortfaumberland  bjr  the  e 

BVMB  m4  ftvn  thr  Idnfc  snvstcd  littn  of  high  trawon,  hi  \ 

own  duuiitior   At  Cnwood.      Ilv    fitow   and  short 

joamirjii  be  netteth  forwrnrd  to  London,  meeting  bjr 

tbe  wsy  with  eoDtisr^  mewigw  from  the  king: 

,  ■onwtimw  he  ww  tickled  with  hopei  of  pardoo  and 

prefeiment,  Kotm^imM  pinched  with  fean  of  a  di»- 

UTacernl  death,  mo  tliat  he  knew  not  how  to  duyoae 

hi*  mim).  t»  mirth  nr  oiauming*'.    A|ic  and  angnith. 

bntuxlit  liiii  ilimwso  of  the  djMotcry,  the  [Nun  Irinit 

mnch  ill  liin  jruU.  iDon  in  hb  heart.     l->[terialljr 

after  sir  William  Kingrton  was  aont  unto  him,  who 

being  licntetuuit  nf  the  Tower  Mcmied  to  ourr  a  n- 

•tialnt  in  his  lookii.     Coming  to  Leicester  be  died. 

being  btuied  almort  as  obacnraljr  •■  ho  wai  bam. 

**  Hj  Mcb  glarf ,  is  dw  *Mm 
"  af  Mv  bowa.  For  I  ld» 
"  CM  to  b*  mr  wr  >i%* 
"that  I  ufMW«  not  to  M 
•    W  fcr  Mrt  f  •       ' 

"  nJB-ffloc;,  hot  ««hr  b>  falil 
•*1lw  nUwTaapi  md  rain  «f 
■•ibtdMKli;  tolW  which  M 
E-**!*  mf  I  an  kmd.  AW 
f «  UmAn  I  Ml  imhm  na 
MaU  to  hoU  roa  iiiiliilil 
^*  wfch  wy  ttmfBtitf.  wwl  aha 



to  Wolaay  to  Jwrnrnmi  Iha  m. 
MffMtiaa  of  tWgral ^d.  Ha 
waa  lanaachodOT  a  prwwttnKn^ 
plnM  rdllT  mwl  kb  Midi 
fariUui  Bm  .bou  ll»  tan. 
dn  U»  kiw  OM  Ua  •  i^ 
W  fcllo»l«|  ll»  lifM  iMMrf 
Ua  IW a. rf  Volii  aMkta 

•  ite  br  .Ir  Jida  Rual  iM 

•  ajfictlul  W  U  bilni 
Ui  i««>  ^  (Sa  W.4>py7t«- 
Nr  l»  iba  ktag  «  '" 

I.   )«S.)     b    lb 

"  lk.T    nmmmij    vmt,    mJ    jMMfT  bk  va4ia  sa  4 
••liU  k  aad;  aid  dnu    M  U  a  nrh  •  a.^ 

lllliliibiiii  laa.  .•  Ik.  M 
I«fOililii  («aaan 

Uw  da  laand  a  Ua  >k« 
■■daadi  a  tW   laoH  rf 

«S7*  y^  ?'■  •f"i'*»_" 

rf  NaUk  Md  Srfbdk    Ihna'i  RWaa. 

MHfdtag  M 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  51 

6.  I  know  not  whether  or  no  it  be  worth  the  men- a.d.  1530. 
tioning  here,  (however  we  will  put  it  on  the  adven-  ^  vin.*^ 
ture)  that  cardinal  Wolsey,  in  his  life  time  was  in-  woisey's 
formed  by  some  fortune-tellers,  that  he  should  have  ^^^ 
Lis  end  at  Kingston.     This  his  credulity  interpreted  J'yS^y, 
of  Kingston  on  Thames,  which  made  him  always  topropi»ecy. 
avoid   the  riding   through  that   town,  though   the 
nearest  way  from  his  house  to  the  court.     After- 
wards understanding  that  he  was  to  be  committed 

by  the  king's  express  order  to  the  charge  of  sir 
Anthony  Kingston,  it  struck  to  his  heart,  too  late 
perceiving  himself  deluded  by  that  father  of  lies  in 
his  homonymous  prediction  ^ 

7.  Anna  Bolejm  did  every  day  look  fairer  and  The  king 
fairer  in  the  king's  eyes,  whilst  the  hopes  of  his  mar-  with  delays 
riage  with  her  seemed  every  day  farther  and  farther 

from  him.  For  the  court  at  Rome  meddled  not 
with  the  merits  of  the  cause,  but  fell  upon  by  points 
therein  of  lesser  concernment.  Yea,  they  divided 
his  case  into  three  and  twenty  particulars  ^ ;  whereof 
the  first  was,  whether  prince  Arthur  had  carnal 
knowledge  with  the  lady  Katharine  ?  This  bare  about 
a  year's  debate;  so  that  according  to  this  propor- 
tion, king  Henry  would  be,  not  only  past  marrying, 
but  past  living,  before  his  cause  should  be  decided. 
This  news  put  him  into  a  passionate  pensiveness,  the 
rather,  because  meeting  with  sadness  here,  many 
populous  places  in  England,  and  Cambridge  parti- 
cularly, being  at  the  present  visited  with  the  sickness. 

8.  But  it  is  an  evil  plague  which  brings  nobody  Dr.  Cran- 
profit.      On  this  occasion  Dr.  Cranmer  retired   tOtoWai- 
Waltham  with  two  of  his  pupils,  the  sons  of  Mr.*™' 

»  Hon.  lord  Howard  in  his         ^  Hist,  of  Council  of  Trent, 
Book  against  Prophecies,  [fol.     p.  69. 
p.  130.  ed.  1620.] 


n  The  Ciureh  Ilirtwy  wm>k  «. 

^^"J- •»»  Crewjr,  a  name  uttirty  extinct  in  tlint  town,  wbore 
VIII.  Ood  kath  Sxml  inv  |>n>«<.'nt  habitftticm,  Utufg  btv 
fniv  tlio  miinonr  of  any  aliu''.  hut,  rnnmltinjr 
WwvcrV  Fuwnil  Monumi'iitfl  of  Wnlthuii  rhurrli. 
(tnorf  truly  than  n4*nlly  by  liitn  (NtmiKw*!,)  I  fitwl 
thorvin  thill  cpitApli : 

Hi'nT  lyi-th  Jtm  and  Jons  Onmf, 
On  whtMK  aualy*  Jem  hav  mnrey.  Abmu'*. 
It  Kemii  |Hi|N.'r  iiuin4^>tinu-»  m  mitrv  lastiiif;  than 
bian;  oil  tlio  ancient  (<|)ita]ili«  in  that  rliurrh  liriit|t 
dubced  by  •umc  barbarous  haniLs  wbii  pcrrbaaec 
one  day  may  wont  a  gniTe  for  thenwolvM. 
hiiiftii^  9.  Tlir  king  cotnin)(  to  Wallhatn.  [>r.  Fox  bb 
toihf^lflfclia|)lain  and  almom^r  <aft«nmrd«  Uidtop  nf  tlav> 
fun])  is  I'xlf^tl  in  Mr.  Crcaiy'a  boaw:  diaroiuiiiiit 
abont  tlie  kinj;'*  divorce.  Cimtuner  eoncvivi<d  tfaat 
tlip  spoodiost  omirao  wmH  to  prnw  the  unlaafulnw 
of  liifl  luateb  by  Bcripiiuv;  whiotcc  It  vuuld  follow, 
that  the  |>o[>u  at  first  had  no  power  to  diipe— 
thcn-wiib  :  and  tluU  tho  nniTendtics  of  Christendan 
would  txMmcr  anil  truer  decide  the  caac  than  ths 
court  of  Romu".  Thia  paango  Fox  niiarta  to  tba 
king;  who,  well  pleaaed  tbereat,  pmfi<wca  Ibat  thia 
man  bad  "the  mw  by  tbn  riglit  car":"  an  car  which 

>  [Donrt'k  Rcf.  I.  p.  ij^.]      Donwl'i  Rvf.  I.   RMonk.  p. 
M  In   Fmn,  fi.  &4j.     llat     141.).  vUdi  iiBcintkMillv** 

««  Uw  famw  fut  of  Cma.  mmah^  bvfan  tka  tisM  at  ite 

■wt'*  lib  oatil  Ihia  Umn,  b  abm-awnlkBad     taotifmm. 

>m  Hiturj  at  CmMim.  8h    aW    atrn*^   Ctmh*. 

>  {OdlMr  in  U«  BcdM.  p.  5.  IW  dak*  •«  «■■> 
Him.  *aL  II.  p.  51.  obMniM  imm  bi  ban  bMi  tka  tM 
dw  ^b  b  iHwaAli'rt.     For  vrmm  wka  WMaailH  M  «• 

pcnon  who  MMfMl 

Ibftka  iMraarf  mb  rf 
aad Moratary  F«a. WM IB  Aoe-  kkawarMlai.  SMCawtth. 
iKio.  Bm  Um  dataniaaliaa  lifaof  WuImjt.  p.  tii.l 
af  ika  MimaitT  of  Orlwaa  >  Fax.  AcM  tad  Moa.  iSft*. 
~  a  la  tka  kW«  Mniiff"  [llalT.  Ufc  of  FUmt.  p.  97.] 
a  April  5.  15*9.  (Sat 

CENT.  XVI.  -  of  Britain.  58 

the  king  never  left  wonying  till  he  had  got  it  off,  a.  0.1530. 
and  effected  his  will  therein:  Cranmer  being  sent  viii. 
for,  comes  to  the  king,  who  very  lovingly  entertains 
him.  Indeed  he  was  a  most  comely  person,  having 
an  amiable  eye  (and  as  the  soul  sees  much  by  the 
eye,  so  is  it  much  seen  in  them)  and  pleasing  coun- 
tenance, as  by  his  lively  picture  doth  appearP.  Glad 
was  the  king  to  see,  more  to  hear  him  enlarge  him- 
self on  the  former  subject,  that  it  was  above  the 
pope's  power  to  dispense  with  God's  work  in  the 
king's  case.  And  now  what  fitter  nurse  for  the 
child  than  the  own  mother ;  what  person  more 
proper  to  manage  this  matter  than  Cranmer  himself, 
who  first  moved  it*'.  The  king  resolves,  and  Cranmer 
consents  he  should  be  sent  to  the  pope,  there  to 
make  God  his  position.  Leave  we  Cranmer  for  a 
time,  preparing  himself  for  his  long  journey;  and 
come  briefly  to  state  the  king's  controversy  out  of 
God's  word,  and  several  authors  who  have  written 

10.  It  plainly  appears  that   a  marriage  with   a  Marriage 
brother's  wife   is   unlawful,  because   expressly  for- Jenj' i^« 
Diaaen.  bidden  in 

LeVIT.  XViii.  16.  scripture. 

T/lOU  sJialt  not  uncover  the  nakedness  of  thy  brother^ s 
wife^  it  is  thy  brother's  7iakedncss. 

Wherein  we  have, 

i.  A  prohibition.  Thou  shalt  not  micover  the 
?ia/tedn€ss  of  thy  brotlicr's  wife :  see  all  these  laws 

P  Which    I    have    seen    at  and  Germany  with  the  earl  of 

Chesthunt  in  the  house  of  sir  Wilts,  to  dispute  the  subject 

Thomas  Dacres,  done  as  I  take  at   Paris^    Rome,    and    other 

it  by  Hans  Holbein.  places,  carrying  the  book  with 

<l  [In  1530  he  was  sent  by  him  which  he  had  just  written. 

the   king  into  France,  Italy,  See  Strype's  Cran.p.  13.] 

£  3 


The  CAmkA  BiMturji 

A.U.  i5ja.  <^rv  maik'  !■■  moii;  it  being  pmumed  that  th(>  wnLkvr 
'ViiT^  wx  (whom;  part  it  in  to  take,  iH»t  U-ndct;  tuvept,  doI 
~i>ffi'r  Ion-)  would  U'  mo  nio«k>fft  m  nut  t«  ii(l*(9ituiv 
of  thomvplTM  on  any  iocratiunis  art.  czcvpt  fint 
Mi)irit«d  hj  men  llit>minto. 

ii.  Tlio  nwmi)  thrivof.  //  m  Utjf  brolArr'a  maJud- 
HtMt.  (im)  rouUl,  Brrording  to  hb  doauDion,  pe- 
ntniftimlr  bAVi>  Frirltiddon  tbu  aanH>,  withoot  i«o- 
dcriufr  a  ivaiHiti  of  hift  pmhibilion;  bnt  that  nwn 
roiglit  |>ar  Ibo  more  witling  obedienrc  lu  hi*  law,  ho 
tnakfth  tboMe  who  wvn>  to  ko4'|>  it  in  amno  aort 
judges  of  tlw  jostiMM  tbercof.  fnilnrnuring  to  con- 
vince tlior  comeioneM,  ami  inmkc  tbdr  ■ook  mo- 
■ible  oX  the  natmml  anrlowuien  of  tocb  an  art.  // 
it  tijf  hrolker't  nakedmeu. 

8ach  marriaget  are  again  (biWdden  In  another  text. 
Nnr  ran  I  n-ndor  other  raaaon  uf  this  dajdlralc, 
whemw  otiien  are  bat  om«,  Uiat  tlii^  tboald  be 
twin*  prohibited;  mve  that  flod,  foruKoing  In  bh 
provi<leno«>  men's  eomjpt  inclinations,  prmie  boni  to 
climb  uvor,  did  tfaiTrfoiP  tbink  fit  to  make  a 

Lrvft.  XX.  St. 

And  if  a  mam  JtaB  taltt  kit  bnlktt*4  wife,  it 

luiidbi  liimf ;    ke  AofI  uneorend  kit  hrtftkft'a 

moMmeu,  tLg  tkoO  b»  tkiUteu. 

Hen  ve  hate  the  prohibitioa  borked  with  a  — miii 

baUod  of  beiqg  ehUdkaa,  which  it  TarkKtsly  tntcfk 

ptetcd,  eithrr  that  they  ahall  nerpr  haTe  children,  «r 

if  baring  them,  tbej  tthall  not  mrriTo  th<^r  patently 

or  if  mrviTiog,  thojT  shall  not  Ix*  rount«<l  chiMna, 

bai  baatard%  iUegitimau>  in  tho  court  of  heoTo*. 

TUa  eomarinnlbn  of  being  ebiMlew.  aa  appBed  W 

I,  fcQ  bcsTj  on  king  Henry  the  Eighth ;  who 

here  to 


CENT.  xvf.  of  Britain.  BB 

sensible  that  his  queen,  though  happy  often  to  con- a.  0.1550. 
ceive,   was  unhappy  ahnost  as   often  to   miscarry.  ^Vin!'^^ 
Henry  his  only  Christian  son,  by  her,  died  before  a 
full  year  old ;  a  second  was  nameless,  as  never  living 
to  the  honour  of  baptism ;  and  of  many  blasted  in 
the  bud,  Mary  only  survived  to  woman's  estate. 

11.  Such  as  inquire  into  the  nature  of  this  lawThisproved 
find  it  founded  in  nature  itself,  being  only  decla-JJ  ^^^ 
ratory  of  what  true  reason  doth  dictate  to  man. 
God  in  making  this  law  did  not  imprint  a  new 
writing  in  men's  hearts,  but  only  rub  off  some  old 
rust  from  the  same;  wherefore  it  is  added,  Levit. 
xviii.  27,  28.  For  all  these  abominations  have  the 
men  of  the  land  done^  which  were  before  you^  and  the 
land  is  defiled ;  that  the  land  spue  not  you  out  alsOy 
when  ye  defile  ity  as  it  spued  out  the  nations  that  were 
before  you.  Surely  the  land  would  never  have 
vomited  out  the  heathen  for  not  observing  a  positive 
precept,  never  immediately  delivered  unto  them, 
which  plainly  shews  it  was  imprinted  in  nature, 
though  partly  obliterated  by  their  corrupt  customs 
to  the  contrary ;  and  their  consciences  in  their  lucid 
intervals  were  apprehensive  thereof.  This  would 
make  one  the  more  to  admire,  that  any  should 
maintain  that  this  law,  the  breach  whereof  made 
the  country  to  avoid  her  pagan  inhabitants,  should 
be  only  lea;  imposititia  et  ecclesiastical ^  "  an  imposed 
"  and  church  law."  To  hear  of  a  church  law  amongst 
the  Canaanites  is  a  strange  paradox. 

12.  It  is   objected   this  could  not  be  a  law  ofTheob- 
nature,  because  almost  at  the  beginning  of  nature  the  oon- 
men  brake  them  by  the  consent  and  permission  of '™^' 
the  God  of  heaven ;  for  Cain  and  Seth,  with  the 

'  Sanders  de  Schism.  Angl.  p.  3. 

£  4 

Tht  CAwcA  Wtlory  mnu  v. 

yh.  I'ltlt-r  sunn  nf  AiluB.  miwt  he  allowvd  U>  have  duutM 
tbeir  (iwn  lUtGn,  Hx  nearer  in  mtun'  tluun  tbdr 
liTother'n  wife, 

13.  It  [i  atHweied,  vliea  Qod  fint  cremUtl  man- 
kind, H  WM  hifl  pleamrv  «U  men  ihoultl  tlcriTc 
tbt-ir  original  frrnn  Eto,  as  iihp  fWnn  Adam.  For 
luu)  \\o  nuuk>  las  une  ntav  my)  twu  lUotinct  buim-s  nf 
mankind,  wliat  fainiif,'  out  and  6^tiu|r.  what  liii-kifr- 
ing  and  battling  would  havi>  \nvn  betwixt  them.  If 
nwa  DOwadajB  dpM-i-mk'd  frum  tbo  loins  of  one 
guMiral  bthrr,  and  wunib  of  one  motbf  r.  are  fall  of 
«o  6erco  baln-d.  bow  many  and  ki-cn  may  tbtHr  dif- 
ferPDW  bo  pHwimed,  ttw)  tbey  sprung;  from  •even] 
fiMintatntt,  and  tben  all  tbcir  batred  would  have  beae 
eluufrtt],  tiot  on  their  eumptkn.  bttt  on  their 
rn-ationf  Cwl  thftt'furv,  a«  tlie  apostle  aalth,  Aeto 
XTii.  96,  hath  madr  of  ow  Uood  all  MaHmu.  Now  fn 
tbr  Ufrinninfi  of  mankind  abmlutt.*  mx-cMiity  gaw 
bretlin'n  liU'riy  tu  Dian7  their  own  siatm.  Yea, 
Ood  hlnwlf,  iiilt'qiretaUvelj,  aigned  and  aealad  tttt 
nme  with  his  own  rnnaent,  because  hia  wtsdoM  W_ 
ap|H>intitl  no  uthrr  mvoiis  witbrnit  miiarle  far  t 
ppipafpition  of  mankind.  But  wlieo  rora  1 
U)  multipiiitl  on  the  earth,  tliat  neou^ty 
remoTi>d,  the  tiglit  of  nature  dictated  onto  t 
unlawfulmw  of  Mieh  marriagea,  and  of  i 
more  remote,  aa  c«niitg  witliin  the 
inoait ;  though  the  corrupt  practieea  of 
aometimea  trespamed  in  ibat  kind.  God  1 
U-ii^r  to  ffive  his  law  to  the  Jcwi^  rkaied  i 
rlon'd  that  light  of  uaturt.'  by  his  pusitin'  law  | 
)ii«  piHtple.  to  whom  hia  goodnoaa  gave  a  g 
foriiad  a  ttw.  so  tneoMJdeiaMe  were  tbnae  iev| 
hibitcd  to  tl»c  monjr  penont  perautted  them  la  i 

CBNT,  XVI.  of  Britain.  67 

riage.  For  whereas  there  came  out  of  Egjrpt  ahout  a.d.  1530. 
8Uff  hundred  thousand  men,  besides  children^  fifty  per-  ^\mJ 
sons  at  the  most  (counting  those  forbidden,  as  well 
by  consequence  as  expressly)  were  interdicted  unto 
them  •;  amongst  whom  one  was  the  marriage  with  a 
brother's  wife.  For  although  God  permitted  this  by 
a  judicial  law  to  his  own  people  in  case  of  raising  up 
seed  to  a  brother  deceased  childless  S  (the  will  of 
God  being  the  law  of  laws,)  yet  otherwise  it  was 
utterly  unlawful,  as  whereon  God  had  stamped  (as  is 
aforesaid)  a  double  note  of  natural  uncleanness. 

14.  The  law  then  of  forbidding  marriage  with  aOod'siaws 
brother's  wife  being  founded  in  natiu^,  it  was  pride  lahie  with 
and  presumption  in  the  pope  to  pretend  to  dispense  ^  ^^'^ 
therewith.  Indeed  we  read  that  the  dispensation  of 
the  gospel  (to  see  it  dealt  and  distributed  to  several 
persons)  was  committed  to  St.  Paul%  (whose  joint 
successor,  with  St.  Peter,  the  pope  pretends  to  be,) 
but  a  dispensation  from  the  law  of  God,  to  free  men 
from  the  same,  neither  Paul  nor  Peter  ever  pre- 
tended unto.  Let  the  pope  make  relaxations  of 
such  church  canons  which  merely  ecclesiastical  aur 
thority  hath  made,  there  he  may  have  the  specious 
power  to  remit  the  rigour  thereof  at  some  times, 
places  and  persons,  as  he  apprehendeth  just  occasion. 
But  let  him  not  meddle  to  grant  liberty  for  the 
breach  of  God's  law.  The  first  dispensation  in  this 
kind  is  what  Satan  in  the  serpent  gave  our  first 
parents  in  Paradise,  You  shall  7iot  surely  die^^;  and 
whether  the  granter  had  less  power  therein,  or  the 
receivers  less  profit  thereby,  we  their  woful  posterity 
have  little  comfort  to  decide. 

15.  Nor  doth  it  any  thing  alter  the  case,  ( what ^^J[J)^^ 

8  Exod.  xii.  37.  ▼  I  Cor.  ix.  17. 

*  Deut.  XXV.  5.  w  Gen.  iii.  4. 

Tlu  Chunk  /liaory  mm»  t. 

A.D.iu».WM  M  mncb  controvetted  in  tbe  onart  of  Rnme.) 

**vuL*  wfaetber  ur  no  prince  Artliar  had  ranul  knowledjp; 

B^BiMit-    **'  W*  *i''%  ■winft  wo  may  obserTo  that  in  the  court 

liwll'*''*  "*"  '•w^*'"  miuriaffi'*  btir  dato,  not  frocn  thi-tr  <<o|ia- 

»"«7-        lation.  but  ttolonin  rontract ;  and  (her  thtntrfforwanl 

■re  calvcmcd  man  and  wife  before  (jod.     For  H  is 

proTided,  that  i/a  damtrl  bt  helroUud  kt  a  kmdmiJ 

ttiU  rtmaining  a  riryin,  amJ  aMtiO  ht  him  wUk  kf 

moAltfr  man,  both  ftf  linm  thaU  he  tlomd  te  dmA, 

amd  sAe  /mmisM  for  sm  adutlereu,  he  far  kmmttm§ 

kit  meiyhAom't  frife\     Be  then  the  ladjr  KaHuuiaB 

known  or  unknown  b;  prince  Arthur,  due  benevo* 

leT»M)  ia  the  olTect,  not  the  cause  of  marriaps,  whidi 

wa«  mrapli'ttti  lK?riin-  (!od,  ami  thi>y  two  made  ooe 

flchh,  when  i)i)lt*rriiilT  joined  tofri*tbi*r  tn  tbe  hee  of 

the  con^^jfation. 

16.  Such  a  tnarria^  with  a  brothcr'a  wife  thai 
'tt  a|>pi-arin^  af^tnst  the  lav  uf  God,  it  ii  stnu^  that 
anv  MhnuM  mnintain  that  pmbtica  kmadm, 
-  hoiiL'str,*'  waft  the  unir  obatade  of  tUa  l 
which  (ilMtruetinu  (xay  they)  by  the  pop^^  ifiaiw 
Mtioii  WBD  removed,  because  /nMira  mtilihu,  tbe 
**  public  profit"  was  grrater  tliat  rcdonndod  by  per* 
inittin;;  this  match.  Now  nippoMe  this  all  ibe  ok 
Htju-lc,  the  positioa  ia  daogeroot  and  uamkuhI  ;  Ibr. 
flnt.  ChriMiani  aiv  not  aeudbte  of  utility,  aa  fidvly 
io  railed,  which  ictandti  at  distaiwe  with  pabUe 
boDeaty.  Secondly,  the  publicneM  of  the  pnifit  was 
not  adeqaato  to  the  imbliciicaa  of  the  anuidaL  Hw 
pfoSt  or  lUte  benefit  tfaerebjr  only  extended  t»  tke 
csowna  of  England  and  Frmnoe,  as  eoneeraed  thiwia, 
wbilat  tbo  Kandal  dilated  itw>lf  to  the  people  vt  ■■ 

L  uii.  14. 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  69 

Christian  provinces,  justly  offended  thereat.     And  a.  d.  1530. 
although  we  confess  that  in  this  respect  the  world  is  ^\m7 

narrower  to  princes  than  to  private  persons,  as  not 

affording  so  fit  matches  unto  them,  yet  kings  have 
no  conmiission  to  enlarge  themselves  herein,  by  the 
actual  breach  of  God's  commandment. 

17.  Thus  far  the  sum  of  the  sense  of  protestants  Armies  of 
and   others,  no   fewer  than  an  hundred    authors,  and  con  in 
writing  at  this  time  against  this  marriage,  all  which      ^^^^ 
were    produced    by    the    king    in    the    next   par- 
liament.    Yet  very  many  papists   professed  their 
judgmenu    in    prSt.  on  the  'con  A  Mde,  both 
English  and  outlandish  divines:  and,  to  give  them 
their   due,  brought  very  plausible  arguments.     Of 
all  these, 

John  Fisher,  bishop  of  Rochester,  led  the  fronts 
whom  some  catholics  call  St.  John,  because  be- 
headed like  the  Baptist,  though  on  contrary  ac- 
counts: John  Baptist  for  saying,  it  is  not  lawful  *; 
John  Fisher  for  sajring,  "It  is  lavrful  for  thee  to 
**  have  thy  brother's  wife." 

•John  Holyman,  bishop  of  Bristol ;  John  Gierke, 
bishop  of  Bath  and  Wells  ;  Cuthbert  Tunstall, 
bishop  of  London ;  Nicholas  West,  bishop  of  Ely. 

Thomas  Abel,  Edward  Powell,  Richard  Feather- 
stone,  Ridley,  Englishmen  and  Canonists. 

Franciscus  de  Roxas,  Alphonso  de  Virues,  Al- 
phonso  de  Castro,  Sepulveda ;  Spaniards. 

Cardinal  Cajetan,  Lewis  Nogarola;  Italians. 

Alvarus  Gomez ;  Portuguese. 

John  Cochlaeus ;  High  German. 

'  Mark  vi.  1 8.  57.    To  these  should  be  added 

A  We  order  them  by  the  se-  Cardinal  Pole.     See  Strype's 

niority  of  their  writing.   [See  Cran.  ch.  3.] 

8ander*8  De  Schism,  p.  45  and 

00  Tkf  ChurtA  nutonf  book  ▼. 

~A.D.  iitjo-     Ef^iiniu^us  Doro,  PrBiiriMrait  Dtuumiu,  ('ontuniui ; 
VIII. '  Coltjt*. 

"~      Ludovieiu  a  Scborn;  a  Low  Countrrnuui'. 

Enuniua,  n  irrvaUT  M-ltoUr  than  <lirin<\  was  very 
doubtful  in  hiN  juif^fut  licnnn.  He  m  vamAv  lijr 
Miuf  nioiivni  opocaJyptkal  eammcoitahet  lo  bo  the 
an^'l  ftring  tv  ftwtpaitiMm^  that  ia,  at  tbej  wfll 
bavir  it,  "In  tL  mlddlu  dbtanco  beCwixt  beawn  and 
**  i-ttrtli,"  which  how  it  afrrreK  to  the  text,  I  know 
not.  It  alhitlrth  well  tn  hiii  dalnnuK  imatorv  betwiit 
iliffi^rfut  i>|titituiu  iu  rvliffion.  aiid  |iartiruhvlT  ia  this 
roiitnivcniv,  xoint'linitii  ItHnj;  for  king  tlcniy,  and 
•oiix'tiniOM  n^'aiiut  Iiim  brtvio. 

]K.  llftum  vcv  to  C'raiiiiKT,  ■•nijilnvit)  now  in  hb 
fiiilKimv  t'l  lt4ini(' :  lhi>  MaU>  wlicnHif  lav  tttt  TbonuH 

^  Bolcj-n.  cari  «if  \\'iltivbin>,  but  tho  utr^ttf^  i»f  it  (a> 
to  tlii'  ilui])utiiig  \>axt)  on  l>r.  CimnmiT.  Ih'.  Sttikislc^, 
Dr.  C«nH.%  l>r.  Bc-nni*t,  ftc;  m  that  a  liltlc  uttiver^ 
nity  t>f  It-anHil  nicii  wt-nt  nliHig:  thither.  Tlu-^'  wrc 
Well  omttil  with  nrpintoiilA,  Ix-ing  tn  rarrr  a  rbal- 
li>nj^>  tn  oil  tlif  L-niioiiiittK  at  II^iith-.  Conunjc  ihitbrr, 
they  TouihI  the  |M»|ie  in  hi«  )rran')«vn  pnitknog  kii 
t«M<  to  them,  wbkh  Doue  oSered  to  klM^  MW  thft 
anmaniH-riy  f|iai)iel  (Ui  my  no  wnn«e  of  him)  to  ika 
i«ri  of  Wiltnbin',  whom  lhi<  Jesuit  mil*  a  pmteitaDt 
'U*H'.  for  Ititinf;  tlie  |M)pc'»  toe;  but  let  him  tt41  tw 
what  iviif^on  thoM>  <lngi  were  of  wfaieh  eat  np 
Jen'lifl  the  harlot'.  Tim  cad  praaanfeed  the  |iu|w  a 
book  of  Craamuri  iietmiog.  proriny  God'»  law  india* 

*Pn>fmlfpto^ at  Vnan.  Rmtr^  I.  p.  14);  U  K^M 

Uviof  brt«4n  A*  ri««n    of  t7Jlktl.Ckm.hl.  II.  igs.k] 

OmMH  ami  Stmmim.  ■  f  mIm-  FUmi.  hn  U^m 

<[fiMBorMt'>ib£l.p.i73  a>  UiaM.  Aar  (H  ^  9-]  ^ 

TW  ^MkfMlaM   of  tbr  <hf.  151.  [Bmwt'albr.  l.p.  t90.J 

Imm  «alwikfa>  wv  frimtH  *  1  Kli«»  ix.  3ft. 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  61 

pensable  with  by  the  pope:  a  book  as  welcome  to  a.  d.  1530. 
his  holiness  as  a  prison,  beholding  his  own  power  viii. 
therein  limited  and  confined.  Promise  was  made  of 
a  public  disputation,  but  never  performed.  Only 
the  pope  (who  is  excellent  at  the  making  of  nothing 
something,  by  the  solemn  giving  thereof)  made 
Cranmer  supreme  penitentiary  (an  empty  title) 
throughout  all  his  dominions ;  this  was  only  to  stay 
his  stomach  for  that  time,  in  hope  of  a  more  plen- 
tiful feast  hereafter,  if  Cranmer  had  been  pleased  to 
take  his  repast  on  any  popish  preferment. 

19.  Meantime  king  Henry  employed  his  agents  to  Foreign 

xi  .....  1         _^         i?  /^"i     •   i         1  i     universities 

the  imiversities  m  several  parts  of  Christendom,  to  determine 
sound  their  judgments  in  the  matter  of  his  marriage.  ^^^^^ 
Some  report  that  Reginald  Pole,  then  living  at 
Paris,  was  practised  upon,  by  promise  of  preferment, 
to  act  the  university  there  in  favour  of  the  king :  but 
he  being  a  perfect  Katharinist,  declined  the  employ- 
ment ?.  Sir  Richard  Morison,  a  learned  knight,  was 
used  by  the  king  in  Germany;  Edmund  Bonner*", 
afterwards  bishop  of  London,  employed  in  Italy,  and 
William  Langee,  a  native  Frenchman,  made  use  of 
in  his  own  country ;  so  that  ten  of  the  universities 
subscribed  the  case,  that  it  was  above  the  pope's 
power  to  dispense  with  the  positive  law  of  God. 

1.  Cambridge,  2.  Oxford;  England. 

3.  Parish  4.  The   Faculty  of  Paris^  5.  Orieans, 
6.  Toulouse^  7.  Anjou™,  8.  Bituriges" ;  France. 

9.  BononiaS  10.  Padua  p;  Italy. 

Wonder  not  herein  at  the  silence  of  many  Dutch 

%  [So  Sander's,  p.  51.]  ^  May  7. 

^    Hollinshed's    Chron.    p.  '  October  i. 

933.      [See  the  substance   of  ™  July  i. 

their   arguments   in    Burnet's  "  June  10. 

Hist.  Ref.  I.  p.  ao8.]  o  June  10. 

*  May  a.  P  July  2. 


Tht  CimrrA  Uhtory 

A.n.i|.)o-univmi(ict,  WitUinbn;^.  lleidolb()i;|;,  INibinif^ 
"\ili7  Bwle,  ikst  tbey  inUTpoivd  not  their  opbdow  herain; 
■  for  tlivsL*  haviiig  runnerlr  utterly  espImM  the  fMipe^ 

power,  wen  ooaoeived  pwtial.  and  tbnvfbm  Incom- 
petent Jndgm  in  tlu>  point :  wberofon  the  kiag  wil; 
•oliciled  rach  aniremtie*  in  thta  b»  com*  wfairb  »> 
Tt*t  ri'iiiaitied  in  bM  vul  finn  obitlieitru  to  thi>  ire 
of  Rotnei. 
n^M         so.  or  all  tlio  univetntiM  (IcclAring  for  the  pope't 
Md^xiti-  inal>ility  to  i]t«|>tiiflc  with  (iod'c  poMtive  ooaunand, 
in^nii     muxt  bold  ftiid  dnrit^  (bccauw  laiKnt.  fttllenC  rlear^ 
Mt)  WM  that  of  Bonoaio,  Ibo  rhirf  city  ui  Rofnan- 
ioUt »  prorhiec  of  PeCer'*  patrimony,  uul  that  city 
tbt'  )M)|ic'>  ntiring  plaoo.     Nor  can  I  oout  tha  eo»- 
diixion  of  tlivir  dcehmtimi.     "We  oonfldently  do 
**  hold  and  witneM,  that  Bitcb  taani»ge  b  honjhli^ 
"aeniiawl.  and  to  bv  rriM  out  u|H»n.  and  uttcflf 
"  abiminablc,  not  only  for  a  Cbriiituui  man,  bat  lor 
"  an   Infiilul,   unfiiithfiil  or  hoatlitMi,   and  that  it  li 
**  pn4iiliit4Hl  undiT  ;^(*tous  \vuiw  and  |iDni*liineala 
"  by  tlK>  law  of  (iod.  of  natun*.  and  of  man:  and 
"  that  the  |Mip(s   though  Im   may  do   murk.   nMo 
"  whom  Cbrint  gave  the  koyn  of  the  kiof^doM  of 
"  beaven,  lutli  no  power  to  givxy  a  dt^<«uBtt«Mi  to 
**  any  man  to  rontnrt  mrh  marria^*'.     In  wiuwa 
**  whereof  wv  cnnlinn  IhtH  nur  judpnifut.  iMith  nnder 
"  the  Mtl  of  oar  onircnity,  aa  oIm*  with  tbv  wal  uf 
**  oor  college  of  iloetoni  of  divinttT.  and  bare  Rib- 
**  Mribed  it  in  the  nthedral  chnrdi  of  Uonooy.  lUa 
"  tenth  of  June,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  IA90.** 
•1.  Handcrv'  bath  Hulo  to  nj  agalnat  ao  inna^ 
mi.  rlMp.  iij.  \.  6S. 
H«i.    sj. 

(HIM.  IW.  I.  >.  171-)  0»- 
WW  fabUiUd  U  book  OT  Um 

ilvMwia  1551] 


of  Briiain, 


and  clear  decisions  of  the  universities;  only  he  tells  a.  d.  1530. 

22  Henry 

US,  that  all  the  king's  agents  had  not  equal  success    viii. 
in   their  negotiations  :    and  particularly  that  one  other  uni- 
Hutton,  the  king's  instrument  herein,   could   not^*™***" 
boMT  those  of  Hamborough  and  Lubeck  to  express 
themselves  against  the  marriage.     But  surely  these 
two  places  were  only  gymnasia,  for  I  find  them  not 
mentioned  amongst  the  Dutch  universities.     Also 
he  saith  that  Richard  Croke,  another  of  the  king's 
emissaries,  prevailed  nothing  on  many  German  pro- 
fessors^, and  particularly  he  praiseth  the  university 
of  Cologne,  for  their  recusancy  therein.    As  for  such 
who  subscribed  on  the  king's  side,  he  pretends  that 
bribes  bought  their  judgments^;    as    if   our  king 
Henry  had  learnt  from  king  Solomon,  that  money 
recompenseth  all  things^.     The  best  is,  the  cleanly 

▼  [They  were  first  to  pro- 
ceed to  the  emperor  to  satisfy 
him  with  reference  to  the  di- 
vorce,  and  if  possible  to  obtain 
his  acquiescence.  Their  in- 
structions have  been  transcrib- 
ed for  the  new  edition  of  the 
Foedera^  by  the  Record  Com- 
mission, and  an  abstract  of 
them  is  in  the  Chion.  Cat.  of 
the  materials  transcribed  for 
that  work,  p.  168.] 

^  [In  Germany,  Spain,  and 
Flanders  the  emperor's  au- 
thority was  very  great,  and 
therefore  men  were  prevented 
from  declaring  their  opinions. 
Nor  does  it  appear  that  the 
king  made  any  attempt  to  ob- 
tain them.  (See  Hall  s  Chron. 
fol.  p.  195,  b.)  This  is  clear 
from  what  happened  to  Corne- 
lius Agrippa,  who  having  been 
satisfied  by  Cranmer  of  the 
goodness  of  the  king's  cause, 
and  giving  out  that  t£e  matter 

was  indisputable,  was  very 
harshly  used  by  the  emperor, 
and  died  in  prison.  (See  Bur- 
net's Ref.  I.  p.  191.)  That  the 
judgments  of  these  foreigners 
were  bought  by  bribes  is  clearly 
refuted  by  Burnet,  (Hist,  of 
Ref.I.  p.  175.  177.  180);  parti- 
cularly by  the  extracts  from 
Croke's  Letters,  who  protests 
that  "he  never  gave  or  pro- 
"  mised  any  divine  any  thing 
"  till  he  had  first  freely  written 
"  his  mind,  and  that  what  he 
"  then  gave  was  rather  an 
''  honourable  present  than  a 
•'  reward."  What  these  re- 
wards were  may  be  seen  in  his 
bill  of  accounts,  published  by 
the  same  writer,  p.  181.  The 
highest  sum  was  twenty  crowns 
given  to  John  Marino,  min- 
ister of  the  Franciscans,  ''  who 

wrote  a  book  for  the  king's 


X  Eccles.  X.  19. 




Thr  Ckurrh  Hut'oy 

>.  hands  or  tbc  court  of  ItotiiL'  had  ncrrr,  no  doubt,  siiT 
bribes  taking  to  tlioir  fair  fin^'nu  l^t  tbonitti  that 
Eiiglbili  Migeb  Qow  ov<t  to  forfij^  uiiiTpnntie*,  jrt 
there  licth  a  rral  difltinctinu  bftwixt  a  bribe  and  a 
boon,  fm>ly  t>est«wc^,  not  to  bow  and  bjaa  tlwir 
opinionK:  but  to  ^rnlify  their  |«iiui,  and  icnmneiato 
their  indiiirtr)*.  in  studjinji  of  tho  poinU 

SS.  Ab  fur  nur  ICnjrtiiJi  amliatwaiton  at  Rame, 
finrtinfr  thvinwlviti  only  foil  with  dflavs,  no  wntidpr 
if  tliey  wen>  nharp  »rt  to  return  homr.  AH  ramr 
bark  npain  aavi-  Dr.  CrantniT,  who  look  a  journey  to 
iht'  tiniK'nirV  oiurt  in  Vienna'.  Here  he  grew 
scijujLinlcil  with  ConiolUu  A|*rip{)o.  who  had  writlm 
a  book  of  iht-  Vaiiily  of  Sdcoccs,  bavii^  much  of 
thi'  wienren,  but  more  of  the  vani^  in  hJl— ilf. 
Here  alwi  he  eonvenH-i)  with  many  frmU  dJTlae^ 
and  mtMiod  some  of  them  out  of  nrripture  and 
nmon,  whieh  fnrmerly  were  unn-wdwd  in  thu  on* 
UwfutnvMH  of  the  king's  mnninpe. 
■■  S3.  A  [mrlinment  wnn  now  mllott.  w)H.>rfin  ibr 
^clerjry  were  found  jfiiihy  of  a  prtmttiHire*,  tieouno 
''  they  hod  Ion  mui*h  premotiHl  the  injMil  iiitert<«t,  and 
acted  by  virtue  of  bin  jxiwer  to  the  dnniago  aMi 
detriment  of  the  cn>wn  of  EnfHond ;  wbemi|iaii. 
U'ing  wiUinji  to  retleem  their  whtde  estates  lur- 
feite<l  by  law,  they  were  glad  to  rnmmute  it  into  a 
mm  of  money :  the  riergy  of  tlic  jinmnre  of  Cte- 
terbury  oloitc  beatowofl  on  the  king  one  hundml 
tbountid  pouixlft ;  to  be  |Aid  by  eijuat  portiou*  la  Ifaa 
MUne  year,  my  Home,  in  four  yean  ny  otb«n^  aad 
that  In  my  opinion  with  more  pnitmbility*. 

({BarMt'tlW.  1.  j>.igi.]  Cnnmll-     Sve  Trtlfr'a  Uta. 

■fOriW  Ml«r«  of  a  BTw.  VIII- p.  jo;.  Cart*  III   107.) 

■MJr«.  •••   Bonn.   M.   I.  'IlbrMt.  lUf.   ' 

f.  119.     Tbb  Kt  WM  BMW1I  ■•  Thu  pnt  mim  a 

f-  117- 

CENT.  X¥i.  of  Britain.  65 

24.  But  the  king  would  not  be  so  satisfied  withA.D.  1531. 
the  payment  of  the  money,  except  also  they  would  'ViiT^ 
acknowledge  him  to  be  Supreme  head  of  the  church.  Acknow. 
This  was  hard  meat,  and  would   not  easily  down}^^ 
amongst  them ;  however,  being  thoroughly  debated  ptT*  ^'^^ 
in  a  synodical  way,  both  in  the  upper  and  lower  <*»«*• 
houses  of  couYOcation,  they  did  in  fine  agree  on  this 
expression,   cujus   [ecdesiee  Anglicafue]    singularem 
protedorem,  unicum  et  supremum  Dominum,  et  quan^ 

turn  per  Christi  legem  licet^  etiam  supremum  captd 
ipstusy  majestatem  recognoscimus. 

25.  This  thus  consented  imto,  and  subscribed  by  Confirmed 
the  hands  of  the  clergy,  (as  appears  at  large  in  the  pLuament. 
records  and  acts  of  the  convocation,)  and  so  pre- 
sented to  the  king  in  the  name  of  his  clergy,  was 
afterwards   confirmed   by  parliament,  and   incorpo- 
rated into  a  solemn  act  for  the  ratification  thereof. 

26.  During  these  transactions,  William  Warham,  a.  11.1531. 
archbishop  of  Canterbury,  ended  his  life.     A  politic  The  death 
person,  well  learned  in  the  laws,  generally  reputed  a  ^ jiop ' 
moderate  man,  though  (specially  towards  his  latter  ^^*'**°*' 
end)  a  still  and  silent  persecutor  of  poor  Christians. 

He  was  first  parson  of  Barly  in  Hertfordshire,  (as 
appears  by  an  inscription  in  that  church,)  then  rising 
by  degrees  to  great  preferment^.  In  his  will  he 
requested  his  successor  not  to  sue  his  executors  for 
dilapidations^  as  having  expended  some  thousands 

"  be  paid  in  one  year,  nor  in  18,840/.,   and  were  also   par- 

"  four  years  neither,  but  to  be  doned.      Burnet,     Ref.    I.    p. 

'^  paid  by  equal  portions,  that  228.  Wilkins'Concil.iii.  745] 

"  is   to   say,  by   20,000/.  per  ^  Weever's  Funeral  Monu- 

"  annum  in  the  five  years  fol-  ments,  [p.  547.] 

•  *  lowing."  Heylyn  in  the  Ap-  ^  [Parker's    Antiq.   Brit.  p. 

peal^  &c.  part  11.  p.  59.     The  488.] 
province     of      York     offered 



OS  Tht  Umrch  tlittmry  book  v. 

of  poaixli  in  rpfNuriiiff  hb  ■eveMl  pftlico*'.  We 
Twify  beUere  bU  requMt  mn  gianted.  miag  Oan- 
nier  «■>  Ave  (rom  dl  encting  in  that  fcind.  SMf 
MMnte,  John  Stoknijr,  buhop  of  London,  «h  pi** 
riiieat  in  the  eflnntntion. 

S7.  MMMngen  mre  nettt  into  Genawijr  Ibr  Hkmbm 
Cnouner,  to  find  him  oat,  ind  fetch  him  home  «Mi 
kU  poMibIc  ipoed,  the  ordiUifaoprie  of  Guilorbaij 
wniCimr  bin  wvofitanrv  thcmif*.  The  post  iMiily 
dedl  the  fint.  btit  CrnnnuT  |imlnn);r<l  lii*  journey  by 
Mven  weolu'  at  tbt>  leut,  boputjr  that  in  tbe  aieao- 
tlno  the  kinf  mli^fat  forgvC  him,  and  confer  the 
place  on  another,  being  nally  nnwilling  to  emhtnee 
the  fwfenncnt,  havinj;  a/iifmitt  intm*.  "  wtoetliiDft 
**  within  him"  which  reliit-tnti'il  afnURst  tlnwe  loper- 
■titions  throu^h  whirh  bo  must  wndi-  in  the  way 
thereunto,  fliit  there  lietb  no  meto  tfiMcopari  i 
lung  llmrj  hi*  mfo  te  tpi»eopmm  one;  it  I 
mortal  to  rL'fuM-  fiiToura  from  him.  •■  to  offer  ii 
lo  him.     Cranm(>r  tlHTefore  nnw  come  home,  s 

'  [He  WM  hont  at  %  n. 
MNtafak  hmStf  «  OIuIt  \m 
RsMiUrf.  ud  adacaM  la 
WlnAwlw  MkooL  la  1475 
ha  waa  adahiad  Mv  of  Nvw 

of  tha  arehM,  and  afkarmrdi 
■  iiiiialiiitatfcaactoalofdrii 
law  at  OxJM.  la  149)  W 
wm  mtiitmamm  «f  tW  rolk. 
and  BMt  taar  want  aa  MabM> 
^ar  «mC  rir  Mwatd  Ton- 
k^  to  tfca  dafca  af  Bw^y. 
faMaftlac  Jn^Ua  waroadi. 
la  I  joi  ha  *ai  alKtad  Udkap 

la>d  dMSfcUpf,  a 

w  laidi  aiiAlilAiia  af fl 
\mrj.  UaMdt^MM 
tj.d(fct  jaan.  aad  1 
poor.  AnftiM  11,  ijji. 
waaa  my  ^igmm.  laaniad,  aad 
BMMlafala  OMB ;  a  gr«M  Maid  la 
d>anCobt,BB  iwirrfal  mbhi 
ofBraHH^aad  afciiaiwrf 
ad  wIm  ifciwii  aay  iigaa  af 
piM*  or  Iwalait.  te  WaaA 
AtlMW.  I.  p.  «61.  BomA 
Bcfana.  L  p.  ijft.  Oaisla. 
!!•  ftwal  p.  1)6.  BmhI 
Bpfai.  ^  149*.  Md  mpmUIf 

•  [Bomel.  IW.  I.  p.  a<L] 
f   ros.    Acta    mU    Mm- 
Nrala.p.i7oj.  [iii.M*-] 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  61 

in  his  own  defence  be  archbishop;  who,  to  serve  the  a.  d.  1531. 
king,  and  salve  his  own  conscience,  used  the  expe-  ^\iii7 
dient  of  a  protestation,  whereof  hereafter. 

28.  The  philosopher  gives  us  this  note  of  direction,  a  prepar 
whereby  to  find  out  a  virtue,  viz.  that  it  is  accused  craiimCT's 
by  both  extremes.     Thus  liberality  is   charged  by}^^^®" 
prodigals  to  be  covetousness,  by  covetous  men  to  be 
prodigality.     By  the  same  proportion  Cranmer  ap- 
pears a  worthy  prelate,  taxed  by  papists  to  be  an 
heretic,  by  others  (no  papists)  as  guilty  of  super- 
stition.    We  will  endeavour  his  just  defence,  con- 
ceiving   the    protestants'    cause    much    concerned 
therein,  the  legality  of  his  consecration  having  an 
influence  on  all  the  bishops  made  by  him,  that  of  the 
bishops  making  an  impression  on  the  priests  and 
deacons  by  them  ordained,  and  their  rightful  ordi- 
nation, deriving  validity  to  the  sacraments  by  them 
administered   to   all   the   members   of  the   church 

of  England. 

29.  A  papist  objects,  7ion  fait  consecratus  ah  vUo  Cnuimer 
episcapOf  sed  a  solo  rege  intrusus,  "  that  he  was  con-  ^^Ilaaaited. 
**  secrated  by  no  bishop,  but  thrust  in  by  the  king 

"  alone  fif."     The  falseness  whereof  doth  appear  on 
public  record,  still  to  be  seen  in  the  register,  being 
solemnly  consecrated  by  John  Lincoln,  John  Exeter,  a  d.  i  533, 
Henry  St.  Asaph  »^.     And  none  that  pretendeth  to  ^"^^^o. 
skill  in  canon  law  can  deny  the  number  insufiicient 
for  such  a  performance. 

30.  Another  urgeth  him  uncapable  of  a  bishopric.  His  double 
as  debarred  by  bigamy,  even  by  the  censure  of  the  H^toJ^to 
apostle.  Let  a  bishop  be  the  husband  of  one  tf7//J?^,  *"""• 

9  Becan.  contro.  Angl.  c.  4.     [John  Longland,  John  Voysey, 
q.  9.  n.  6.  Henry  Standish.] 

^    Regist.     Cranm.    fol.    5.         '  i  Tim.  iii.  2. 

F  2 

OS  TV  CAiirrA  Bhton/  •ooi  v. 

t-Craiuner  bcfng  mocMriTdy  twjce  nmiT4i*d.  It  k 
Aniwen*d,  meh  niconwiTo  mftmafTP  i*  n^i  hljnunir : 

~tbe  aportle  onlT  fitrliidilirifr  tbo  harinfr  »^  many 
wivra  at  onnr,  (n  fault  riuliioiiatilc  amonjgrrt  the  Jcwi, 
then  and  many  ymn  aflor,  hj  ihc  toxtintony  of 
Juitbi  Martjrr^)  and  the  aune  ia  ao  oxponnded  w3ma 
hf  8.  Hierom.  prtKtpU  vryo  taeirdole$  mt  MSfdbf 
mw  tempore  lumvi  AoAmnf '. 

31.  Bat  jrrmiit  Cranmpr  i^tlty  bat  of  one  wifc  at 

,  oDn>,  t'ven  that  mado  hint  (ofi  hU  advenariea  RJofai) 

'  unrnpablo  of  tho  ai¥libi»tio)triF,  berauM  prohibited 
by  th<'  ranotiH.  T<>  which  wp  annrpr.  that  Hptri- 
dioD",  St  HiUuT".  iirvporr  Nazisnxcn",  and  many 
other  bisbops,  emiii«>nt  for  leoniinfT  and  Mnrtity  in 
tho  primitive  timcK,  air  rotifoMMMl  married  meo  fagr 
tulht^tir  authors,  in  the  brat  ttmm  arcmmtod  no 
bar  to  their  L>|itM:^i|ial  function.  Vva,  the  RomaidMa 
an*  cnncMiKnl  to  allow  Crannu'r  a  lawful  airli 
becniiw*  nitdw-inif  viich  an  wen*  c«HiM<rmtt>d  br  bi^ 
a«  Tliitman  Tliyrlbr.  hi«hr>p  of  Kk,  Anthuny  Kitchin. 
bUhnp  nf  Ijmdafl^  for  lawful  liud)o|w,  to  wt 
eottkl  not  derlTe  any  ftrdeti,  if  not  logallj  i 
tbenin  hintielf. 

99,   Put  wc  now  to   nich    cxr^ptioM  wl 
modem    writer'   (xmUouk    affainrt    i>o|)erT>    takalh 

,  agaltwt  him,  beit^  no  fcwi*r  than  nine,  la  if  W 
intended  what  th<7  want  in  weight  to  maice  op  in 
number.     I.  "  Tttat  he  look  the  like  oath  to  (be  MM 

k  In    lUaL  COB    [TrypbMi. 
♦-  •4-  1 


-w  iifaa.  fed.  r. 

II.  [Bal  OMlonkUdl/  aunmA 
diMMWiMHaaid    M    «  mttf 

pvW    fai    tiw    Urt^    at    tW 

tbmA.     Sm  Orf^  I.  wwlm. 
V.  A.  ».  RvMa.  GhM  O. 

r  Will.  Pmn*  i*  kk  Aab. 
ftthj  pf  r»4»y  ti 
p.  131. 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  69 

^  Ba  his  predecessors  had  done,  and  therefore  was  a.  d.  1535. 
**  deeply  charged  of  perjury  by  Martin  (a  papist).*'         viii. 

38.  I  answer,  he  toolc  not  the  like  oath.  His 
predecessors  took  it  absolutely  and  simply.  Not  so 
Cranmer.  Not  that  he  was  guilty  of  any  clan- 
destine equivocation  or  mental  reservation  therein, 
but  publicly  entered  a  solemn  protestation,  remaining 
on  record  in  his  office  in  manner  and  form  following: 

"  In  Dei  nomine  amen.  Coram  vobis  &c.  non  est,  The  copy 
**  nee  erit  meae  voluntatis  aut  intentionis  per  hujus-teMationr 
**  modi  juramentum  vel  juramenta,  qualitercumque 
"  verba  in  ipsis  posita  sonare  videbuntur,  me  obligare 
^*  ad  aliquod  ratione  eorundem,  posthac  dicendum, 
^^  faciendum,  aut  attentandum,  quod  erit,  aut  esse 
"  videbitur  contra  legem  Dei,  vel  contra  illustrissi- 
mum  regem  nostrum  Anglise,  aut  rempublicam 
hujus  sui  regni  Anglia),  legesve  aut  pra^rogativas 
"  ejusdem.  Et  quod  non  intendo  per  hujusmodi  jura- 
mentum vel  juramenta  quovis  modo  me  obligare, 
quominus  libere  loqui,  consulere  et  consentire 
valeam,  in  omnibus  et  singulis  reformationem  reli- 
gionis  Christianae,  gubemationem  ecclesiae  Angli- 
canae,  ac  praerogativam  coronae  ejusdem  reipublicae- 
ve  commoditatem,  quoquomodo  concementibus,  et 
ea  ubique  exequi  et  reformare,  quae  mihi  in  ecclesia 
Anglicana  reformanda  videbuntur.  Et  secundum 
"  banc  interpretationem  et  intellectum  himc,  et  non 
alitor,  neque  alio  modo  dictum  juramentum  me 
praestiturum  protestor  et  profiteer.  &c."  ^ 

This  protestation  he  did  not  privately  smother  in 

<l  Ex  Regist.  Cranmer.  fol.  4.     and  in  -Strype's  Cranmer,  Ap. 
[This  protestation   is   printed     No.  5.] 
in  full,  in  Godwin,  p.  139.  n., 


ID  Tht  Ckmrtk  History  ■ooi  v. 

A-iKifu-ft  oortwr,  bat  pobtieljr  intoqioied  H  Uuce  •mnl 

'ViiT'  timet;  Tb.  ooce  in  the  duytor-JioiMe,  btjan  ■alhanrtp 

wittivMiw ;  Again,  on  hb  battdiKl  knee*  tt  tht  U|^ 

■JUr,  tntoy  people  mnd  bishops  bfholdin^  him  wh«i 

hu  wu  to  be  oonaoented ;  vwl  the  third  time,  wbas 

he  rseelTsd  hb  paU  in  the  sune  pUct* . 

HttCMrfl        S4.  Beooadly,  be  aoenaDth  hhn  for  hnriiiff  a  hand 

^■fi.      in  the  condimnaUon  and  oxccutimi  ot  Uunhert, 

Frith,  ui')  otbrr  k*>cIIv  murtTni.    TbU  in«k<*-d  canaoC 

be  dcnlttl.     For  thouf;!i  I  ani  Umth  that  Cnnmcr's 

bi«d  f^ould  (Ht  tbp  wci}(ht  and  violence  of  hb  < 

lew  dE^mptnn)  he  plurkci]   andor  water,  i 

was  innoM'nt,  I  will  lf«ve  him  to  nnk  or  i 

himxplf  where  he  wa«  guilty ;  only  adding,  Jn  i 

A'l'm        3d.  Hb  thini  aoeaHOion,  "  he  wu  the  i 

ikivtMi.  "hi  aeromptiihing  the  divnire  bt^tween  I 

"  Kghth  and   quron    Katharine,    which 

"  murli   tpiuhle,   dimriisitin,  war*."     But  1 

tutvc  n>nK-titbt-n'<l.  vrbii-b  oliio  |»roduced  the  | 

priiKN-w   qiioen    F.liitab<<th,   who   fieHerted 

formation,  and  br  her  long  )iPorcabIe  and  virterinvs 

rei^  brought  much  honour,  wenllb.  and  renown  to 

our  nation.     Beridm,  that  divorrv  b  genenllj  d^ 

feoded  by  protectant  writers,  wheae  jndgninrts  Ifab 

aecoier  will  rely  on  when  it  makes  for  hb  porpoM. 

AnMs         96.  Fourth  ammtinn.  the  Uncoliuhirr  lebeb,  hi 

^         their  six  artleWn  of  lhi*ir   grifTanor*   }»mienl««l  to 

king  Henry  the  Eighth,  complain,  that   thb  areb- 

hUHifi,  and   other  pt^ale*  of  hu  ji^ace'ii  late  pn>< 

motioB,  bad  "sabTcrted  the-  faith  of  Cbriat,  Ace*.' 

"j^^         S7.  I  answer,  they  ytvn-  the   Lincolnshinr  rebcb 

^^  o^   that  MUfI  it.  and  Ihb  their  pn-ttiHkU  rabviftinf  of 

•  PrjaM.  Ik.  f.  ijs.  <  Mr  Vtjum».  (L 

CEKT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  71 

the  faith  was  the  reforming  and  confirming  thereof,  a.d.  1533. 
Cranmer  serving  the  God  of  his  fathers  in  that  way  *V^ii7 
which  they  termed  heresy.     Well  therefore  might 
this  cavil  have  been  waved,  good  only  to  swell  the 

88.  Fifth  cavil,  though  Matthew  Parker  reports,  Tha  grand 
as  this  delator  confesses,  ^Hhat  Cranmer  opposed 
^^  this  act  [of  the  six  articles]  at  first,  then  caused  it 
^^  to  be  moderated,  and  at  last  to  be  repealed  in  king 
"  Edward's  days,  but  others  seem  to  imply  that  he 
"  gave  consent  thereto  at  first  ^." 

39-  To  this  I  answer  three  things :  first,  to  imply  Answered, 
is  far  less  than  to  express,  and  such  implications  are 
often  the  bare  surmises  of  a  biassed  apprehension. 
Secondly,  to  seem  to  imply  is  less  than  to  imply, 
muUa  videntur  qtUB  non  sunt.  Thirdly,  the  others  by 
him  mentioned  ought  to  have  been  nommated,  this 
author  generally  giving  no  scant  measure  in  such 
wares;  so  that  his  margin  (commonly  overthronged) 
is  here  quite  empty  of  quotations.  Inopem  nunc 
copia  fecit.  We  may  assure  ourselves  he  would 
have  alleged  such  other  authors,  but  for  several  sub- 
stantial reasons,  whereof  this  was  one,  because  he 
had  none  to  allege.  And  shall  an  uncertain,  un- 
named nobody,  be  believed  against  Cranmer,  before 
Air.  Fox  and  Dr.  Parker's  clear  testimonies  in  his 

40.  Seventh  cavil.     "  lie  suffered  martyrdom,  not  Violent  no 
"  while  he  was  a  bishop,  but  when  degraded  andpriving. 
"  deprived^."     What  of  this  ?  does  this  tend   any 
thing  to  the  disgrace  of  him  or  his  order,  seeing  such 
an  injurious  and  violent  degradation  deprived  him 

▼  Mr.  Prynue,  ib.  p.  133.  ^  [Pryune,  ib.  p.  134.] 

F  4 

I  _ 

7S  Tlta  CtamA  HUloiy  book  *. 

AJfcini.aot  of  hit  cptoeopil  IndoUbfe  elumeter.  to  that  still 

^^nSn^  bi  ri^  Ih)  penalneil  a  bbhop! 

^1^,^        M.  Eiglith  cavil.     "IIo  fiiUcd  mnrv  in  lib  nnr> 

]jj[|*''  "  tjnlotti.  I>y  fcaM>ii  of  liw  cowiuxlly  nwaotatiaii, 
**  tlimuj^  ho|>efi  <if  life,  attd  rt>stitutioii  to  hii  fomer 
**  dignity,  than  any  nf  hia  fvllow>inart}rn'."  Atmrer. 
it  ia  eoajsMed :  Imt  hu  final  cooaUuie;  maj  wuU 
eoTH  hia  IntermedMlt?  failitipt.  Bettor  it  ia  Motif 
mod  (rariyif  to  boar  in  our  bodj-  tho  maricii  of  our 
Lord  Jeatu,  than  ttoutlr  and  ktulibarnly  to  endim 
the  bfmndi  of  our  own  iiuliacreik»i. 

4S.  Laiit  caril.  Ha  ma  eotideauied  for  1^ 
treaaoo,  for  an  act  dmw  bjr  Un  aa  aa  arcfabfaAofi^ 
and  eottneillor  of  ttate.  for  vbirh  be  prvfeMeth  both 
Ui  aomiw  and  iv]M-'iitatiri'  f.  \y\t\  \w  m  XnAxvA,  hj 
the  mnfeirioD  of  this  his  nlvenory?  Tbr  mora  un- 
wortbj  nun  hia  amiMT,  aftt'r  this  his  >ormw  and 
repmtanoe  to  upbraid  him  thcn-w-ith.  Mr.  Vrffk 
mi;iht  aho  n>tni*nibcr  that  tbc  two  Innl  ehicf  joa- 
tit-fii  wt-re  ill  tbc  Minii>  ttvawii,  (whiMu  vdnoatioa 
madf  tlitta  man*  known  in  lliv  law*  i>f  tbe  land.)  and 
ow  Cnuinwr  waa  laat  and  ]aM.  in  the  fiiult.  it  boiiif 
loBf  befere  ba  could  be  pcfmailofl  u>  nbMzibe  I* 
tbr  diiinhpfiting  ot  qocvn  Marr. 

43.  \V<'  ap|>ral  to  ibi'  un[iaitiaJ  irailrr,  upon  tbe 
pi>nwU  of  ibv  iinmiiiM.  wlii-thfr  an  trrdinaij  rharitj 
might  not.  jt%  r*ught  not  to  haw  [MMed  hy  thwo  aiv 
cuMtiona,  and  whether  the  memory  of  arehbadMf 
Cranmer  may  not  juMly  my  of  Kf  r.  Prynnr,  a*  □ 
king  of  Isnel*  of  tlir  kinfc  nt  Syria,  vhrrrfm 
tUer  /  /w^  ,!">*.  ntui  hv  krnt  Ar  tftkrlA  a  ^ 
agahut  m0^  Indcrd  no  jfmit  i»  hb  antipathy  ■ 
eptaeafMrT.  that  if  a  wraphim  himM'lf  tfa<Mild  be  a 
»  [fryww.  ik.  p.  134-]       '  P'y*'*.  '^  '34         '  '  Km»i. 


of  Britain. 


bishop,  he  would  either  find  or  make  Bome  sick  fea-A.D.1533. 
thers  in  his  wings.  ^\m7 

4i4i.  Cranmer  was  now  settled  in  his  archbishopric,  cranmer 
and  the  first  eminent  act  of  his  oflSce  was  exercised  ^"*^ 
in  the  king's  divorce*.     A  court  is  called  in  the"®"'^- 
priory  of  Dunstable  in  Bedfordshire,  as  a  favourable 
place,  indifferently  distanced,  but  five  miles  from 
Ampthill^  where  queen  Katharine  resided.     With 
Cranmer  were  the  bishops  of  London,  Winchester, 
Bath,  and  Lincoln*^,  with  many  other  great  prelates. 
These  summoned  queen  Katharine  to  appear  before 
them,  fiill  fifteen  days  together,  on  whose  refusal 
they  not  only  adjudged  her  contumacious,  but  also 

•  QApril  II,  1533,  the  arch- 
bishop wrote  to  the  king  re- 
qnestiiig  '•  liberty  to  proceed  to 
*'  the  examination  and  final  de- 
"  termination  and  judgment  in 
*'  the  said  great  cause."  (Works, 
I.  p.  22.)  The  king's  answer 
to  this  letter  (State  Papers, 
i.  392.  Collier,  II.  Ap.  N.  24.) 
appears  to  have  been  sent 
shortly  after,  but  no  date  is 
affixed  to  it,  in  which  he  as- 
sents to  his  request.  On  the 
8th  of  May  the  archbishop  pro. 
ceeded  to  Dunstable  (Works, 
I.  38),  "  and  so  there  at  our 
"  coming"  (to  use  his  own 
words)  "  kept  a  court  for  the 
**  appearance  of  the  said  lady 
"  Kateren,  where  we  examined 
"  certain  witnesses  which  tes- 
'*  tified  that  she  was  lawfully 
**  cited  and  called  to  appear, 
"  whom  for  fault  of  appear- 
"  ance  was  declared  contumax;'' 
(that  is  on  Saturday  May 
10,)  and  finally  on  the  12th, 
(Works,  I.  23)  **  proceeding  in 
*^  the   said  cause   against  her 

"  in  poenam  contumacia,  as  the 
*'  process  of  the  law  thereunto 
"  belongeth,  which  continued 
"  fifteen  days  after  our  coming 
"  thither.  And  the  morrow 
*'  after  ascension  day  [May 
"  23rd]  I  gave  final  sentence." 
The  cause  terminated  May  1 7 
(Saturday),  but  sentence  could 
not  be  given  until  the  Friday 
following  (May  23),  all  the  in- 
tervening days  being  ferial. 
(Works,  I.  24.)] 

^  '^  [Within  four  miles  unto 
*'  Amptill,"  says  Cranmer  in 
his  letter  to  Hawkyns,  Works, 
1. 28.  But  of  the  bishops 
who  presided  with  him  in  the 
trial  he  only  specifies  Long- 
land  bishop  of  Lincoln,  and 
Gardyner  bishop  of  Winton. 
See  also  in  the  same  letter  an 
account  of  the  coronation  of 
queen  Anne.  Fuller  follows 
Hall's  Chron.  Hen.  VIII. 
p.  2  T  o.  b.,  and  lord  Herbert,  in 
his  Hen.  VIII.  375. 

^  Gardiner,  Stokesley,  Clerk, 
and  Longland. 


74  TAf  OkmrrA  Hutarf 

A.l)i.iui.pRmouncc<l  her  malrh  with  the  kinfc  m  null  and 
Vlll.  anbiwfiil  hx  aoriiitim*:  uiil  stxin  aftvr  it  wiu  pnv 
ohitDod,  that  lipttct'fnrwanl  none  aIhiuM  oUl  lit^ 
yMMK.  but«  th«  dawagrr  »f  prinr-c  Arthur.  And  thiu 
•  few  diys  had  di^Mtrhcd  that  divorrr.  which  had 
depended  manr  yvam  in  thi*  court  of  Uome. 
45-  And  now  I  cannot  ntll  kinff  (lunr^a 
Iwcanau  onn>  mArrii>il ;  nor  a  marritHl  man, 
having  oo  wife :  nor  pnitNTlv  a  widftwcr.  Imysimo  hia 
vUb  waa  not  diwl.  IU>  lit>  llii-rffon.'  a  linf^  or 
nUier  a  •eparatt'd  puraon,  rfniaininfr  ao  <jf  at  all)  but 
a  Trnr  ilujrt  time.  »  ioon  after  aoknnnl^  married  to 
tbo  lail^  Anna  Bolt-rn,  of  whom  tarjtvljr  hcrvafter*. 
TWtail^  46.  Now  Uyan  ^Jiulbt•th  Barton  to  pbr  b«T 
wwJiS.tridM,  emnnuHilv  ralkt]  the  holr  maid  of  Kent, 
Bh^  tbooftti  at  thudaj,  tif  Ki-tit,  atone  i«  It^ft  unto  her,  aa 
wlKwe  maidouhip  ia  Tehi^im'ntly  nupct^'d,  and  bo- 
Uw!«  utterly  dcniod;  iJit*  wa«  famous  on  a  donbla 
omiunt'.  MrMt,  for  kn<iwin;r  fprnHs  paat.  and  in- 
dcwl  tthi*  ciMiUl  toll  iinr  thiup  wliich  waa  told  bcr; 
ronrcninj;  with  frian  her  fiuni)iar«.  and  otbur  Calka 
coafeMom,  who  rfvivli-fl  iiianv  priranM  untA  ber. 
Srrtmdlr.  ahf  waa  eminent  for  foret^ling  thinn*  la 
romr.  bu<I  mine  of  her  |in-<lirti<>n<i  hit  in  the  marlE. 
prorurtKl  to  the  reiit  the  n-|intntifin  of  [tntphrry  with 
en-dulou*    |MNj|i|u.      She    fnrvtold    that    kiu)>    llrarf 

•ITWUiVwwaianMiiri-  fr— iW  kiiy  tc  hdy r  tl  1 1  . 

ntaljr  to  Ahm  BolffTB  alUr  4M«d  "  QnwmwiA.  Afril  ft, 

lii*  mm  from   Pruw*.  Nov.  "  {,(<>))'  ^  iImwU  m  igs> 

■  4.  isjj.tllalI'vChrBn.  r.10)).  rr^akiaf  W  MlMdaaaaaailM 

h.hmJmm.tS'*SM--»«'^H  comNMtHB  of  Uw  ^OMai.  m4U| 

b>(»»^.p.$6i.  TlN41*<m»n  i.  to  fe  aalW  fc«K  W  PmIv 

<HMlndMlM«r  n.  Mta  Aim  cut  Mlowtiv  Umy  t4.tte  I^ 

»w    imnwd   Jmm    i.      Hm  iW  Krri  tioM-.] 

TkoMwipto   fur  Uw   Podm.  rfBanvft.   R«r.    1.   f.  y»u 

f.  111.  wImh  k  a  wanaM  IUrtCfcna.[.  ii(l,bsi9ih.] 


of  Britain. 


should  not  be  king  a  fall  twelvemonths^,  except  he  a. d.  1533. 
reassumed  queen  Katharine  to  be  his  wife.  Viii. 

47.  I  am  heartily  sorry  that  the  gravity  of  John  Fisher  and 
Fidier,  bishop  of  Rochester,  should  be  so  light,  and  f J|5ed  ^ 
the  sharp  sight  of  sir  Thomas  More  so  blind  ^  as  to  ^®'  ^orge*7- 
give   credit    to   so   notorious   an   impostrix,  which 
phinged  them  both  into  the  king's  deep  displeasure. 

As  for  Elizabeth  Barton,  soon  after,  she  was  exe- 
cuted^  with  many  of  her  complices  and  complotters. 
The  papists  at  this  day,  unable  to  defend  her  forgery, 
and  unwilling  to  confess  her  cheating,  seek  to  salve 
all  by  pleading  her  to  be  distracted.  Thus,  if  suc- 
ceeding she  had  been  praised  (and  perchance  canon- 
ized) for  her  devotion ;  now  failing,  she  must  be  par- 
doned and  pitied  for  her  distraction. 

48.  We  may  remember,  how,  not  long  since,  the  Bjahop 
clergy  did  own,  and  recognise  king  Henry  the  Eighth  pnaoned  for 
for  supreme  head  of  the  church,  which  was  clearly  the"oath  of 
carried  by  a  plurality  of  voices  in  the  convocation  ^.  ""prero^r- 
John  Fisher,  bishop  of  Rochester,  was  the  only  emi- 
nent clergyman  who  openly  opposed  it.     One  ob- 
noxious  to   the  king's  displeasure  on   a   threefdld 
account ;  first,  for  engaging  so  zealously  (above  the 
earnestness  of  an  advocate)  against  the  king's  divorce^; 

%  [A  month  longer,  says 
Burnet,  p.  3  06^  following  Hall, 
Chron.  f.  22,  a.] 

^  [It  does  not  appear  that 
sir  T.  More  was  deceived  by 
her  claims  to  inspiration^ 
though  he  had  a  great  opinion 
of  her  sanctity.  The  best  ac- 
oount  of  this  extraordinary 
woman  and  of  sir  Thomas 
More's  conduct  will  be  found 
in  a  letter  written  by  him  to 
Cromwell.  See  Roper's  Life  of 
More  (ed.  by  Singer,  1822) 
App.  101.] 

»  [April  21  (1534),  confess- 
ing her  impostures.  Hall,  ib. 
f.  124.  •*vii.  months  after/' 
says  Fisher  to  the  king  in  his 
letter  apologizing  for  his  ac- 
quaintance with  the  nun.  Cot- 
ton MSS.  Cleop.  E.  VI.  162.] 
^  [Burnet,  Ref.  I.  p.  291.] 
1  [Burnet  (Ref.  I.  p.  166.) 
asserts  also  the  same.  In  a 
letter  of  Wolsey  to  Henry 
VIII.  (State  Papers,  vol.  I. 
p.  200.)  Wolsey  details  a  con- 
versation which  he  had  with 
the   bishop    of    Rochester,  to 

A.D.  itii- 

r  A«  Ckmnk  muory 

wrofidlr.  fi>r  UmfPfiinit  with  ttuU  notable  ii 
Utu  holy  maid  of  Koiit;  thfitUy.  Ibr  refiMiBg  the 
fwlti  of  mipnTtnarT,  for  vrbiHi  be  «H  now  faitpri- 
mied.  Indeed  thU  bubop  loet  binwelf  (buth  with 
hk  frienii  and  b»  foM)  hy  his  inromUiiry  ut  the 
fliit.  wehif  ho  who  ■bcmld  hare  beca  m  majvA  m 
the  tower,  wu  ai  wavering  at  the  WBalhweocfc, 
outhpr  0(impl}iog  witb  the  Idng,  nor  tgntiag  wfth 
himvrlf;  Init  would  lutd  would  not  nrknnwlodjrp  the 
Idiijr's  »u|in>inarT.  Hut  u  lut  h<>  fixtil  himM>lf  na 
the  iifgativc,  and  rMMliitvIv  continued  therein  till  the 
day  of  UU  death ;  of  whom  more  hugely  bereafter. 
*"  49-  The  clergT  in  tlip  |>rnvtnce  of  Vorfc  did  alio 
for  a  loog  time  dL-ti;  t\w  kinji's  Mi|imnorr.  Indeed 
the  convoratiori  of  York  lialh  oTcr  lincc  ttrurk 
lalliiM  witb  that  of  Canterbury,  (though  nut  InpUdtlf  > 
wiaiiiinniHljr  poit-coocMtliy  tberawith;  hot 
they  dinnited,  not  beeaoK  mofe  kwnnog  la  Atk 
Judfnnent*,  or  t^iidor  in  tlifir  conirieiKeK. 
rallT  mort'  Mi|Hmtlitiotu,  and  addirtvd  in 
•innuch  that  tliev  wnt  two  letb?m  In  the  king; 
reive  them  writtesi.  one  fton  the  up|M*r.  the  other 
from  the  lower  booM  of  eoavocation.)  wbrtriD  they 
aeqnafaaed  Iw  highw  wfth  their  jodgmenta,  <hriaw 
hdng  many  eifwloiw  of  general  fabauHioa.)  aad 
their  reaaoni  In  a  hige  diacoone.  why  they  eonld  not 
adtnowli>dfto  him  to  be  ■apreroc  bi!ad  of  the  chnrch. 
"Jy.-.f^        50.  GlTe  me  leave  to  nupeet  F>lwmrd  Lor,  arch- 

t   ^MW  "W  Um  twD,— 1m  MMd  iht 

I  Mat  far  mIvIm  "  ■■ttw  m  W  wn  a«i  mm* 

MWrfediMdMd  "  doabtlU.  h4  ite  Ml  4W. 

lMr«fdwlilMiiUiicaeiiii  '  mwam,  ^rnK^  Itm  mam 

•^m^imunamiman^mn^h»  "odMtbaPMMpmlMidAM 

-  wtHm)  m  1  wkmm^  !&■  oT  "  th^    bti^    m      liihilj 

••  jwu  piilwuiiiii  Mdr.  aad  "  omdml.  wd  ^Ml  whlih 

*■  iIm  4amik  of  tha  Uag  jmw  "  m»    MMiy  lUafi   ml^  la 

wti^  in  Atk  J 


CSKT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  77 

bishop  of  York,  for  a  secret  fomenter  of  this  dif-A.D.  1533. 
ference.     He  was  a  virulent  papist,  much  conceited    Vin.*^ 
of  his  own   learning,  (which  made   him  to   write ofYorka 
against  Erasmus,)  and  a  persecutor  of  protestants ;  ™2t' 
witness  John  Bale™,  con  vented  before  him  for  a 
suspicion  of  heresy,  who  in  vain  earnestly  pleaded 
scripture  in  his  own  defence,  till  at  last  he  casually 
made  use  of  a  distinction  out  of  Scotus,  which  the 
archbishop  more  valued,  than  all  which  he  had  be- 
fore more  pertinently  alleged  out  of  the  Old  and 
New  Testament. 

51.  King  Henry  wrote  a  fair  and  large  letter  to  King 
the  convocation  of  York,  too  long  here  to  be  in-ai^^to 
seited,  (though  otherwise  I  have  a  good  copy"  there- ^^^' 
of,)  wherein  the  king  began  mildly  to  make  the 
passage  for  his  supremacy  into  their  consciences,  by 
a  rational  and  argumentative  way.     He  disclaimed 
aU  design  by  fraud  to  surprise,  or  by  force  to  capti- 
vate  their  judgments,  but  only  to  convince  them  of  the 
truth  and  equity  of  what  he  desired.    He  declavered 
the  sense  of  supreme  head  of  the  church®,  (though 
oflfensive  in  the  sound  to  ignorant  ears,)  claiming 
nothing  more  thereby,  than  what  Christian  princes  in 
the  primitive  times  assumed  to  themselves,  in  their 
own  dominions,  so  that  it  seems  he  wrought  so  far  on 
their  affections,  that  at  last  they  consented  thereunto  p. 

B^  De  ScTiptoribus  Brit,  in  It  was  protested  against  both 

£dwardo  Sexto.  by  archbishop  Warham,  and  by 

n  Communicated  unto  me  by  Cuthbert  Tunstall,  one  of  the 

my  good  friend  Dr.  Littleton.  wisest,    most    moderate^    and 

o  It  18  printed  in  the  2nd  part  most   pious  men  of  his  days. 

of  the  Cabala  [i.  227.  ed.  169 1 .]  (See  both  protestations  in  Wil- 

p  [If  Fuller  means  that  the  kins'  Cone.  III.  745.)    When 

opposition  made  by  the  clergy  Wolsey  pleaded  guilty  to  the 

to  this  title  of  supreme  head  charge  of  pramunire  for  exer- 

purely  factious,  or  caused  cising  his  legatine   authority. 

by  the  opposition  of  archbishop     (although  he    had   been  em- 
Lee,  he  is  greatly  mistaken,    powered  by  the  great  seal  to 

TIf  Vhurrh  Hitery  t^  BrUaim.  boom  t. 

LD.  (Ill-     AS-  Here  I  wooder  «t  tlw  cBvil  of  Uw  pa|iiMi, 
~^  vltlrh  being  ao  wiMBltiM^  ibonU  ho  m  ehmonto, 
^  Mvusing  a*  to  have  ■  iMutiameat  religion.  ■  pwliaiBrat 
fiiith.  A  p«riliinicnt  giMpoM ;  wmI  aiHrtlicr  odilvth  par- 
liameut  bbhop*,  anil  a  parltamcmt  clorgr.      WbeiVM 
I  Dxaminatinn  i(  will  ■(■(H-ar.  llial  Uienf 
I  4ooo  in  the  rt*ronniiliuii  »(  n'lifrion.  tKfC 
what  «H  Mtod  by  tbe  rlt-rgy  in  tbi-ir  cHHivtKvUana. 
I  or  gnmndcd  on  noido  mrt  of  thHrn.  iirm<tktit  in  it. 
with  tliu  adTicc,  cunnael,  and  ronscnt  c»f  (be  bislin|w 
8n<l  nKwt  eminent  ehorrluDen :  cmifinnm)  upon  tito 
postfact,  and   not   oUiervlae,  br  ihc  rtril  mnetJon, 
arctmlitijr  to  tbc  nnge  of  tbe  boM  and  ba|ipiott  timea 
of  Cliriatianity. 
I       SS.  Bj  tbe  Muiie  t>n>i)ortioD  in  tbo  daji  of  qneen 
Maij  tbo  popiob  n'ligion  might  faaTf>  been  atjrM  a 
pariiamenl  rvUgion,  Imxwup  afier  tbi<  Hunu  had  bceti 
dclwtod  on  and  rnnrltidvd  of  in  the  rimvocation.  it 
was  confirmed  Irr  tbe  qocen.  loitk,  and  '"^m^fim,  hy 
tbe  met  of  parlianient. 

ds  M,  a   pnten  far   iarnlv.     tW   dllr,   dogpd    wtdl    tlfe 
I  %  tte   Jargj   in    Ito  *   '  -   ' 

*  'noaoa  wm  i 

Hwnr  yiva  !■.  hnuabt  wotJ  oT  dw  iwall  •• 
iCraawdloM-  th>ldH."UaiWWO«i'*(W 
u^*  IW  nam.    vnUMad  ia  kk  I alM 

, —  hf  mtmaem  ni     ww)  -  »  |««t  tdayad  n»  a 

Iftaad  iadaead    th»  tknj  to    "  dtevwd  uua.    I  llmaghi  la 

I  «Kr  toe,ooel.  aa  cottdHtow  of    **  ln?»  aiad*    fealt  «f   Uhw 

Iswoirlag  a  Ml  pwdoa  ;    bat     **  pnlaUk  aad  nam  vaa  ha«a 

HaraatioatW    "  wndrnd  tha  baJaa»dM 

r  oAr.  aalaw     "  iWr  ar«  Blwljr  lo  naka  a 

I  dMj  «n«U     -finlnfaii  ■iTiijfcaTiJMa 

aliaadv.     OatadMai 


Wftet^c/Kaghad.  Tlik 
rtaaaaadoa  «aa  vialndy  «p> 
lanadj  thiaa  da;*  w«r«  ^aal 

wad     "  of  miM 

rUk     "  •fpHn.  I 
op.     "  itaia* 

oaaafvKj  f«  tmmhim§.~     Afa 
;  itf'iMt  lliay  ^r«ra     Tjll*r  ■  Iln  VUI.  a.  3>i  ] 
>  caatpnaaiaa  Uw        4  Hudii«  i«aiaM  Jot^I. 
■adaoawaW  to  iJaih         r  flc«hiiyaB. 

SECT.  in. 





MaHer  Haward  returned  this  answer  to  queen  Mary  {de- 
manding  the  causes  of  his  coming  to  court)^  that  it  was 
partly  to  see  her  highness,  and  partly  that  her  highness 
should  see  him :  an  answer,  which  though  more  witty 
than  court'likcy  yea,  more  blunt  than  witty ,  she  took  in 
good  part. 

You  will  not  be  offended  at  this  my  dedication,  partly  that 

going  to  ficht  for  his  crown  and 
dignity.  And  being  told  that 
it  was  this  Richard  Shuck- 
borough,  he  was  ordered  to  be 
called  to  him,  and  was  by  him 
very  graciously  received.  Upon 
which  he  went  immediately 
home^  armed  all  his  tenants, 
and  the  next  day  attended  the 
king  in  the  field,  where  he  was 
knighted,  and  was  present  at 
the  battle  of  Edgehill.  After 
the  taking  of  Banbury  castle 
he  defended  himself  valiantly 
on  the  top  of  Shuckborough 
hill  which  he  fortified,  but  was 
attacked  by  the  rebels,  most  of 
his  men  slain,  and  himself  left 
for  dead.  But  being  found 
still  alive,  he  was  carried  pri- 
soner to  Kenilworth  castle. 
He  died  June  13,  1656.  See 
Dugdale's  Warw.  p.  309.] 

*  fArms:  Sable,  a  chevron 
engrailed,  between  three  mul- 
lets argent ;  according  to  a 
visitation  taken  in  16 19  by 
Sampson  Lennard,  Bluemantle 
and  Angustine  Vincent,  Rouge 
Rote»  preserved  in  the  British 
Maaemn.  Sir  Richard  Shuck- 
baron^  was  the  second  sou  of 
Jolm  Shuckborough,  esq.  and 
Mamret  daughter  of  Richard 
Ifidmnore,  of  Edgebaston  in 
tbe  county  of  Warwick,  esq. 
SBOoeeded  his  father  in  1631. 
Aa  king  Charles  I.  marched  to 
EdgooC  near  Banbury  on  Oct. 
22,  1642,  he  saw  him  hunting 
m  the  fields  not  far  from  Shuck- 
bofon^,  with  a  very  good  pack 
of  honnda,  upon  which  it  is  re- 
ported that  he  fetched  a  deep 
m^,  and  asked  who  that  gen- 
tknian  waa  that  hunted  so  mer- 
lily  that  morning,  when  he  was 

I  wtaff  kmm  jmi,  purtfy  ll«l  /  Miy  A*  law  wdtt  jpm. 
JBnUu,  beimff  Hj/brMcrf  lAal  .yon  Jow  to  Urr  yowr  kot- 
fktd  Hd/t  kamJmmefy  tMtmtM  wiA  andml  jvrnton. 

a<!)W  thoQj^  nothing  ww  done  tn  nut- 

n  tcrv  of  rvli^on,  hut  what   wat  fairly 

MJtd  luTvlj'  (iisrtuwd  flnt  by  the  aoit 

I  Ivarnctl  of  tho  pUsw^  ;  jct  thin  jmx  the 

rletKj  in  the  ccniToealioa  to  ■ohwiUeJ 

thctDiQlTiM  to  the  king,  that  eodi  ooo  wffnJIy  pn>* 

uiati  in  wrio  «aeerd!ofUi  Dcrer  henoefbith  to  |w^ 

Htme  to  allege,  claim,  or  pat  in  nre,  any  new  eaooo^ 

vnlen  tho  king*!  moet  royal  asent  might  be  had 

■nio  them,  and  this  noon  after  the  Mmo  ww  nUifted 

by  act  of  paiUamcnt  *. 

I      S.  And  bcfe  it  will  \to  worth  my  pains  and  the 

*"  reader"!  penaal  to  obecrrcT  the  dJSiTrnres  botwera 

EtagUih  lyBodi  or  ooavocatioM,  which  may  L'mimmily 

be  tfrtiagwblwd  into  four  laBln*  neh  m  wvr>, 

I  Called  boJbn  the  eonqueet. 

ii.  Calleil  iiinn*  the  eonqnnt,  but  before  the  ■ 

a(  prtrrnHHirf  was  mode. 

iii.  CallM  after  the  aloremid  tttaluU*.  but  ' 
another  made  in  the  reign  of  king  I  Icury  ihi*  Eighth, 
wbm'in  tho  cloigy  were  bound  up,  fnr  diting  t 
without  thf  ntyal  SOTPiit. 

iv.  t'allod  aa^r  tbo  twttity-afth  year  of  tfac| 
of  king  llmry  the  KiglKh. 

Tbi<M>  dill  pUinlr  diBt.T  in  tbi>  •erera]  OMnaera  ef 
tliHr  rofPling.  ami  d4-gn<v«  of  pawn  of  their  MChtg 
la  Kpiritual  matttrn. 


M,  Rvf-  1.  |i- 199.] 

CRKT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  81 

3.  As  for  councils,  called  before  the  conquest,  a.  d.  1533. 
whilst  the  pope's  power  had  not  as  yet  lorded  it  *Vin!^ 
over  the  kings  of  England,  the  kings  ever  were  (if  Kings  acted 
not  in  person)  in  power  present  thereat;  as  byj^^^^^, 
perusing  sir  Henry  Spelman's  Councils  plainly  doth^®**^ 
appear.  Yea,  matters  both  of  church  and  common- 
wealth were  often  dictated  and  concluded  in  the 

same  meeting,  Communi  consensu  tarn  cleri  qtcam 
populij  episcoporum,  procerum,  comitum^  nee  non  om^ 
nium  sapientuniy  seniortim  populorumqtie  totitis  regni^. 

4.  For  the  second  sort,  (called  after  the  conquest,  Of  the 
but  before  the  statute  oi prcemunire,)  the  archbishops  Jf^^o- 
of  Canterbury  or  York  used  upon  all  extraordinary*****^* 
and  immergent  cases,  toties  quoties,  as  their  own 
discretions   adjudging  necessary   or   convenient,  to 
assemble  the  clergy  of  their  respective   provinces 

at  what  place  they  pleased,  continuing  convocations 
in  them  so  long,  or  dissolving  them  as  soon  as  they 
pleased.  And  this  they  did,  either  as  metropolitans 
or  primates,  or  as  legati  nati  to  the  pope  of  Rome, 
without  any  leave  from  the  king  afore  obtained,  and 
such  canons  and  constitutions  then  and  there  con- 
cluded on  were  in  that  age  (without  any  ftuther 
ratification)  obligatory  to  all  subjected  to  their  juris- 
diction. Such  were  all  the  synods  from  Lanfranc 
to  Thomas  Arundel,  in  whose  time  the  statute  of 
prcemunire  was  enacted. 

5.  A  third  sort  of  convocation  succeeds,  (for  after  Of  the 
the  statute  of  praemunire  was  made,  which  did  much  of  oonvo. 
restrain  the  papal  power,  and  subject  it  to  the  laws*****^* 
of  the  land,)  when  archbishops  called  no  more  convo- 
cations by  their  sole  and  absolute  command,  but  at 

<=  Sir  Henrjr  Spelman's  [Concil.]  p.  u8.  anno  605. 



TAr  CkmrA  ttiUon,  •ooi  v. 

tbe  plvMotv  of  the  kiti|r.  u  ofl  u  bin  nomidtie*  uid 
nrcMtnn*  «it))  (lie  iliftrH««*a  of  thp  rliurch  did  nv 
"(juirf  it**.  Yi-m,  now  tlit'lr  nifctiii^  witv  by  virtof 
of  ■  writ  or  priKN'pt  fmni  the  ktnK,  uid  H  will  tint  bo 
uuiM  lierc  to  exemplify  Uie  fiimi  tbirrruf. 

6.  **  Itvi.  tua.  HeremidiMiBio  in  (.'hruto  fttri. 
•*  A.  CutwIaMl  krdUaplnopo  totiiu  Anfrliir  (trimati, 
**  ct  apoftoKeB  mmUi  kfitonhiteni.  QoiboMbm  u^ 
**  dtiU  K  nrgentibiH  nngotlit.  <failpMioit—  et  icearita- 
"  t«iii  eceleifae  AagtieuiK,  u  paeen.  tnnqnUUtatam. 
"  et  baanm  pablimm.  <<  definiiioiwm  Rfnl  noitri,  et 
**  n^MliUirani  tKwtmrQtn  cjiuKlptn  eaneementfbai^  r^ 
**  fata  In  Sde  et  dilueUout*,  qaiboa  nofaii  I 

*  ^iNBOopM  vMtm  pranneoit,  se  deemoi^  et  | 

*  iBtilMhnun  catbednUim,  sbbMei,  pciona  i 
'  rieetivDi  eMmptae  et  non  ewoqilM ;    m 

e^iitnh,    et 

«f"TWtf— iWMBMriilmy  ^  TU   wrlilitihii    OkUgr'* 

<mM  Uhm  miiUmi  mmw  "  ti««.  MwycuiiMi  «w«  n^ 

ifaeMattkhfiH^iMliwa*.  ••  mad*  InU  ma  ««b  pp. 

riyiihi  m  M»  hy  »  n.y«l  -  UnMrti  «w«  •ittte.  ^A. 

■ril ;  fat  nva  tb«n  nni  in  **  ml  any  uiW  writ  mei  Ih* 

rirtw  of  tbc  writ,  bal  bj  "  king  bn'     *   ~             -  •     > 

(bfwUdi  -'niiUbJ 

-  hi^*  iMMOT  «r  KM)  W  "  Aftw  IIm>  Stk  <ir  t 
"■toiy  toiJiiiihMi  Aid  -  ib  d«i7  if  thn  ■ 
"  id  tUa  «•  hn«  •  nrr  n-  "  ktsf't  Icttet  had  It 

-  MTbUv  moT  in  tW  IM  -  id  ib  ■ 
"wii^hMwiWnwMjIV,  "dnir« 
"  wydi  Iha^  ■iMM  M  U*  **  •■»«■  MMlIjr  d 
"  writ  WW  tH  •■  Ultb  UMMi^  "  tfim  dw  narfiaM) 
••tol»lwlihivittwant.tUi  -bMkM.  mC  a    I 

i«}rctnr«B,  In  avrnd  ■  F^*^ 

"     AttetMVT  «M  6i«. 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  83 

provinciae,  ad  conveniendum  coram  vobis  in  ec-A.D.  1533. 

clesia  Sancti  Pauli  London,  vel  alibi  prout  melius  *Viii7 

expedire  videritis,  cum  omni  celeritate  accommoda  """~~~" 
"  modo  debito  convocari  faciatis ;   ad   tractandum, 
"  consentiendum,  et  concludendum,  super  praemissis 
•*  et   aliis,   quae  sibi   clarius   proponentur,   tunc   et 
"  ibidem   ex  parte   nostra.     Et   hoc   sicut   nos   et 

statum  regni  nostri,  et  honorem  et  utilitatem  ec- 

clesise  praedictae  diligitis  nullatenus  omittatis.  Teste 

me  ipso,"  &c. 

7.  In  this  writ  we  may  observe,  first,  that  from  the  Ob«cmu 
word  convocari  faciatisy  the  word  convocation  took  its^."* 
denomination,  being  formerly  called  synods,  as  lately 
(since  our  scotizing)  termed  assemblies.  Secondly, 
that  clause,  in  ecclesia  Sancti  Pauli  London,  vel  alibi 
prout  melius  espedire  videritis^  pointeth  at  a  power 
placed,  or  rather  a  liberty  left  to  the  archbishops,  to 
call  their  synods  elsewhere,  in  case  they  adjudged  it 
more  convenient.  But  because  the  archbishops  and 
bishops  might  the  better  attend  their  business  in 
parliaments,  (henceforward  commonly  kept  at  the 
same  time  with  convocations,)  St.  Paul's  in  London 
was  generally  preferred  for  the  place  of  their  conven- 
tion. Thirdly,  this  writ  was  used  even  after  the 
reformation,  mutatis  mutandisy  namely,  the  title  of 
apostolical  legate  to  the  archbishop  being  left  out, 
as  also  the  names  of  priors  and  abbots  are  extin- 
guished. Lastly,  of  this  third  sort  of  convocations, 
was  all  those  kept  by  Thomas  Arundel  and  the  arch- 
bishops of  Canterbury  his  successors,  unto  Thomas 
Cranmer;  or  if  you  will,  from  the  sixteenth  of 
Richard  the  Second,  unto  the  twenty-fifth  of  king 
Henry  the  Eighth.  These  convocations  did  also 
make  canons  (as  in  Lynwood  his  Constitutions  do 

M  71W  CA«rc*  Hutory  »ooi  v. 

A.D.  iuj.Bpp«iir)  wbich  wpfi<   binding.  «lthnup)i   iHine  otbiT 

''viiT'  th»n  uriKKlirml  nuthority  ili<I  omfimi  tlirm. 

•n«UM         V.  Tbe  iMt  •ort  of  raiiv<>niiloiu  n-niRin«,  rallml 

JJ^J^doee  the  statate,  the  twenty-fifth  t.f  Iting  Mcnrr  Ibo 

Ef|[fatli.  "  that  nine  o(  the  clcrg;  iJiaulil  pn'mnw  to 

**  Ktttmpt,  lUi^ge,  chfan,  or  pnt  in  nre,  tny  cooiti- 

"  lutiotu  or  ordiwuieai  proTindnl,  or  ifnodib.  or  tmj 

-  other  canoni,  roMtltattov,  or  ordiiiftiKM  {iroTiD- 
**  rial,  (b;  whataoerer  name  or  natnea  the;  m^  be 
*■  called,)  In  tbcir  cooToeatioo  in  tlinv  coming.  (wU^ 

-  alwa}ri  ihall  be  Maemblad  b;^  tbe  king^i  writ.)  no. 
■*  hm  tbe  Mine  tiagj  Bwjr  bare  the  king;'!  moat 
"  royal  awnt  and  ticenie  to  make,  promiae  and  exv* 
*■  riitc  ntrh  canoni,  rotMtltatioM  and  ofdloaBeea 
**  pmvlm-Ml  or  iijrnodieal,  upon  pain  of  ercnr  cue  of 
**  tho  Mid  elur^gy  doing  tbe  oootrBry  to  this  art.  and 
**  thanof  eomieled.  to  mflfar  iniprttniini(.*nt>  and 
**  making  fine  at  tbo  khig^i  will."  Since  this  rear, 
frooi  archbidtop  Cnnmer  to  nrchbuhof>  Laud,  all 
cnaToeatioitf  (mi  lonff  a*  they  laatttl)  arv  bum  (ongue- 
tind,  till  tbe  king  did  mt  th<*  Mtring  thvrvof  with  bia 
lotten  patent,  allowing  thctn  If^ro  to  dfrbat«  on 
maWgB  of  rdigion.  Otberwiau,  what  Ihi^  conclad* 
are  arrowa  witboot  pDei^  daggw*  without  (tointa. 
too  blunt  to  pkne  iMa  tbe  pnotioe  of  otbt^n.  but 
■harp  Mtongh  to  wound  lh<imielTM.  and  bring  ibrm 
within  the  conpsH  of  a  prvmrnmir^.  Yea,  evai  waA 
eoBTooatioaa  with  tbo  rojal  aHent  nibjrrt  not  aay 
(fbr  reenmuej  to  obejr  tbdr  canout)  to  a  civil  penalty 
b  penoa  or  property,  sntil  eoofimcd  by  art  of  par- 

9.  Thi*  1  humblr  c«iopeiTo  to  bv  tlu*  1 
betwixt  tbf  thn^  kinds  of  coavoeatiotH,  1 
what  I  bare  written  to  tbe  eramrp  and  iiotreetiM 

CKNT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  86 

of  the  learned  in  the  law,  conscious  of  my  own  igno- a.  0.1535. 
ranee  therein,  as  indeed  such  skill  neither  is  to  be    viii. 

expected  or  required  in  one  of  my  profession,  who 
am  ready  with  willingness,  yea,  with  cheerfulness, 
yea,  with  thankfulness  to  God  and  man,  publicly  to 
recall  and  retract  what  any  such  convince  me  to 
have  mistaken  herein ;  hoping  that  my  stumbling  in 
so  dark  a  subject  may  prevent  the  failing  of  others. 

10.  There  goeth  a  tradition,  (taken  up  by  many  a  vulgar 
without  examination,)  "that  anciently  the  clergy  sat*™^' 

"  as  one  body  with  the  parliament,  and  were  not 
"  divided  till  in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth,** 
as  a  modem  author  hath  written  in  a  tract®.  But 
when  I  asked  of  him,  where  he  had  read  the  same, 
he  cited  a  French  letter  of  cardinal  Sadolets.  Strange 
that  a  foreigner  should  be  more  seeing  herein,  than 
any  of  our  native  authors  and  records  that  I  ever 
could  behold.  But  it  may  be  the  error  had  its  ori- 
ginal hence,  because  anciently  bishops  sitting  in  the 
parliament  did  not  always  appear  personally,  or  by 
the  proxy  of  men  of  their  own  order,  but  sometimes 
sent  one  or  more  of  the  inferior  clergy  to  represent 
them,  if  it  be  true  what  I  have  read  in  a  small 
English  book,  bearing  the  name  of  Mr.  Selden  (but 
I  question  whether  avowed  by  him)  of  the  proceed- 
ings in  parliament. 

11.  John  Fryth  sealed  the  truth  with  his  blood.  The  mar- 
one  who  justly  may  be  said  aged  sixty  at  six  and  S^n*° 
twenty,  (so  young  was  he  martyred,)  such  his  learn- ^'^* 
i^g  ^  gravity,  and  constancy  «f.    It  was  chiefly  charged 

<  Calebut  Downing.  He    suffered    July   4,    1533. 

'  [As  proof  of  the  estima-  Fox,  ii.  303.] 
tion  in  which  he  was  held,  he         ?  [Burnet,  Ref.  I.   p.  338. 

was  invited  to  become  a  fellow  For  the  opinions  of  John  Frith 

of  Cardinal's  college  in  Oxford,  and  other  reformers  touching 


Tke  CkurrA  Uutury 

A.[k  ij]).oa  him,  that  he  doikNl  tbv  beUvvinft  of  ihv  rvai  pro- 
''vtiT'  Moce  in  the  ■MfanwDt  (undentaiKl  liini  (/r  worfo 
""^"  thereof)  to  be  ui  »rti<4e  of  the  faith,  though  con- 
fiMing  Christ  niUIr  pnsc-nt  in  %ho  hnnu),  eo  he  mi^t 
not  be  cuniiM'llfl  to  the  wunhippiog  thervo£  Bvt 
thn«  tliingi  MIC  wt  ilowB  lugely  in  Mr.  FoxV  Only 
I  vrill  add,  that  penoni  oat  of  gniwidleH  [nufrieion] 
roggvet  two  flcnndale  on  thb  good  man  and  hk  vM^* 
namorjr.  One,  that  he  waa  fptiltj  of  a 
afainat  the  aiati^  nwielj  becauM  he  waa  c 
to  tbr  Towor.  The  other,  that  hia  wife  being  k 
thL>  M-aii  with  Mr.  Tyudat,  e^pwiing  UmM 
witli  the  will  uf  Ciod,  that  Cor  her  «ke  i 
not  liavt'  tbv  g\oTy  of  nod  hindoiMl,  dt-aiml  to  b* 
rid  of  her  husbaiHl'a  lir^.  that  Mr.  Tvndiil  tniicbt  the 
BtMv  frvely  uqjoj  her  cumpanjr.  Thua  this  . 
being  hinaelf  a  fautard.  Rwaaareth  othan  I 
nhaatity  of  Ida  own  paimta.  Indeed  the  i 
T^nda]  nneh  exhorted  frylh  to  pntlsat  t 
bat  not  aa  thoae  cowardly  f  ptahi^  wUefa  « 
otbon  tu  fight,  and  tbemaalvaa  ftumlcB  I 

riw   oneUriM.    m*  Ci— iKi  trimi  Dr.  BwaM  «M  la  t 

Work*.   1.    |k  Uxiii.    aaA    ia  ttaiat  ■  LailMrMt   uJ  TliA 

I  nnairr'*     aw*     aMoHBt     of  U  Urn  oMitrawwnj  wHli  Mm 

Fndi'i  rMiiualliw.  b.  p.  «a.  vm  iJm  MiliKct  tM^imm  Ui 

rW    ■rvklwJMip     (UtM     UmI  wiUhhh^   *•  ■"»«    t^a  J 

Krtlh  "  llnrngkl  il  Mf  urtrumrm 

-u>  W-  t«br*«l  HMWtkb 

"ntumt  futk,  tUttkwvktW 

"  rwn    amv»l    anmnct    mt 

-  rVtM-  wkfcb  iW  i«l  Mi  "  pM  bto  tWir  bnm  - 

«  ■iiMMl  rf  tka  allM-.  mi  life  i     I  ml      k  hyklf  «w 

"MdMk  of  Ikk  patot  mH  bm^J  b;   Pm.  (>i    ^oAi  ^ 

**  sAm  tka  HpiBJiM  Mf  <£«»>  w«Q  awtk*  of  unitatMM  **  ia 

••  ^r^M  -       TW     ^a     k  "  IW    MtMoM    riirhuoM    Md 

•ka  Btywiail  w  iW  MlirtaMv  "  bctioM  «r  iWw  «W  ■kj*.'] 
irf   hk  N>(iiaa>to    (in*    tijr        k  [Acttk  Jbc.  IL  |l  $03,  hm 

1.  j».    Frkfc.  (TMI  <||iil  wJ.  ilL  p.  wi.J 


CENT.  XVI.  ofBritam,  87 

because  afterwards  he  valiantly  brought  up  the  rear,  a.  d.  1534. 
and  suffered  for  the  same  cause  two  years  after.  *  viii7 

12.  John  Fisher,  bishop  of  Rochester,  was  now  Bishop 
prisoner  in  the  Tower,  where  he  was  but  coarsely  je^^^f^ 
used,  as  appears  by  a  letter  to  Mr.  Secretary  Crom-°®J^*^^ 

well.  feasor. 

**  After  my  most  humyl  commendations.  Where 
**  as  ye  be  content  that  I  shold  write  unto  the  king's 
"  highness,  in  good  feith  I  dread  me  that  I  can  not 
be  so  circumspect  in  my  writing  but  that  sum  word 
shall  escape  me  where  with  his  grace  shall  be 
moved  to  sum  fiirther  displeasure  against  me, 
"  whereof  I  would  be  very  sorry.  For  as  I  will 
"  answer  before  God,  I  would  not  in  any  manner  of 
"  poynte  offend  his  grace,  my  duty  saved  unto  God, 
"  whom  I  must  in  every  thing  prefer.  And  for  this 
^  consideration  I  am  ftdl  loth  and  full  at  fear  to 
write  unto  his  highness  in  this  matter.  Never- 
theless, sythen  I  conceive  that  it  is  your  mind  that 
I  shall  so  do,  I  will  endeavor  me  to  the  best  that 
**  I  can. 

"  But  first  hear  I  must  beseech  you  good  Mr. 
Secretary  to  call  to  your  remembrance  that  at  mj 
last  being  before  you  and  the  other  commissioners 
for  taking  of  the  oath  concerning  the  king's  most 
noble  succession,  I  was  content  to  be  sworn  unto 
that  parcell  concerning  the  succession.  And  there 
**  I  did  rehearse  this  reason  which  I  said  moved  me. 
•*  I  doubted  not  but  that  the  prince  of  any  realm 
"  with  the  assent  of  his  nobles  and  commons  might 
**  appoint  for  his  succession  royal  such  an  order  as 
**  was  seen  unto  his  wisdom  most  according.  And 
"  for  this  reason  I  said  that  I  was  content  to  be 

o  4 



SB  Tkw  VAureA  HUtory  wwk  V. 

A.Kto«.**  nwrti  unto  that  put  of  ibv  <«th  m  concendnf 

rm!^  '  the  ncmMkm.     Tfats  is  ■  Tory  truth,  u  Cod  b»lp 

~~^~' "  my  aool  at  my  mart  iKwi     All  bu  it  I  rcfnaed  to 

"  nrtmr  to  iocdo  otbor  p«m*b  bvcsuM*  that  my  Don* 

"  iricnoe  wonid  nrrt  wire  me  m  to  do. 

"  Kurlhennun'  I  tM-necbt*  yi>w  to  be  godi 
*•  uDt<>  mv  ill  my  ncomitio.  Tor  1  have  neitl 
**  nor  BUttv  nor  yvt  oihi.*r  riothca,  that  ar  i 
"  lor  OKI  t«  wr«n>.  hut  tliBl  he  mggod  and  rent  tA 
**  ihamuftUly.  Notwithstatidin^  1  mi)rht  eamly  caftY 
**  tliat,  if  they  would  koep  my  b<K]y  warm.  But  my 
"did  alsu,  <><kI  knows  bow  «h*ndi'r  it  hi  at  many 
"  timi-fu  And  now  in  mint'  iigi%  my  rtiimakc  may 
**  not  away  but  with  a  fvw  kind  of  meal*,  which  if 
"  I  want,  I  ili-onr  forthwith,  and  lall  into  rraw*  atid 
"  diMVK^  of  my  body,  and  rannot  kwp  my  wife  in 
**  ht«]th.  An<t  an  our  Lftnl  knowvtii.  I  liavc  no 
**  thinjt  Ifft  unto  me  for  to  pnivi<]t*  any  bt^ttM*.  bat  aa 
"  my  brother'  of  bla  own  punM.-  laieth  out  for  me,  to 
"  bin  gnut  hiDderanrr. 

"  \\'but«laac  glide  maalcr  Secretary,  cftnoea  I 
■*  betcchc  yow  to  have  aum  pittje  upon  mc,  ami  bi 
"  me  have  mcfa  thingi  at  are  necenary  for  ne  la 
**  mimi  %gt,  and  apodally  for  my  health ;  and  aba 
*  that  it  may  pleaae  yow  by  yowr  biffli  wy«dou«.  to 
■*  move  tho  kfaiKi  higfaoeaao  to  take  mc  unto  hit 
"  fpacioua  fiivoor  a^cainc,  and  to  rraton'  mt*  onto  my 
**  liberty,  out  of  this  cold  and  iiainful 
**  whereby  ye  thall  biml  me  to  be  yowr  pure  I 
**  man  for  emr  unto  Almijcfaty  <iod.  who  erer  haw 
**  yow  in  his  protertioD  and  ructody. 

"  Other  twain  thing*  I  muit  alia  dwyt-r  upim 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  89 

**  yow;  the  toon  is,  that  itt  may  please  yow,  that  I  a.  d.  1534. 
may  take  some  preest  within  the  Tower,  by  th'as-  ^ViiT^ 
signment  of  master  livetenant,   to  hear  my  con-  " 

"  fession  against  this  hooly  tym. 

"  That  other  is,  that  I  may  borrow  some  bookes 
to  stir  my  devotion  mor  effectually  theis  hooly 
dayes,  for  the  comfortte  of  my  sowl.  This  I  be- 
**  seche  yow  to  grant  me  of  yoMrr  charitie.  And  thus 
**  our  Lord  send  yow  a  mery  Christenmas,  and  a 
"  comfortable  to  yowr  heart's  desyer.  Att  the  Tower 
"  the  xxij.  day  of  December. 

"  Your  poor  beadsman, 

"  Jo.  RoFPsi.'* 

His  first  petition  for  clothes  was  granted  him, 
(having  exchange  thereof  at  his  execution,)  and  it  is 
probable  the  other  two  petitions,  being  so  reasonable, 
were  not  denied  him. 

19.  During  his   durance  in  the  Tower,  he  was  hib  often 
often  and  strictly  examined'',  before   sir   Edmund ^'^ 
Walsingham  lieutenant  thereof,  by  Thomas  Bedyll 
and  Richard  Layton  clerks  of  the  council,  and  was 
sworn  in  verba  sacerdotii^  to  answer  to  many  interro- 
gatories, but  chiefly  concerning  four  subjects. 

First,  about  the  king's  divorce,  wherein  he  was  Of  fair 
always  constant  to  what  he  had  printed  of  the  un- ^lil^uian. 
lawfulness  thereof. 

Secondly,  about  his  supremacy,  which  (at  last)  he 
peremptorily  denied. 

J  [Original  Holograph,  Cot-  ^  [See  the  original  report  of 

ton  M8S.  Cleop.  E.  VI.  172.  this  examination,    every    page 

Fuller  printed  only  part  of  this  subscribed  by  the  bishop's  own 

letter.      I   have   retained   the  hand  among  the  Cotton  MSS. 

whole,  our  author  having  again  Cleop.  E.  VI.  169.] 
referred  to  it  below.] 

IV  Tht  CJmrrh  //itlun/  MK>K  *. 

'  lUrdly,  aboot  hit  eatiM«liiig  the  bDpavtmv  of 
BUnbeth  Buton.  the  nuid  of  Kent;  vlMcvta  be 
OMtfvflMMl  bb  wrmkiKw.  waA  oTer-evjr  belief;  bat 
ulb^ri)'  d(>nie«l  uir  ill  intcnticnw  to  the  kinc**  penoiL 

Kuaithlf ,  about  tb«  vtatute  of  nicecHion.  whemn, 
m  appew*  by  hu  lottw  to  waerturj  Cninwdl',  be 
WW  eootant  to  nibwribe  and  ■wr  to  the  body,  bat 
BoC  to  the  pnamble  tbarooT". 

90.  Wlilch  wimli  thenio.  M  otkmAn  to  FlriMn 
(exr<i*t  tbuiv  bu  anv  other  onpriotcd  fnbtm  to  tUi 
atatute,)  werr  lb«H< :  "flie  biibop  of  Rone  I 
**  apoatolic.   oontrarr    in   tlio    fiyvat  and 
**  paotB  of  joriMliotiun  hr  thul  imni(>diatel]r  | 
**  penirs,  kin|r*>  uid  prinrf«,  io   i 
**  bfint,  hath  pmnimed  in  time*  paat  to  hiT) 
"  iboilld  ptfliM  tbem  to  tDhrrit  in  other  mcn'a  1 
**  dona  and  dominkna :  whirh  thitif^  we  vour  moat 
**  hnmble  mlffecta,  both  »piritual  and  tciupunl,  do 
"  most  altbor  and  dotoat"." 

SI.  Here  I  know  not  whether  morv  to  eommtnd 
the  poUcy  or  ebaritj  of  archbiabop  Cnuuner,  deMiiog 
in  a  letter  to  flecrrCarj  Cromvell*,  that  thti  |«rtia] 
■ubaeription  wfakb  biibop  FUwr  pmRtrf^  to  tbe 
alatato  of  raewaion  migbt  be  accepted;  adding, 
that  good  nae  niffat  be  made  thereof  to  tbe  kta^ 
■draataKe.  ni^  gmeiBl  repntatkni  tbe  world  had  of 
thb  Uahnp'k  lt«min^,  and  i>f  uir  Thomaa  l^lore'a: 
both  whirh  it  ■vemi'd  witit  th*y  «uni<  path  and  jmeo, 
and  m  thia  point  iitarl4«d.  ran.  and  stopped  togetber. 
Indeed.  H  w«a  not  good  to  ■train  mdi  flne  ■tringi  tao 

ted  prafiMito  tUi 
}  of  RomentaH 
«t  and   invilj^^^H 
mni(>diatel]r  N^^^H 

WILl'LMlon   **|j^^^^| 

paat  to  '"^"■■^^^1 
other  men**  wf^ 

I  tPriatod  ■km.  p.  87.]  fi$*. 
•  (Iknwt.  Rrf.  I.  p.  J17  1         •  C-ttM  «SS    [* 

■  Hm  tb»  printed  MMMm.  VI.  f.  181.   CfUBMif^ 

;   at    ll«.   VIII.    MP    11.  rat.1.  p.iai.] 

F^  Warki, 


CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  91 

high,   which   possibly  moistened  with   mild   usage  a.  d.  1535. 
might  in  process  of  time  have  been  stretched  to  a  ^^vm7 
further  compliance.     But,  it  seems,  nothing  at  pre-  "~~'"~" 
sent  would  satisfy,  except  both  of  them  came  up  to 
the  full  meksure  of  the  kmg's  demands. 

22.  As  for  bishop  Fisher  his  concealing  the  pre- Fisher's 
tended  prophecies  of  Elizabeth  Barton,  it  was  so  fer^iSSra?* 
waived,  tht  he  «a  never  Meted  for  the  »me..^ 
And  indeed  he  made  an  ingenious  plea  for  himself; 
namely,  that  the  said  Elizabeth  had  told  him  she 

had  acquainted  the  king  therewith  ;  yea,  he  had 
assurance  thereof  from  the  archbishop  4.  And 
therefore,  knowing  the  king  knew  of  it  before,  he 
was  loth  to  hazard  his  displeasure  in  that,  which 
was  not  revealing  what  was  unknown,  but  repeating 
what  would  be  unwelcome  to  his  grace. 

23.  But  not  long  after,  he  was  arraigned  of  high  Yet  how 
treason,  and  it  will  not  be  amiss  to  insert  the  sting '^hy^. 
of  the  indictment  out  of  the  original.  demned. 

^  Diversis  Domini  regis  veris  subditis  fedse  mali-  May  7. 
♦*  tiose  et  proditorie  loquebatur  et  propalabat  vide- 
**  licet :  The  king  owre  soveraigne  lord  is  not 
"  supreme  hed  yn  erthe  of  the  cherche  of  England. 
"  In  dicti  domini  regis  immund.  despect.  et  vilipen- 
**  dium  manifest.*^" 

Of  this  he  was  found  guilty,  had  judgment,  and  was 
remanded  to  the  Tower,  where,  for  a  time,  we  leave 
him,  and  proceed. 

P  [Burnet,  Ref.  i.  312.]  •"  His   words   were   spoken 

q  In  his  Letter  to  the  King,  May  7,  in  the  Tower  of  Lon. 

in  Bib.  Cotton.  [Cleop.  £.  VI.  don,  but  he   arraigned  after- 

162.]  wards. 


I      lb. 

TV  CAmrA  HiMoty  komt  t. 

A.l>.  \%iy     94.    Tht»    WM   tho   power   of  the   pope   toUUjr 

viu"'  almliiibc*!  out  of  EngUod,  vbereof  the  Ronuuiifts  at 
filyfaMM.  tlui  Ukjt  do  bitti'riy  complain,  but  cwi  ivvt'Ofte  tli«in- 
{C^M  >bI«h  ho  otlxir  «BT,  MVP  hy  affppniing  tu  m  gnlltjr  of 
■ohlon  and  *ppw»tion,  for  rvodinfc  ourselves  from 
the  m«lli«r-rhurrfa.  Bbune  ui  not,  tf  loth  tliat  tlu> 
chiiifh  of  Enjrlontl  (i'<  whnw  dttrtrine  kikI  <li-M-i|ilino 
wc  were  bum,  and  brwl,  ond  dmrn*  to  iliv)  itbcnild  lie 
under  «o  fool  and  &ba  au  imputatian,  wbtrh  bj  tW 
following  tauntiTe  may  fuUjr  be  confuted. 

tS.  Three  thui](»  are  Maontkl  to  juatiiy  tba  j 
lt»l)  n>r'>miatic»i  &on  tlw  •oaodal  of  acfaimi,  to^ 
that  tlK7  liail 
I  Jnat  eaoae  for  wtiteb  tlwy  deo*ded  froni  Roine. 
iL  Xtuo  autlioritj  br  vriileh  they  dccvded  fnou 

BL  Doe  BiodefBtion  in  what  tbejr  deeedad  ft«« 

>iM        96.  The  6nt  will  plainl;^  appear,  if  we 

pOTf.      the  alHtDitnablu  erron  whiob  contnuT  to 

and    jtriniitiTo   prartire   were  then   crept 

cburrh  of  Kmne.     As  the  denyinft  the  eup  to  the 

fautT  ;  wonhipping  of  ima^piw ;  locking  up  tlu*  Krii^ 

tttna  In  Latin,  and  peffbtming  prajroi  in  an  nn- 

ItDown  tMgnflk  with  thn  muiiatfoiity  of  tiaaaibataa- 

tiatioa,  Bnexnmhle  pnelicea.      Beiidea.  the  beha- 

HMitli  of  the  |H>iie'a  iiiAUlihilltT,  and  the  loTiathan  of 

Ua  aaivenal  juriadirtinn,  »o  exclaimf-d  againvt  bf 

OnigDfj  tbotiraat  as  a  ootr  of  Antirhrim. 

■  i^w.     97*  •Inat  cmoie  of  rvfnnnAlion  tN-itijr  tbos  piovetl, 

^J^i^fwoeeed  w«  to  the  authohtr  by  which   it  u  to  bo 

*'-      nnde.     H«te  we  eonAai  the  most  reffular  wajr  was 

bj  order  fifnm  a  free  and  goDond  nruncil.  bot  bera 

alas  no  hope  thereof.     Geoeiml  it  cuuld  not  be,  the 

CENT.  xvi.  of  Britain.  9S 

Greeks  not  being  in  a  capacity  of  repairing  thither ;  a.  d.  1535. 
nor  free,  such  the  papal  usurpation ;  for  before  men  vm. 
could  try  the  truth,  hand  to  hand,  by  dint  of  scrip- 
ture,  (the  sword  and  buckler  thereof  by  God's  ap- 
pointment,) the  pope  took  off  all  his  adversaries  at 
distance  with  (those  guns  of  hellish  invention)  his 
infallibility  and  universal  jurisdiction,  so  that  no 
approaching  his  presence  to  oppose  him,  but  vrith 
certainty  of  being  pre-condemned. 

28.  Now  seeing  the  complaints  of  the  conscientious  The  power 

OK  A  Oft" 

in  all  ages  against  the  errors  in  the  Romish  church  tionai 
met  with  no  other  entertainment  than  frowns  and  improTed. 
frets,  and  afterwards  fire  and  fagot,  it  came  season- 
ably into  the  minds  of  those  who  steered  the  English 
nation,  to  make  use  of  that  power  which  God  had 
bestowed  upon  them.  And  seeing  they  were  a 
national  church  under  the  civil  command  of  one 
king,  he  by  the  advice  and  consent  of  his  clergy  in 
convocation,  and  great  council  in  parliament,  resolved 
to  reform  the  church  under  his  inspection  from  gross 
abuses  crept  into  it,  leaving  it  fi-ee  to  other  churches 
either  to  follow  his  example,  or  continue  in  their 
former  condition :  and  on  these  terms  was  the  Eng- 
lish reformation  first  advanced. 

29.  But  the  Romanists  object,  that  England  being  Objection 

to  the  000* 

first  converted  to  Christianity  by  the  zeal  and  caretnuy. 
of  the  church  of  Rome,  (when  pope  Gregory  the 
Great  sent  Augustine  over  to  preach  here,)  cannot, 
not  only  without  great  ingratitude,  but  flat  unduti- 
fiilness,  depart  from  the  church  which  first  taught  it 
true  religion. 

It  is  answered,  first,  this  argument  reacheth  not  Amww  i. 
west  of    Severn  into   Wales,   where  the   ancient 

9*  TV  CimreA  Hittory  mox  v. 

A.O.  luj.  Britfuu  by  iienonU  coafvwlou  wro  converted  boftm 
ViiL    tb«  linif  of  AuffnAliiM*- 

Ammm  u  Ktwoiidly.  tliM  Am  fsvimr  PMwiTOil  frnro  Room 
paU  nut  (m  Kof^iil  ■»  strict  uid  wrvilc-  an  obli- 
fCKtkta  u(  pcriivtuftl  ctmtiniuncc,  llint  Mbc  nuj  and 
mmit  not  aenv  ttod  niifaoat  askiog  her  leave.  It 
tfaa  EngUnd  oiiljr  to  a  fiur  and  gmUfftU  mpect. 
wkieh  die  alvajn  teadervd,  till  the  intDlcaiejr  of  tlw 
churrh  of  Itonw  made  Hi  unwiUiDff  to  pay.  and  her 
anworthr  u*  ruccive  it. 

A*"*"^  Thinlly.  tomv  vtrra^fa  may  be  alluwnl  tu  ibia 
ohJLTtion.  if  Romt>  ouuld  b)>  pmvi'd  lh«  nmo  in  do^ 
triiH'  aiMJ  diaci)>ltiic,  when  un<]<T  liu>  reijni  of  kiaf 
Henry  Iho  KiKbtii  MoKland  ilivided  itadf  from  H, 
with  Itume.  when  in  ihv  timo  of  Gregory  the  Ofeaft 
it  wan  roiiTert<>d  l^  God's  bleaung  on  hte  •odearoun. 
But  fdocf  tlut  time  the  dnirdi  o#  Rone  kath  beea 
much  mmi|>t««)  In  ofiinloiii  and  praetiee,  eaqr  to 
provn,  but  that  it  \%  not  the  net  worlt  of  our  biatoty. 
90.  But  tifmn  tltu  [«ptitB  object,  that  tbe  nuMt 
'  jodirwoi  prutvBtauia  du  iogenioiMly  coafoH,  that  tbe 
church  of  Homo  mahitalnptli  all  tbe  flukfauntnitala  of 
rvliffion.  Gnfrluid  tbanfttre  cannoc  be  escoaod  from 
■chion  Inr  diridbg  from  that  dmich,  vUek^ 
tMr  owB  confMMoo,  atUI  retaiiteCh  tbe  trae 
tioaaC  Christianity. 

tl.  It  i*  anawived.  if  same  protoiUnu  be 
ia  their  waaurM  oa  papiati,  it  appeal*  tbeieby, 
though  diey  baTe  left  Rome,  they  haw  not  loM 
their  eoartcay  nor  their  charity.  But  giast  (whieh 
la  indiiputable)  tbe  enan  of  tbe  rbarch  of  Rome 
not  fiadamaataL  they  mn  eiPo»>Amdanifntal,  irrating 
«■  ibe  Tory  foniwhltow.     Beiidta,  wi>  aiv  Imund  to 

od  frvn      I 
■ociia       ^ 

CEVT.  XVI.  of  Britain,  96 

avoid,  not  only  what  is  deadly,  but  what  is  hurtful ;  a.  d.  1535. 
not  only  what  may  destroy  the  life,  but  what  may  *  viiT^ 
prejudice  the  health  of  our  souls'*.  ' 

But  our  adversaries  persist  to  object  that  our30i>- 
reformation  took  its  rise  from  king  Henry's  pride,  to^ 
pluck  down  a  power  which  crossed  his  designs,  from 
his  covetousness  to  compass  the  revenues  of  abbeys, 
and  from  his  wantonness  to  exchange  his  old  em- 
bracings  for  new  ones.  Well  therefore  may  the 
English  blush  at  the  babe  when  they  behold  its 
parents,  and  be  ashamed  of  their  reformation,  con- 
sidering the  vicious  extraction  thereof. 

Answ.  Malice  may  load  the  memory  of  king  The  an- 
Henry  about  his  demerits;  yet  grant  the  charge'^®'' 
true,  that  bad  inclinations  first  moved  him  to  the 
reformation,  yet  he  acted  therein  nothing  but  con- 
formable to  the  law  divine  and  human.  It  is  usual 
with  God's  wisdom  and  goodness  to  suffer  vice  to 
0ound  the  first  alarum  to  that  fight  wherein  virtue  is 
to  have  the  victory.  Besides,  king  Henry's  reforma- 
tion hath  since  been  reformed  by  successive  princes 
of  England,  who  cannot  justly  be  taxed  with  any 
vicious  reflection  therein. 

S2.  It  remaineth  that  we  take  notice  of  the  mo-  The  mode- 
deration  of  the  reformers,  who  being  acted  not  with  ^fi^Jien. 
an  opposition  to  all  which  the  papists  practised,  but 
with  an  affection  to  truth,  disclaimed  only  the  ulcers 
and  sores,  not  what  was  sound  of  the  Romish  church, 
retaining  still  what  was  consonant  to  antiquity  in 
the  four  first  general  councils. 

88.   Matters  thus   ordered,   had   the  Romanists  The amdiu 

sioD  of  the 

been  pleased  to  join  with  us,  there  had  been  nocontert. 

'  [The  answer,  that  the  Ro-     putably  true,  so  is  it  a  much 
manists  separated  from  us,  not     more  tenable  position.^ 
we  ftom  them,  as  it  is  indis- 

9$  TItt  CkmtA  tfittary  aoos  *. 

*•%?-**>•  OTtn|4ntr'"f  -^  i*um  ritber  in  Uieir  itraets  or  oun. 

*^rti^^  Bart  fDeh   their  pride  uid  pevrUmeH,  to  peniit 

obrtitMrtc,  to  tbb  day  ineeiue  many  peuplo,  («^ 

lifter  tnnm  to  the  loaibicai,  tbui  ^rigU  the  jiutiMM 

of  compUinta,)  aceoainf  iu  of  wUfnl  MrpMstioa ;  bat 

the  pramim  well  eoniideied,  Engbnd  maj  «j  to 

Borne,  Pk^rttt  iMe  inaek  it  upom  Uur*.  wlit>,  with 

Athaliah,  cfjring  TVmmm.  tnatom*,  hting  hvntAf  tbe 

prime  traitor,  tsxetb  tu  with  aehina.  when  abo  th« 

00I7  arhumatic 

nmi^fm-,      94.  We  «it«r  now  00  a  ■ul9ect  wbleh  w<*  moat 

M^  Eaff-  not  ntnil,  nich   in  the  tMNWonuHSt  thereof  in   tMir 

***''         hirtnnr ;  jvt  whirh  we  caaDoC  oovpleto.  no  intricate 

the  nature  thenwr.  and  ao  ahort  and  doabtfal  oar 

IntdBgenoe  theivin :  naineU.  to  pvi'  a  general  i»li> 

mate  (partieakn  bebig  iinpoMihlc)  of  the  papal 

rvTcanea  of  Eogbuid. 

fl„  T  -         S9.  I  life  be  it  premiaed  that  I  hombljr  caneeim 

S^^'^]|  the  pope%  ioeome  rma  the  bi^HtM^  >»  Rnjrland  tindar 

king  Henrj  the  Tfainl  and  kinj;  Kilwnnl  the  Flnt* 

befofv  the  Btatat*^  of  mortnuun  (ao<l  after  it  that  uf 

prtemmmirr)  wan   tnade.  for  tbi-ae  niurlt  abated  hia 

intr«Jo.     Ami  although  1  deuT  iK>t  but  under  kiog 

Henry  the  Eighth  be  might  leodve  man  vaaamf,  aa 

then  mom  plentiful  in  Koglaiid,  jvt  U>  prail  tm- 

■eriy  wai  greater,  if  the  Mandard  of  gold  aad  dhw 

be  but  stated  proportkniably. 

fw.  ^mm.      96.  llowoTer,  the  rait  nuns  Rome  mnivad 

2^^^  at  the  tiow  of  reformatioo,  will  appear  bj  I 

miiitg  coromoditiea.     For,  firat,  ofum  t)tf»t  I 

brav  set  \tj  ajniMdache  to  signify  all  popUi  t 

■tnlab,   consvcimted   beada,  &C-.   which   1 

know  what  thay  be,  a*  pApitta  why  Um-jt  use  them : 

*  0«a.  luviii.  »9,  <  1  Kiaga  ti  14- 

c  KNT .  XVI.  of  Britain .  97 

of  these  were  yearly  brought  over  from  Rome  into  a. d.  1535. 
England  as  many  as  would  fill  the  shop  of  a  haber-  ^Viii!^ 
dasher  of  holy  wares.  Now,  though  their  prices 
were  not  immediately  paid  into  the  pope's  purse,  but 
to  such  his  subordinate  officers  who  traded  therein, 
yet  they  may  be  accounted  part  of  the  papal 
revenues ;  (the  king  hath  what  the  courtiers  have  by 
his  consent ;)  and  if  such  trading  was  not  permitted 
unto  them,  the  pope  must  either  abate  of  his  train, 
or  find  his  officers  other  ways  of  subsistence. 

37.  Secondly,  for  annates^  so  called  because  they  By  his 
were  the  entire  revenues  of  one  year  (in  the  nature"^***** 
of  first-fruits)  which  the  bishops  and  inferior  clergy 
paid  to  the  pope ;  we  have  no  light  concerning  the 
latter,  but  can  present  the  reader  with  an  exact 
account  what  every  bishop  in  England  (new  elected 
or  translated  to  a  see)  paid  at  his  entrance  to  his 

Bishopric,  Paid, 

Canterbury    10,000  F. 

besides  for  his  pall    5000  F. 

London 3000  F. 

Winchester    12,000  D. 

Ely    7000  D. 

Lincoln [5000  D.] 

Coventry  and  Lichfield    1 738  D. 

Salisbury   4500  Crowns. 

Bath  and  Wells    430  F. 

Exeter  6000  D. 

Norwich    5000  D. 

Worcester 2000  F. 

Hereford 1800  F. 

Chichester     333  F. 

Rochester [1300  F.] 

St.  David's    1500  F. 


The  Ckmrrh  Htttory  book  v 


700  F. 


St.  Amfb IM  P. 

Vcfk 10,000  a 

beMdn  br  hw  pd)    fiOOO  D. 

Durluuu    9000  F. 

Cariikl« 1000  F.» 

III  tliu  ■mmtit  F  utontU  fur  florin>.  bring  wortli 
four  Hhillitijpi  Rtid  MxiM-ncc  in  our  Eiigltiili  mouej. 
D  for  niuglr  tluoilc,  Bullicicully  known  Tor  four  AU- 
Ung*.  Unruln't  not  boiiig  Vklufd  1  bvbuld  m  « 
mere  nunuU  omWoo  la  Uib  cmulogue ;  but  em 
I  why  RnchiwttT  not  ntcAt  who,  lining 
I  M  ofaaplun  to  ttit'  urhbutiop  of  GutCf^ 
tnd  Mwlnitty  in  hi*  (loiMtion.  inay  be  wfipoawl 
In  tlir  high  vnluation  n{  hU  patron.  Tbat 
BlUl  will  WflU,  Ihrn  •€•  hijili  in  wcftlth.  »hoa)«i  he 
wa  low  in  Snt-fruiti*.  (u|ivn«t  uit  uitbor*  wooden,) 
plkhiljr  ibewi  that  fttvour  wm  fiuhloaable,  m  la  all 
other  eotuu,  m  In  tho  mart  of  Ronte.  The  rat  ti 
the  tlnitlidi  bbilioprin  wvrv  not  in  Iwing  befora  the 
k  S9.  Thinilf,  hj  spiM-aU;  thf  in>|h>  httring  kMuned 
thto  poUrj  from  tb«'  cuunrit  of  Jotlm>  to  Moaa^ 
^rery  yrtat  thing  tkrj/  tktiU  hrimy  mn/o  tkre,  hml  mrjf 
rlAiy  (%ii.  du'  m-'wnty  Mt-n)  »Mt Jtidger, 
to  hlnwrif  the  ilotinitjvc  amtcnrc  in  all 
Ugh  coutTovmhw.  which  bniught  no  lonall  prottt 

*   TU*  MtildgM  WM  «.  ■"QMdnlnr.'tMwlM.k 

tnmA  wH  of  WJwy  QodwJa.  U*  C«lal«|w  «r  BidMr«,  p. 

[4»)|f«>.  ARBUB,».leo.  TW  447                 t 

iBli  r        I  bT»  npflM  ia  '  KiU.  K*t  L  i>. 


uf  Britain. 

40.  Fourthl)',  by  king  Athehvolph'e  pension  given  a.  0,1535. 
by  him    to  the   pope,   anno    852,  whereof  largely  *Viii7 
before ;  a  distinct  payment  from  Peter-pence,  {with  By  king 
which  some  confound  it,)  as  stinted  to  three  hundred  ^yj'^^;^ 
marks  ';  whereas  the  other  were  casual,  and  increased  p«»ion- 
according  to  the  number  of  houses. 

41.  Fifthly,  for  dispensations.     Oh  the  charity  of  ybiidi*- 
the  pope,  to  l«y  heavy  burdens  on  men's  consciences, 
(without  command  from  God's  word,)  too  heavy  for 

them  to  bear!  but  then  so  merciful  he  was,  for 
money  to  take  thera  ort"  again;  thus  licenses  to 
marry  within  degrees  forbidden,  for  priests'  (base) 
sons  to  succeed  their  fathers  in  a  benefice,  and  a 
hundred  other  i)ai'ticulars,  brought  yearly  a  nemo  scit 
into  the  papal  treasury. 

42.  Sixthly,  indulgences  are  next,  though  I  know  By  induig- 
not  how  essentially  distinguished  from  dispensations, 

nor  dare  warrant  the  distinction,  that  the  former  was 
against,  the  other  above  canon  law.  As  when  abbeys 
and  other  places  were  freed  from  episcopal  juris- 
diction, and  many  other  privileges  and  exemptions 
both  personal  and  conventual. 

43.  Seventhly,  by  legatine  levies;  these,  though  By  it^tine 
Dot  annual,  yet  came  (almost)  as  often  as  the  pope's 

needs  or  covetouaness  would  require  them. 

44.  Eighthly,  mortuaries  due  at  the  death  of  great  ny  roor- 
prclates,  though  I  find  not  in  what  manner  arid  pro-  ''°"'*' 
portion  they  were  paid. 

45.  Ninthly,  pardons;  he  saveth  his  credit  the Ry pardon.. 
best  who  makes  no  conjecture  at  the  certainty  of 

tiiis  revenue.  And  though  the  pope  (as  then  too 
politic  openly  to  confess  his  profit  by  granting,  so 

*  .See  air  Henry  S|)eliiiaii' 
II  2 

ell-  ]>■  3S3- 

1}  ll-rr 

1 1-*/: 


100  Thr  ihurtKllitloni  woi  *. 

rinro)  bo  t(w>  (irouil  pobliolr  to  bcmuui  bu  Iom  \rj 
•Aoy\nn^  of  llit-M.'  |Nin1<iii<>,  vet  U  bo  Mvrptljr  and 
Rulljr  Kiiwibli-*  of  a  gfvat  eiii|ititicM  in  hb  tnwNira 

46.  Teatbiy.  Potci^penoe  niceoed,  gnutted  bj  tna, 
Iclag  of  the  Wort  Saxuifl,  to  pofw  Gn-gnfr  tlw 
SeeoDil,  anno  6S6.  It  mv  a  |M>nnr  paid  for  vwrf 
ehkaamj  that  mokKl  in  England,  which  in  that 
hospitaj  ago  Iwd  fifw  MnokeleM  onca ;  the  dence  of 
cipcr-tuunrlK,  or  ia(ick-cbiinn«7»  meieljr  for  tui- 
formitjr  of  builtling.  bfitifc  unknown  in  tbotr  dajri. 
lodcod,  hf-fun*  the  roiiquf>»L,  surli  onlv  |mid  Peteiw 
\iKucv  who  wf  rp  worth  ibirty  p<*ope  in  reariy  rvnanb, 
or  half  a  mark  in  j^oodt ;  Imt  afterward*  it  waa  col- 
Imrted  p>n<^l;  of  all  iwlrablu  houiiek(<4*pen,  ami  that 
on  most  hMTT  punaltiea*. 

47.  Now  thaa|^  WMW  can  tell  what  tbaw 
anionnt4<d  to,  ]n4  eof^erttm  ma?  ho  madf.  br  d^ 
•cendioii  to  such  proportions,  which  no  rational  man 
will  deny.  Allow!rt)(  nin**  tboumnt]  pariiibtii  (abating 
the  odd  buiidtvds)  in  l-jiffland  and  \Valr«,  a  bnndrwl 
hooaea  In  vtrrj  pari«b,  two  rbimnvn  in  ewrr  boaae. 
one  with  another,  it  amctb  unt4>  a  yearly  luai  of 
Mnvn  thooaand  fire  butulrrd  pound*.  Here  I  «ay 
nothfaif  nf  the  inlriraiiail  ^-aluc  of  (heir  iwniiy,  worth 
two  pence  in  our  agt>. 

EtavMilUy,  fii^tinngOT  follow,  many  pecaoaa  of 
qualtty  going  yearly  to  Rome.  aooieUaMR  pewhiire 
wHh  faaie  Im«,  bat  new  with  mpty  haah.  But 
the  pope^  prinripal  harveat  waa  in  the  jahilw^ 
(wfcidi  of  late  weuneJ  ereiy  five  and  twenty  yea«^) 
wfaiB  Ds  fewer  than  two  hnndied  tbooMad  itwngew 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  101 

have  been  counted  at  Rome  at  once.   Of  these  more  A.b.  1535. 
than  the  tenth  part  may  be  justly  allowed  English,  * Viir'^ 
it  being  always  observed,  that  distance  increaseth 
devotion;   and  the   furthest  off,  the  forwardest  in 
will-worship  of  this  nature. 

49.  Twelfbhly,  we  conclude  with  tenths,  and  on  By  tenths, 
what  title  they  were  paid  to  the  pope  largely  here- 

50.  Here   we   speak   not  of  the  accidentals,  as  au  cannot 

bo  tnilv 

legacies  bequeathed  by  the  deaths  of  princes  andoountel 
great  persons,  and  other  casualties  and  obventions ; 
Sixtus  the  Fourth  being  wont  to  say,  that  "  a  pope 
"  could  never  want  money  while  he  could  hold  a  pen 
"  in  his  hand ;"  (understand  him,  to  grant  general 
indulgences ;)  though  Luther's  holding  a  pen  in  his 
hand  hath  since  much  marred  his  mart  herein.  Now 
certainly  Demetrius  could  tell  better  what  was 
gotten  by  making  silver  shrines  for  Diana '^  than 
St.  Paul  himself:  and  while  some  protestants  com- 
pute the  papal  profit  to  be  a  hundred  and  fifty  thou- 
sand pounds  per  annum,  some  more,  some  less,  (but 
all  making  it  above  the  king's  revenues,)  they  do  but 
state  his  income  at  random. 

51.  Only  Polydore  Virgil,  if  alive  and  willing,  Poiydon 
were  able  to  give  a  certain  account  of  the  Peter- i«^of  the 
pence,  (a  good  guess  at  the  rest  of  papal  revenues,)  ^^^j^^ 
.knowing  them  as  well  as  the  beggar  knows  his  dish, 
as  holding  the  bason  into  which  they  were  put,  being 
collector  general  of  Peter-pence  all  over  England. 
But  this  Italian  was  too  proud  to  accept  them  as 
gratuities,  (in  which  nature  they  were  first  given,) 

^  Acta  xix.  27. 
H  3 


m  TV  CAmrtM  Uittory  hm»  *. 

bnt  tatMted  tbflm  in  the  notion  of  a  reiit  uul  tribute 
due  to  the  pope  hkt  mutor. 

AS.  Hut  is  that  Poljilore  Viif^l  wliu  wm  dignituy 
of  the  cmtbetlnil  of  Wvlls.  uid.  u  I  lake  it,  aich- 
dmcoo  of  Tsuiiton,  on  the  f\mra  whrrvof  be  be- 
stowed bangiiigv  floari«be<d  with  the  laarpUnv,  u)<l, 
w  I  ranember,  wroto  upon  tbem. 

flunt  Pulytkiri  aiunn*  Vtrgiln. 
But  would  he  bad  flp«n<d  his  bmefiction  to  the 
churcb  of  WelK  on  condition  be  bad  been  no  mil^ 
ftirtor  to  tho  eburcb  nf  Knfdand ;  jea,  to  reHgloa  and 
tnuiiinj^  in  f{vnpm),  if  it  lie  Irue  what  eoounoiily  la 
report  c>d. 

SS.  For  he  wrote  a  Latin  biatovy  of  Britain,  (Vam 
the  ori^nal  of  the  ttalion  until  ainto  Dom.  ISS,  tbc 
yeta  of  kinj;  Henrr  the  Riffhtb,  out  of  many  rare 
mantncrit't"  which  hv  had  coUwtcd  toprthLY.  Now, 
partly  to  miik^-  the  n-]iutnl)on  of  hb  own  writlngi, 
thAt  hi*  niifcht  Mvm  no  lazr  tnuurrifat-r,  partly  to 
render  himwif  out  nf  the  reach  of  confutation,  beiof 
UMpeeled  not  over-laitbful  in  hi*  rvbtion.  he  ii  Mid 
to  bave  bnml  all  tfaoae  rare  aatbon  which  he  could 
ooinpaH  bito  bis  poawMinn.  Ttnu,  trrant-like,  be 
mt  down  thoae  )4«ini  whereby  be  aaeetided  tbe 
tbrane  of  his  own  knowlcdj^'.  If  tbia  he  tnie,  tbe 
world  nay  thank  Polydoro  Virgil  for  bis  work  Ar 
ImremHtme  Renm,  bat  b«T«  eanae  to  cbide  (not  to 
■ly  cmw)  hi*  nwoKiry  for  bb  act  <^  ^wrdiHwm 

54.  1  have  met  with  a  poper  of  Taw^  wUdI,  IBt* 
a  twncdfrnl  sword,  cut  on  both  fidea,  plably  it 
Pfitydnn*  \*inril,  iHit  ulMcurely  at  a  later  plaguy, 
and  in  inr  »piiiir>ti  init  unworthy  to  he  inaerted. 

CBNT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  108 

A.D.  1535. 
*7  Henry 

Leyland's  supposed  ghost.  viii. 

Am  I  deceivM  ?  or  doth  not  Leyland's  ghost 
Complain  of  wrong  sustained  after  death ; 

As  VirpPs  Polydore  accus'd  his  host, 
The  Thradan  king,  for  cruel  breach  of  faith, 
And  treasures  gain'd  by  stopping  of  his  breath  ? 

Ah  greedy  guardian !  to  enjoy  his  goods. 

Didst  plunge  his  princely  ward  into  the  floods ! 

Am  I  deceivM  ?  or  doth  not  Leyland's  spirit 
Complain  with  th^  ghosts  of  English  notaries 

Whom  Polydorus  Virgil  robbed  of  merit. 
Bereft  of  name,  and  sacked  of  histories. 
While  (wretch  !)  he  ravish 'd  English  libraries  ? 

Ah  wicked  book-thief !  whosoever  did  it. 

Should  one  bum  all,  to  get  one  single  credit  ? 

Am  I  deceivM  ?  or  doth  not  Leyland^s  spirit. 
Make  hue  and  cry  for  some  book-treasure  stealth, 

Rifling  his  works,  and  razing  name  and  merit, 
Whereby  are  smotherM  a  prince-given  wealth, 
A  learned  writer^s  travail,  wits,  and  health  ? 

AH  these  he  spent  to  do  his  country  pleasure, 

0  save  his  name,  the  world  may  know  his  treasure  ! 

1  am  deceivM ;  for  Ley  land's  ghost  doth  rest 
From  plaints  and  cries  with  souls  of  blessed  men. 

But  heaven  and  human  laws  cannot  digest 
That  such  rare  fruits  of  a  laborious  pen 
CAM  to  be  drown'd  in  such  a  thankless  DEN. 

Thus  heaven  and  all  humanity  doth  sue. 

That  Ley  land  dead  may  have  his  titles  due. 

Who  this  second  plagiary  was,  complained  of  for 
plundering  Leyland,  if  the  reader  cannot  conjec- 
ture, I  will  not  tell,  such  the  honour  I  bear  to  bis 

H  4 


104  'naClumA  Hhlwy  booi  t. 

A.D.  ijjf-ultnirmble  perfomunces,  though   herein  nut   to  be 

H<»|«t^      55'  CniHil  pnwcrr  thus  cxtingaivhn)  in  Enflmd,  it 

^^^     in  wfirtb  tmr  inquiry  whi.-rv  the  miiic  fur  the  futara 

"'™'-     WM  fixwl.  whirb  we  find  nr>t  t>nlin-ly  •i-ltM  in  »ny 

ODC,  but  BCCorditifT    to  jiistiro   uid   <i(iiity  divided 

unotigtt  nuDj  iihiin'n  tbervin. 

Ottttn        56.  And  fint,  </ tVr  UNtn  (Jnd  ikr  ikin^t  vhirA  »rt 

dMik        Goft.     UHiAt  the   Phariaeea  mid  «iu  true  in  tW 

doctrine,  thouj^  fabv  in  the  um-  thercor,  u  applied 

to  our  Saviniir,  whom  tbejr  nuitook  for  a  mcK  mtni 

Whn  ean  fifrgire  timt  h&t  God  alimef  *  lliis  pan- 

ni'iufit  |H)wi>r,  no  ]em  bh^emfHulT  than  arruftaBtlj 

naur^Mit  by  tbo  |N>jie.  rhumlnjr  nn  nliwdale  and  an- 

UioritAtivc  iKirdoiiinjr  of  mra,  wiut  humbly  nnd  Justly 

mtorvd  lo  tbi'  biffh  CJod  of  biii«eu. 

2^"*        37-  UertitutioH  wa»  nuuJe  to  the  weond  Penon  in 

tbv  Trinity  of  thai    univermi  juriadirtiou  over  the 

wholf  church  *n  U'longiiig  to  Christ  aloDc.  who  ia 

tie  akejthtrd  and  AUAofi  of  our  mmIm  ;  and  a  badge  of 

Antichrist    fur   the    pope    proudly   to    awame   the 


5H.  To  thu  Hdy  (iboM  waa  rvtored  that  iahi- 
libility  which  to  him  dutb  pnipt-rly  pertain,  aa  Mag 
the  Spirit  of  truth,  wblrb  lu'ilhcr  will  dcwciw  oor 
emu  (m.*  ilcceiTod,  uid  which  bath  pronilaed  to  lead 
bb  church  in  j^-niT&l  iuto  all  irulk,  but  never  fixed 
any  inerrability  <ni  any  (larticuhir  permn  or  fur- 
ecaaioa  df  mt^v  peraooa  wfaataoever. 
iwktat  49.  And  now,  Ciw  mis  Otaor  the  tkingt  Aat  «rv 
ZT"     Omt'*'.    The  king  eooMs  to  elahn  bis  own  right, 

nfcMnbtoCbM-  •MarkvtL 

•^Bttb  'i  IVt.  b.  15. 

wmn  ofia  M  thi  Mca*  •  Jvha  ar.  16.  and  ivi  ■}. 




CEHT.  XVI.  of  Britain,  105 

what  the  kings  of  Judah  (his  predecessors  in  sove-^D.  i535« 
reignty)  had  by  the  word  of  God,  and  Christian  viii. 
emperors  by  the  practice  of  the  primitive  times  did 
possess.  In  order  wheremito,  the  parliament  did 
notify  and  declare  that  ecclesiastical  power  to  be  in 
the  king  which  the  pope  had  formerly  unjustly  in- 
vaded. Yet  so,  that  they  reserved  to  themselves 
(besides  other  privileges  which  we  leave  to  the 
learned  in  the  law)  the  confirming  power  of  all 
canons  ecclesiastical ;  so  that  the  person  or  property 
of  refusers  should  not  be  subjected  to  temporal 
penalty  without  consent  of  parliament. 

60.  Of  this  power  thus  declared  in  the  king,  part 
thereof  he  kept  in  himself;  as,  to  call  and  dissolve 
convocations  at  his  pleasure ;  to  grant  or  deny  them 
commission  to  debate  of  religion;  to  command  arch- 
bishops and  bishops  to  be  chosen  in  vacant  sees ;  to 
take  order  for  the  due  administration  of  the  word 
and  sacraments. 

61.  The  other  part  of  power  ecclesiastical  the 
king  passed  over  to  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  as 
his  substitute ;  first,  to  grant  faculties  in  cases  not 
repugnant  to  the  law  of  God,  necessary  for  honour 
and  security  of  the  king,  formerly  wont  to  be  reme- 
died in  the  see  of  Rome;  secondly,  to  determine 
causes  ecclesiastical  in  his  court,  whence  lay  an 
appeal  to  the  court  of  delegates,  &c. 

62.  The  representative  clergy  had  power  by  the 
king's  leave  to  make  canons  and  constitutions,  whilst 
each  bishop  in  his  respective  diocese,  priest  in  his 
parish,  were  freer  than  formerly  in  execution  of  their 
office  acquitted  from  papal  dependence. 

63.  Lastly,  every  English  layman  was  restored  to 
his  Christian  birthright,  namely,  to  his  judgment  of 

I(W  Thi  Ckmrtk  ttitlor^  t^ Britain.  mm  v. 

A-i^iiu-practicaldi>civtioii'.(iii  penniiigthc  wriptani  la  hb 
*viiL  owi)  longua^'.)  formoriy  nnUlowfNl  op  in  Um  oeaan 
or  tbe  pope's  InfiUUbilttjr.  Tbut  on  the  diyluiBiny 
of  the  popo  oTciy  bird  had  his  own  ri>«thi>r :  in  tha 
pwtage  whereof^  what  be  had  Kottun  by  wcritofe 
WM  nstoKd  to  God ;  what  by  usurpation, 
baeli  to  the  Idnj^,  cbureb,  and  stale ;  what  fajr 
prasiion,  wu  romitted  to  paiticnlar  Christiana. 

r  t"  BnfT  Chrfatfaa  iMMiog 

••  UnHtf  »itUa  tU  bMudt  i7 

in*  dbaHmuet  aaA  ■nWifa  "  nnrm  Uim  dtk.  «  juirmtml 

tian  to  hia  iMrfol  MpariNn  "  mf^Jinetimt,  M  rapooM  aad 

InUi  B  jnteMot  of  Jucr«.  "  btvprat  Uia  Wt  mifUiTM 

lim,  frm^mtt  lUmgM,hM  «  ta  utLn.  Tb*  cUrf  pMtan, 

ftl  UmI  mUek  ia  gtU.    H«  ■*  >»  rt<—  c«i>  d»  wgl— t 


**isi|itnf  nrhi 

•*  iitwiutj— ,  flonfart. 

**  «|<uii  for  Ui  0WB  print*     "  ia  ■ 

hdtj    -  of  tha  dnudi  k  l  [■■illiil 
IraM    -  in  ■  DMTt  mcU  «■■■«. 






Though  lately  you  have  removed  your  habitation  into 
Shropshire,  my  pen  is  resolved  to  follow  after  and  find 
you  otit :  seeing  the  hand  of  your  bounty  hath  had  so 
long  a  reach  J  let  the  legs  of  my  gratitude  take  as  large 
a  stride :  when  you  shall  be  disposed  to  be  solitary^  and 
desirous  to  have  society  at  the  same  time,  peruse  this 
hook^  whereby  you  shall  attain  your  desired  condition. 

A  [Arms^  argent,  on  a  bend 
azure,  three  escallops  of  the 
field.  By  sir  William  Dag- 
dale's  Visitation  of  the  county 
of  Salop,  1663-4,  it  appears 
that  this  Henry  Barnard  was 
the  son  of  a  citizen  of  London 
of  the  same  name,  by  his  wife 
Margaret,  daughter  of  Bartho- 
lomew Wright,  of  Brodoke,  in 
the  county  of  Essex,  and  was  de- 
scended of  a  respectable  ^Eunily 

long  seated  at  Wighton^  near 
Beverley  in  Yorkshire.  He 
married  Emma,  daughter  of 
Robert  Charleton,  of  Whitton, 
county  Salop,  in  which  county 
he  afterwaHis  settled,  and  in 
]  663  was  in  the  commission  of 
the  peace,  «t.  48.  By  his  wife 
above  named  he  had  two 
daughters  then  living,  Emma 
and  Elizabeth.] 

n^  Chmrrh  Hutory  ■uok  «. 

lOR  twelve  months  liwl  trisbo))  Fuhfr 
I  (fonnrriT  rondpmiicd)  ik>w  lived  in 
ilaruii-e,  anil  *a  wiu  likdr  tu  coniinue, 
until  (ill  all  jtntlMibility)  litu  mhiI  Kt  ihv 
'  name  tirnr  ithrwid  1m<  fn<e<l  fmin  two 
mraii  that  of  bii  bodr  aiid  tlial  of  the 
Kor.  Iii«  lifp  cnuld  do  the  king  no  bait. 
whiiae  thnth  niif^ht  prutnirc  him  hatml.  ■»  at  ooo 
giiK'rall)^  pities)  for  hilt  0^0,  honoured]  fur  his  l«anihi|;. 
ailmlnil  for  tiix  holy  coiivfnation.  B<«id(«,  it  wma 
not  worlli  the  whilr  to  take  awar  bis  life,  who  was 
iKtl  only  morta/u,  a«  alt  men,  and  wiortijieatma^  aa  all 
IftvHl  iiifii.  but  atw  moritHnUy  as  all  olil  men,  beil^ 
{«jit  M>Ti>nty<«Jx  Team  of  age.  But  now  an  uturaaoa. 
able  act  of  the  I^ipe  afccleratcd  hia  nteeotiaii.  In 
niakinj^  him  ranlinal  of  S.  Vltalui;  a  ttttt?  wfairb 
l-VliiT  my  liltk'  nfTectei],  tluit  hi*  ]trufe<«ed,  "  if  the 
"  bai  lay  at  bin  feel,  he  would  n<it  utoop  to  take 
"  it  up  '." 

I  ftW  * 

"  batf    wovM  nm  araMt   wt 

RodMtcr  m&d  ;    •■  Sir,  I 
hww   mnM  la  W   M  iw 

k  rBorart'i  R«r.  I.  p.  707.] 

*  Lllal)  Mji  tka  raqr  ■«• 
rarMT,  umI  i*  BHif«  vomMeat. 
Anrnllac  tn  kin,  <m  Um  im 
irfMay.  itis,»|>«  PmU  HI. 
MNnbHlcd  r»feOT  csnUnd  of  "  ■■wortk^  of  uiy  mh^  ^. 
8.  Viulk.  of  wUefc  w  Moa  m  "  aitr.  thM  I  lUak  oT  wak^ 
iJm  king  hid  bidUme*.  I»        '         '        '  '     " 

MM  twcaiitWy  ta  &kii  "  to 
**  Mop  IW  fimor  of  tW  pofM 
"  fi«a  coauBf  Mjr  larllwr 
"  iaio  ha  fciiBJiMW :~  aod. 
Wm  cariein  to  ka«w  how  -  holy  otUie 
tfca  mAm  woaU  ad  ta  tb*    "  ChriM 

»«U  to'  adrartfat  Um  'of  whM 

ma  aoM.     tu  t»mia%  to  iW  taf  a  rrport  of  thto  1 

prabta'achmlor.nUtoUai;  irfWntwdt  to   tiM    kiag.   tfca 

"  Ur  Ud  <if  RaA«Ur.  wImC  hiag  mU  wHh  (ml  iiilgai 

"  woay  jroa  toy  if  t)w  pof*  tka ;  "  Vaa.  m  Im  yvl  •»  \mKff 

Mtf  t 

Aivoar  to  tW  b«(  adi 
llM  lowU  ia 


of  Britain. 


2.  His  holiness  could  not  have  studied  a  more  a.  d.  15.^1;. 
destructive  way  against  Fisher's  life,  than  to  fasten  ^  vin.*^^ 
this  injurious  favour  upon  him.    This  heightened  the  The  king 
king's  anger  into  fury  against  him.     He  expounded  ^^^ 
the  pope's  act,  or  rather  the  act  expounded  itself,  (as 
capable  of  no  other  comment,)  as  done  in  his  de- 
fiance,  and    therefore    a   warrant   is    sent   to   the 
lieutenant  for  his  execution.     Let  not  the  reader 
grudge  his  pains  if  we  describe  this  bishop  from  his 
cradle  to  (I  cannot  say  his  coffin  or  windingsheet, 
being   made  to   believe  he   had   neither,  but)   his 

grave :  the  rather,  because  I  collected  the  same  out 
of  his  manuscript  life,  compiled  by  Richard  Hall  of 
Christ-college  in  Cambridge ^  and  communicated 
unto  me  by  a  worthy  friend®.  Only  be  it  premised, 
that  the  same  Hall  was  a  stiff  Roman  catholic,  and 
therefore  accordingly  must  abatement  be  made  in 
his  relations. 

3.  This  John  Fisher,  bom  at  Beverley  in  York- Bishop 
shire,  of  Robert  his  father,  (a  wealthy  man,  and  abinhand 
kind  of  merchant,)  anno  1459,  was  by  his  parents  **'*®^**^* 
sent  ^  to  Cambridge  to  have  his  education  at  Michael- 
house,    under    Mr.    William    Melton,    his    tutor. 
Admitted,  1484  ;  commenced  bachelor  of  arts,  1488; 
master  of  arts,  1491 ;  made  proctor,  1495 ;  doctor, 
1502 ;  master  of  the  house,  thereabouts ;  bishop  of 

*'  Well,  let  the  pope  send  him 
"  a  hat  when  he  will ;  mother 
••  of  God  !  he  shall  wear  it  on 
"  his  shoulders  then^  for  I  will 
*'  leave  him  never  a  head  to 
"  set  it  on."  HalFs  Life  of 
Fisher,  p.  185.] 

^  Pitseus  de  Script.  Anglise, 
p.  802. 

^  Mr.  Huisj  esquire  beadle  of 

Cambridge.  [This  MS.  was 
afterwards  printed  in  the  year 
1655.  in  8vo.,  under  the  name 
of  Dr.  Thomas  Bailey.  The 
edition  here  used  is  the  second^ 
1739.  12**.  Several  MSS.  of 
this  book  are  in  the  British 
Museum  and  the  Bodleian.] 

^  [By  his  mother,  his  father 
dying  m  early  life.] 

110  Tit  CkmtA  HiMtorr  mkw  v. 

A. Pi  imi.  RochBrter.  lAM;  dmoMi  rhaoceltoi'  of  Cambrid)^, 
'ViiT'  1A05;  confiiBMil  rluuiccUor  nf  C-«mbri<))^>,  1514. 
"^—^  He  WM  rbapUin  ami  iMutemor  to  the  UHy  Mor- 
gmret,  ootuit«m  uf  Riclitiioml.  nl  wboHr  inuaDW  mkI 
bj  wbfMP  adTJce  nhc  foiinde<I  uwi  emlowf^  Cbrut'i 
uul  St,  John's  college  in  Cambridge.  Emptoyvd  fai 
baUiliiig  of  tho  latter,  (ber  pcttkanie  eolle|{e  of  St 
John'*,)  and  oSbctuullj  adranrlog  that  work,  hm 
wanted  the  arrnmmmlation  of  a  ronvenlmt  lodgtng. 
when  Dr.  Tbonuu  WitkioAon.  proadcot  of  QoMn'a 
rolli'jn'.  opportuDt'lr  dcjiartod  thui  life:  and  that 
■ocii-tjr  rwiucwtc^l  bUbu|i  Kutlior  to  mteeced  in  Ua 
placi%  which  he  gmtofiilly  acreptml,  laithfullv  dia- 
charged,  and  thcn-'b_T  had  tho  adranlage  to  finiah 
hii  new  college  in  the  leM  time,  to  hia  greater  ron- 

4.  Hero  I  meet  with  two  dcKcripUom  of  Fuher.aa 
eontraiy  tmA  to  other  a*  the  religitww  of  the  two 
deacriben,  wbenof  tl>e  one  waa  a  rigid  pa{ital.  the 
other  a  awlow  {wotealant : 

Ha0  in  hw  afonfid  maaiurript.  ' 

FUier  b  made  hj  Urn  a  tcit  wealthy  maa, 
haring  murh  pUl^t  an<l  (urnitnn*.  of  a  grmt  rahM ; 
and  an  for  his  libmrr,  no  btslii)|)  in  Euroitc  had  the  j 

like  anto  him,  intomueh  w  he  iiiumdnl  (an  appean^ 
■oawwbere   in  hia  letUf  to   Kranntu)  to    found  a  { 

eeOege  of  ht«  own;  but  oAcnranU,  rercnhig  hia 
laaehrthm.  in  hia  lifetime  be  bestowed  all  bis  rich 
platis  fttmlture,  and  boc4t  an  St.  John's  in  Cam- 
bridge, and  borrowed  tbo  mne  of  it  again  by 
indmrtore  imder  his  hand  and  snl  for  bis  ose  doling 
life.  Dat  H  happened,  that  at  hi*  attaintniv  the 
king's  officers  sriaed  on  all  be  bad. 

of  Britain. 


Ascham.  Commendatitianim,  Ep.  1, 
"  Joannes  Fischerus,  qjiscopua  Roffensis,  dum  fal- 
"  mm  doctrinam  nimis  perverse  defcndit,  optimas 
"  literas  in  hoc  collegio,  suis  omamentis  et  suis 
"  divitiis  denudavit.  Ilic  vir  nutii  suo  resit  hoc 
"  collegium  ;  et  propterea  in  manu  ejus  posita  sunt 
"  clarissima  omamenta,  quie  Diva  Margareta  huic 

"  collegio  elargita  est. Ejus  perversa  doctrina,  et 

"  ilium  vita,  et  nos  Bummis  divitiia  nostris  privavit'." 

For  mine  own  part.  I  conceive  no  covetousness 
(much  less  such  eacrilege)can  be  charged  on  Fisher's 
account,  it  heing  notoriously  knowii  that  liing  Henry 
the  Eighth  (who  fonnerly  favoured  him)  proBFcred  to 
remove  him  from  RocJiester  to  Lincoln  or  Ely, 
(treble  the  other  in  revenue,)  which  Fisher  refused, 
both  in  word  and  print ;  "  Habeant  licet  alii,"  saith 
heB,  "  proventus  pinguiores,  &:c,"  being  used  to  say, 
"  lie  would  not  change  his  little  old  wife,  to  whom 
"  he  had  been  so  long  wedded,  for  a  wealthier." 

5.  It  is  no  wonder  if  a  papist  and  a  protestant  Vnriu 
cannot  agree  about  Fisher's  character,  when  we  find  pisi, ' 
two  stiff'  papists  at  a  vast  distance  about  his  estate.  ^^ 
Hall,  a.1  is  aforesaid,  makes  him  very  wealthy,  which 
is  not  improbable,  considering   he  had  a  paternal 
bottom  whereon,  competency  of  revenue  wherewith, 
long  continuance  of  time  wherein,  and  commendable 
frugality  whereby  to  build  an  estate.     Not  to  speak 


'  In  favour  of  Fisher  I  have 
left  the  words  untranslated. 
(See  Ascham's  Enist.  p.  293. 
Oiford,  1703.  Fuller  undoubt- 
edly niitttukes  the  meaning  of 
''  '.  which  is  only  tbis  ; 

the  cause  of  depriving  the  col- 
let of  its  wealth  and  endow- 

«  In  his  Dedicatory  Epistle 
to  the  bishop  of  Winchester,  in 
*-'-    place  against   CEcolampa- 

tbat  Fisher's  rigid  adherence     dius,  [Colon.  1527.    See  Hall, 
to  his  religions  principles  was     17.] 

A.lxi|u.thjit  ho  KPrretl  n  good  nuitraM,  the  Udr  Mki|;»rM, 

'ViiT'^  kimwti  III  hate  rirb  eoflhn,  and  bcr  roiifi'SKir  could 

rfittiDUuid  the  keji  thereof.     Bat  on  tho  cuutnuy, 

Sondt'nl*  iiiaki«  him  u  |>oor  aa  Job ;  liwomurb  thjit 

mldieni  romiiij;  to  mnte  on    his  nipposnl   ircallh. 

found  (wfutt  wu  iiuif^kW  told)  nothings  it  «ll   be- 

hmgin^  to  him  mvc  a  great  hanvd  chtvt.     Tbeae, 

from  thi'  facinj?  uf  inm.  concludt'd  thv  Mamg  ihi^reof 

talrcT  at   least;  and   liaviriff  broktm  it  open,  fouad 

nothinfT  thcri'iti  but  MU-kc-l»th   and  a  whip ;  whiefa 

pat  them  all  lo  (M-nattrt',  and  soundly  laihrd  thdr 

roTetiiua  exp«.>ctation.    But.  loiving  hb  life,  come  w« 

now  to  the  manner  of  bin  ik«th. 

II* id.  6.  After  the  lieuti>nniit  nf  the  Tower  had  reecind 

•m  rf  hk  the  writ  for  hts  execution,  Iimwuw  it  was  then  my 

'"'^        late,  and  the  priwonn-  a»k<ep,  he  was  loth  to  diaeaaa 

him  fmm  bin  n.«l.     But  in  tho  morning,  before  five 

of  the  clwk.  be  rame  to  bim  in  hii»  rhaniber  in  tbe 

beU-towvr,  Nndiug  him  yet  a«Ieep  in  hia  bed,  and 

waking  him.  told  him.  "  He  wan  rome  to  him  on  a 

"  metmge  from  tho  king,  to  iignify  unio  him  that 

**  bio  piciuurv  wan  he  sbimld  fufTer  ileatb  thai  ftiffe> 

*•  UMMi."     •*  WeH."  quoth   the   biahop,   "  if  tfab  bo 

**  jroar  rrtand,  you  brin^  me  do  gnat  new*,  for  I 

**  have  liKikL-d  a  long  Ume  far  Ihk  mMMge.  and  I 

**  mu»t  bombly  thank  fab  m^ferty  that  it  pleanrth 

**  him  (u  rid  tiie  from  all  this  worldly  butiiMaa.    Yet, 

"  let  me  by  yiHir  patience  «h<ep  an  hour  or  twui  tut 

"  I  bare  ftlopi  very  ill  this  lught,  not  fur  any  fbar  of 

**  death,  I  thank  God,  but  by  naaon  of  my  grant 

"  Inflrmily  and  weaknew'." 

VMhh-n      7-   **  The   king*!   pleaaura   ia    further,*   mid    tbs 

t^'lZr**  lieutenant,  **  tknt  yon   ihaU   oae  aa  little  apeeeh  M 

*  09  Htb^B.  Ai«-  ^  91.  '  [H.11.  f.  iiiO 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain,  118 

may  be,  especially  of  anything  touching  his  majesty,  a.  a  1535' 
whereby  the  people  should  have  any  cause  to  viii. 
"  think  of  him  or  his  proceedings  otherwise  than 
''  well."  "  For  that,"  said  he,  "  you  shall  see  me 
"  order  myself,  as,  by  God's  grace,  neither  the  king 
nor  any  man  else  shall  have  occasion  to  mislike  of 
my  words."  With  which  answer  the  lieutenant 
departed  from  him,  and  so  the  prisoner,  falling  again 
to  rest,  slept  soundly  two  hours  and  more :  and,  after 
be  was  awaked,  called  to  his  man  to  help  him  up. 
But  first  commanded  him  to  take  away  his  shirt  of 
hair,  (which  customably  he  wore,)  and  to  convey  it 
privily  out  of  the  house ;  and,  instead  thereof,  to  lay 
him  forth  a  clean  white  shirt,  and  all  the  best  apparel 
he  had^  as  cleanly  brushed  as  might  be.  And  as  he  . 
was  arraying  himself,  his  man,  seeing  him  in  more 
curiosity  and  care  for  the  fine  and  cleanly  wearing  of 
bis  apparel  that  day  than  was  wont,  demanded  of  him, 
**  What  this  sudden  change  meant?"  sajdng,  **That  his 
**  lordship  knew  well  enough  that  he  must  put  off  all 
"  again  within  two  hours,  and  lose  it."  What  of 
^*  that?"  said  he;  "dost  thou  not  mark  that  this  is 
"  our  marriage  day,  and  that  it  behoveth  us  there- 
"  fore  to  use  more  cleanliness  for  solemnity  thereof  f* 

8.  About  nine  of  the  clock  the  lieutenant  came  Pr^wreth 
again,  and,  finding  him    almost  ready,   said,  "HehisdeathT 
"  was  now  come  for  him."    Then  said  he  to  his  man, 
"  Reach  me  my  furred  tippet  to  put  about  my  neck." 

0  my  lord,"  said  the  lieutenant,  "  what  need  ye 
be  so  careful  for  your  health  for  this  little  time, 
being,  as  yourself  knows,  not  much  above  an  hour !" 

1  think  no  otherwise,"  said  he,  "but  yet  in  the 
meantime  I  will  keep  myself  as  well  as  I  can. 

"  For,  I  tell  you  truth,  though  I  have,  I  thank  pur 

FULLER,  VOL.    Ill,  I 


TAr  CAwtA  Mftory 

A.V.  lu*.**  Ijord.  A  very  gofx)  demn*  and  villing  mind  to  die 
*'viii7  "  at  thu  praaent,  and  m  tntnt  of  liix  [nfinito  mcrrj 
"  and  goodnoM  he  will  ismtinue  it,  yet  will  1  not 
"  williiijrly  hitidor  my  lu-attb  iu  llii'  ttK-aotitnu 
**  minuto  of  an  hour,  but  ntill  prolnni^  the 
**  kmg  at  I  can,  br  tnirb  nmintnablt'  wayi  and 
**  w  Alraiglity  GtHl  bnib  iin>Tiili><l  fi>r  me."  Awl 
with  that,  taking  a  tittlt.'  book  in  liia  hand, 
WM  a  New  Teatamont  Iring  by  him.  bi<  made  &< 
OD  hit  Ibnhead,  and  wimt  out  u(  bis  pritm.' 
with  the  tieuteoaut,  bvliig  no  weak  as  that  to' 
•cant  able  to  go  down  tlie  stain ;  whvrefnve  at  th« 
atain-fbot  be  ww  token  up  iu  a  chair  butweeo  two 
of  tbe  Ueatenaot't  men,  and  canied  to  the  Towers- 
gate,  with  a  groat  number  of  wwpoM  aboat  him,  to 
be  ddiveml  to  the  HbpriiT  of  London  for  0X( 
a>a4n«fc  g.  And  aJi  they  were  mme  t«>  the  ut 
|fa>  if  hb  dnct  of  thu  llbertive  of  the  Tower,  thoy 
with  him  a  ti|wrc,  till  ntA  time 
beforp  to  know  in  what  yeadtlWi  tbe 
to  revwire  him.  During  whieh  ipaee  to 
faia  diair,  and  otandlng  on  hH  feet,  leaned  Ui 
Aotthler  to  the  wall,  ud  UfUag  Us  eyes  lovardB 
beaven.  be  opened  a  Ihtie  book  In  fab  hand,  aad 
Mid.  "O  Lofd!  this  la  tto  hut  time  (bat  crer  I 
**  diaU  open  tUa  book,  let  some  mmforuhle  pkee 
**  now  ehanee  milo  me,  wbuieby  I  thy  poor  serant 
"  majr  glorify  thee  in  thb  my  last  hour."  And  witb 
that,  looking  into  tto  book,  the  first  thinff  that  rame 
to  bis  sight  weie  these  wovds,  Hnr  f*l  aut^m  rita 
diiema,  mt  tr  eogmatemml  toimm  vrmm  l/mm,  H  ywm 
mhiMli  Jimim   CkriMtmm.     Ega  ta  ghrijiean   nftr 

•  Joha  nS.  i.  ttt. 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  1 15 

with  that  he  shut  the  book  together,  and  said,  a.  d.  1535. 
"  Here  is  even  learning  enough  for  me  to  my  life's  viii. 
"  end.''  And  so  the  sheriff  being  ready  for  him,  he 
was  taken  up  again  among  certain  of  the  sheriflfs 
men,  with  a  new  and  much  greater  company  of 
weapons  than  was  before,  and  carried  to  the  scaffold 
on  the  Tower-hill,  otherwise  called  East-Smithfield, 
himself  praying  all  the  way,  and  recording  upon  the 
words  which  he  before  had  read. 

10.  When  he  was  come  to  the  foot  of  the  scaffold.  The  man- 
they  that  carried  him  offered  to  help  him  up  the  mounting 
stairs,  but,  said  he,  "  Nay  masters,  seeing  I  am  come 

"  so  far,  let  me  alone,  and  ye  shall  see  me  shift  for 
"  myself  well  enough :"  and  so  went  up  the  stairs 
without  any  help,  so  lively,  that  it  was  a  marvel  to 
them  that  before  knew  his  debility  and  weakness. 
But  as  he  was  mounting  the  stairs,  the  south-east 
sun  shined  very  bright  in  his  face,  whereupon  he 
said  to  himself  these  words,  lifting  up  his  hands, 
Accedite  ad  eum^  et  iUuminamini^  et  fades  vestrce  nan 
confundentur.  By  that  time  he  was  upon  the  scaf- 
fold it  was  about  ten  o'clock,  where  the  executioner, 
being  ready  to  do  his  office,  kneeled  down  to  him,  as 
the  fashion  is,  and  asked  him  forgiveness.  "  I  for- 
"  give  thee,"  said  he,  "  with  all  my  heart,  and  I  trust 
**  thou  shalt  see  me  overcome  this  storm  lustily." 
Then  was  his  gown  and  tippet  taken  from  him,  and 
he  stood  in  his  doublet  and  hose  in  sight  of  all  the 
people,  whereof  there  was  no  small  number  as- 
sembled to  see  the  execution. 

11.  Being  upon  the  scaffold,  he  spake  to  the  His  speech 
people  in  effect  as  foUoweth :  people. 

"  Christian  people  : — I  am  come  hither  to  die  for 

I  2 


Tht  Chtnh  HiMlary 


**  the  fiiith  or  Christ's  boir  nilholir  churrb.  asd  I 
"  thank  Gw)  hitlu'rhi  my  stnmafh  hnth  ftcnrrd  me 
••  V117  well  tlien-tnito.  «>  (ImU  yi-t  I  linvc  not  frand 
"  death ;  wfaon>rorc  I  iloiirc  you  all  to  help  aad 
■^  aaiat  with  jmir  prayrn,  tliat  at  the  very  point  aad 
**  instant  of  disatb'i  stroke^  I  may  in  that  my 
"  moment  atiuid  §tndfit8t  without  faintinfc  in  any  one 
**  point  of  thf*  ratholic  fiuth,  five  fniui  any  faar. 
**  And  I  bt«M>ch  Almighty  God  of  bis  infitUtr  good* 
**  wm  to  «Te  tho  king  aiul  this  mdm.  and  that  it 
"  may  ploaai*  lUm  to  liold  hi»  holy  band  ov^y  it,  and 
"  aetid  the  king  a  good  council.'' 

llMaewoidf  be  apako  with  neh  a  efacorfiil  eaii»< 
tuBMWWS  Midi  a  itoot  and  eonataiil  eomage.  and  MMk 
a  mvaceDd  grarity,  that  bo  appeared  to  all  nwn  not 
only  void  of  fear,  bat  abo  gbwl  of  death. 

\%.  After  thew  few  words  by  him  uttered.  h» 
kneeled  down  00  btitb  Ma  knea^  and  wiA  eartafai 
pmyen.  Anong  wfaieb.  aa  aooe  ivported.  one  waa 
the  bynm  of  Tt  Deum  knJamtu,  to  the  endj, 
the  Pmhn.  lu  U  Dtmine  rptvari.  Then  < 
Bxeeutiooer  and  Umitd  an  handkcrchW  1 
eyei;  and  lo  tbo  lii»hop  lifting  up  hia  I 
hfart  to  heaven,  mu<1  a  few  prayrn,  whioh  t 
looj^  bat  ferrvnt  and  lU'vimt.  Whioh  I 
he  laid  hia  huad  down  over  the  mi<l*t  of  ■  little 
hk>dt,  where  the  cxecatiomtr.  boii^  nwty  witli  a 
abarp  and  heavy  axe.  cut  aninder  bis  »lvndvr  oeok 
at  one  blow,  whkb  bled  ao  abowttntly,  that  many, 
«ith  my  aittber,  wwafarod  to  tee  lo  HMwh  blood 
(■Me  oat  of  ao  lean  and  alender  a  body;  tboi^  ia  I 
my  jndgmeot.  that  might  rather  bave 
the  wndet  fraai  Ua  Ji— new  to  hia  agi^  H  htkig  I 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain,  117 

otherwise  a  received  tradition,  that  lean  folk  have  a.  d.  1535. 
the  most  blood  in  them.  \\nP 

1 S.  Thus  died  John  Fisher,  in  the  seventy-seventh  hu  age  and 
year  of  his  age,  on  the  two  and  twentieth  of  June,  *^^^*^ 
being  St.  Alban's  day,  the  proto-martyr  of  England, 
and  therefore  with  my  author  most  remarkable. 
But  surely  no  day  in  the  Romish  calendar  is  such  a 
skeleton,  or  so  bare  of  sanctity,  but  (had  his  death 
happened  thereon)  a  priest  would  pick  a  mystery 
out  of  it.  He  had  a  lank  long  body,  full  six  foot 
high,  toward  the  end  of  his  life  very  infirm,  insomuch 
that  he  used  to  sit  in  a  chair  when  he  taught  the 
people  in  his  diocese. 

14.  His  corpse  (if  our  author  speaketh  truth)  was  His  mean, 
barbarously  abused,  no  windingsheet  being  allowed  "if  true) 
it,  which  will  hardly  enter  into  my  belief.  For,^52j^*^ 
suppose  his  friends  durst,  his  foes  would  not  afford 
him  a  shroud,  yet  some  neuters  betwixt  both  (no 
doubt)  would  have  done  it  out  of  common  civility. 
Besides,  seeing  the  king  vouchsafed  him  the  Tower, 
a  noble  prison ;  and  beheading,  an  honourable  death ; 
it  is  improbable  he  would  deny  him  a  necessary 
equipage  for  a  plain  and  private  burial.  Wherefore 
when  Hall  tells  us,  that  '^  the  soldiers  attending  his 
^'  execution  could  not  get  spades  to  make  his  grave 
"  therewith,  but  were  fain  with  halberds  (in  the 
"  north  side  of  the  churchyard  of  All-Hallows, 
"  Barking)  to  dig  a  hole,  wherein  they  cast  his  naked 
"  corpse;"  I  listen  to  the  relation  as  inflamed  by 
the  reporter's  passion.  Be  it  here  remembered,  that 
Fisher  in  his  lifetime  made  himself  a  tomb  on  the 
north  side  of  the  chapel  in  St.  John's  college,  in- 
tending there  to  be  buried,  but  therein  disappointed. 
This  Fisher  was  he  who  had  a  cardinal's  hat  sent 




THr  CAurek  Hittwy 

A.P.isii.  him,  whifh  (rtnpiM.'d  st  Cnlsis)  never  ramo  on  fail 
viti.  haul :  niKl  a  monnnu-nt  miulu  for  him,  wtierpiD  hb 
body  WBH  nt'Tcr  (li*|>riii(tMl. 
Ufaqw-  15.  Our  author  rc|H>rU>th  nl^^  bow  iiiicrn  Anna 
^k  ito.  Doli'yu  fn>T**  onlfr  bui  hi'ttd  iboultl  be  brtmj^ht  unto 
her,  before  it  wu  act  np  on  LotHlon-briilfr>'>  thai  •hv 
niglit  ploBSo  beradf  with  tbu  right  thereof,  ainl,  likt; 
another  Herodiis,  Inmlt  om  the  haul  of  tlib  John, 
her  prefened  enemv.  Nor  wu  the  eontent  alooe  to 
rerilo  hii  gboat  with  tAuntJng  term*,  hot  out  of  wfitSg 
or  ipoit,  or  both,  «tnirk  btT  h«nd  agtinNt  tbo  ■ 
of  thb  dend  hmul  brout^ht  uato  bcr;  tnd  It  I 
that  one  of  Rtlier'ti  t»-th,  nifire  pmminent  t 
rmU  stnirk  into  her  banil,  ani)  not  011)5  painM  I 
for  thu  present,  hot  made  wi  deep  an  nnpi 
therein,  that  abe  earrieil  the  marlc  then-of  to  her 
gnve.  It  MenM  tUi  wm  contnij  to  the  prnvrrh, 
Morftii  mm  mordaU.  Bat  enoogh.  jva,  too  much  at 
nirh  tlaniimble  fidMbooda.  IWa  wv  fnini  Fuher  Id 
fttore.  Iitn  fifllow^riaoaer,  whom  Pfahcr'a  exeeotiaa 
hail  not  mollified  into  ronrnrmitf  to  tbe  Uof  Ui 
ph«nirr,  at  wa*  eT}iccled. 
■^^]^^  16.  Son  be  waa  to  Kir  John  More,  one  of  Oe 
matmtmijndgeu  of  tbo  King**  Renrh.  who  liTcil  to  aee 
hia  ton  pieferw^  aboTo  hinuelf.  Ilred  a  e(imm«M) 
hiwjer,  but  withal  a  gtnerml  sc-holar.  a»  well  in 
polite  na  aoUd  learning:  a  tone  poet,  neat  oialor. 
|mrp  Uuhtiat.  able  Grerian  :  he  waa  elmaen  ipeakar 
tn  the  bittiM*  of  enmmona,  mail<*  ehanrellor  fint  of 
Lonraater  dwhr.  then  of  all  KngiaiuL  (NnfonidBg 
thi'  place  with  gmal  int«>gTitT  anci  iliKTetion.  Some 
giounH  We  ba%v  in  Knglaiw),  ueitlH-r  mi  light  and 
liMwi-  aa  Mii'l.  nor  vo  rtifT  anH  hiwUng  aa  rlay,  Iwt  a 
mlilun'  of  liHb.  eonreinil  thi'  «m-*l  wtil  for  peoAt 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  1 19 

and  pleasure  to  grow  together  on:  such  the  soil  ofA.D.1535. 
this  sir  Thomas  More,  in  which  facetiousness  and  *Viil^ 
judiciousness  were  excellently  tempered  together^ 

17.  Yet  some  have  taxed  him,  that  he  "wore  a  Charged  for 
"  feather  in   his   cap,  and  wagged    it  too   often  :**  moch 
meaning,  he  was  over-free  in  his  fancies  and  con-^****^' 
ceits.     Insomuch  that  on  the  scaffold  (a  place  not  to 

break  jests,  but  to  break  off  all  jesting)  he  could  not 
hold,  but  bestowed  his  scoffs  on  the  executioner  and 
standers  by.  Now,  though  innocency  may  smile  at 
death,  surely  it  is  unfit  to  flout  thereat. 

18.  But  the  greatest  fault  we  find  justly  charged  a  gwat 
on  his  memory  is  his  cruelty  in  persecuting  poortestaot. 
protestants,  to  whom  he  bare  an  implacable  hatred. 
Insomuch  that  in  his  lifetime  he  caused  to  be  in- 
scribed, as  parcel  of  his  epitaph  on  his  monument  at 
Chelsea,  that  he  ever  was  furibus^  homicidisy  JueretU 
cisque  molestits :  a  passing  good  praise,  save  aft;er  the 
way  which  he  there  calleth  heresy,  pious  people 
worship  the  God  of  their  fathers.  He  suffered  the 
next  month  after  Fisher^s  execution,  in  the  same 
place,  for  the  same  cause,  July  6,  and  was  buriad  at 
Chelsea,  under  his  tomb  aforesaid ;  which  being 
become  ruinous,  and  the  epitaph  scarce  legible,  hath 

few  years  since  been  decently  repaired  at  the  cost 
(as  I  am  informed)  of  one  of  his  near  kinsmen™. 

19.  At  this  time  Katharine  dowager,  whom  weThedeiuh 
will  be  bold  still  in  courtesy  to  call  a  queen,  (not-ncterof 
withstanding  king  Hemys  proclamation  to  the  con-JJJIJrine 
trary,)  ended  her  woful  life  at  Kimbolton".   A  pious  ^^"S"'- 
woman   toward  God,  (according  to  her  devotion,) 

I  [For  an  account  of  his  be-     More,  p.  371.  ed.  1726.] 
haviour  at  his  execution,  see         ^  [Burnet's  Ref«  1.  p.  709.] 
More's    Life  of   air   Thomas        "  [Ibid.  p.  385.] 


rMbttfwd        J 

The  Cintreh  Hutory  wms  w. 

A.D.riji.  frequent  in  prayi*r.  wliicli  nhe  alnvn  perfonnwl  on 
viiL  titT  )huv  ktiem.  nothing  <>1m>  bt^wrvn  her  wid  the 
i-arth  intJ?rp<MM] ;  litUc  ruriotw  in  her  rIothPK,  biiag 
wont  in  My,  "  Sfaf  arnmntvcl  nn  timi*  lust  bat  what 
"  WM  Uiil  out  iu  tlremiajt  of  btT";"  though  irt 
aigbt  ix^  mort*  oxrurable  in  her,  to  whom  iwtavB 
had  not  bvi'n  iivvr-Untntiful ':  ihv  wu  mtbur  staid 
than  ftat4.'lT ;  iv«prTr<t  than  pruud ;  gmvc  from 
cndio,  intimiiuA  that  the  wai  a  natnm 
WW  a  Bother.  Thi«  bcr  natonl  gravitj  in 
with  her  aiiiRcbeiMlod  iiunrie*,  ■.•ttled  in  facr  i 
ago  into  an  habit  of  mflancholr.  and  thnt  lenninatod 
into  a  OQBauaiptioii  of  tUv  N|iirit5.  Hbv  was 
in  cbe  ablwy  church  of  Pvt^rrtMMunj^  omlvj 
hoane  of  black  my  *;  probabtjr  by  bor  own  i 
■not,  tliat  ihu  nu^ht  be  ploiD  wfaua  UmwI, 
ao^Mlod  bmrfry  of  dotltM  wbvn  livin|{.  A  noUe 
pOB'  tvlb  IU.  that  in  iutuitWtn  U>  hvr  corpae  bum 
interml,  kinf;  IIt>nry.  at  the  (lMtrurti<m  of  abboyi^ 
not  only  i|iarc<d  tbv  oiiurcb  in  Pctcrbonnij;!!,  but  alio 
advaneod  it  into  a  caitittlm).  If  m,  it  was  rinlly 
■loiH*  of  btni  not  ti)  ilistuHi  bor  iu  hur  pmra  wIkm 
bv  ha<I  m  diMjuiftud  in  btT  ImmI.     The  now*  of  bar 

■  Haflilm  Da  SdiiHmto  Am. 
flleuu.,  (p.  5.] 

r  ISm  alwn  Ih.  llnlfB.  ia 
hmllmtomjalihtlMatmmthn.     •' wiili    •    Uadi   rdvrt    nil. 
Mft  n.  Ik  S*.     Bm  SomJ.   ■     *•  trtmmi  with  wUl*  doMi  «f 
LmMbwr,    «1m    HvmI    mmeh     "  «ilnr.  »kUi  wm  >A«««* 

*flteiMdU*3»-    ••  bu  ■&  «H  •Mf*  dm  OT^ 

"  fa  IW  liaM  0/  Um  gnmi  f*. 

-  balltw,  a.  1643.-    (BatkM. 

L  c  p.  15.  fnrn  OutMi'*  Bfo- 

tW  iftf-awDad  jTMT  of  W    tanoi  Um  ColManl  (1iwdi 

y;  iiPWiWiia  to  Bonw 1.  p.    o(  PMM«Mwai|k  P  l?.)] 

ih.  h  Um  i&di.    8m  ■Im        '  U>d  IktWi  k  Ut  Bwt 

B>UM4'    Uw  Kli^Kk.  (p.  4)).) 

mtmIm  of  BW  ftvai  •!•■■• 



of  Britain, 


departure  was  not  unwelcome  to  queen  Anne  Bo-  a.  d.  1535. 

27  Henry 

leyn%  who,  though  too  good  a  Christian  to  desire     viii. 
her  death,  was  too  wise  a  woman  to  be  over-sorrow-  "—"■"■"" 
ful  for  the  same :  seeing  formerly  she  was  the  king's 
wife  but  by  sequestration,  the  true  possessor  of  Ms 
bed  being  yet  alive;  whereas  now  BehobothS  she 
conceived  God  had  made  room  for  her. 

20.  This  Anna  Boleyn  was  great-grandchild  to  a  The  cha- 
citizen,  sir  Jeflfrey  Boleyn  %  lord  mayor  of  London ;  queen  Anna 
grandchild  to  sir  William  Boleyn,  knight,  who  lived  ^"^^^ 
respectedly  in  his  country;  daughter  to  Thomas 
Boleyn,  earl  of  Wiltshire,  and  a  great  courtier :  and 
she  had  her  birth  in  England ;  blood,  by  her  grand- 
mother'*', from  Ireland;  and  breeding  in  France, 
under  Mary  the  French  queen :  so  that  so  many 
relations  meeting  in  her,  accomplished  her  with  an 
acceptable  behaviour  to  all  qualities  and  conditions 
of  people^.  Of  an  handsome  person,  and  beautiful 
face ;  and  therefore  that  pen^  that  reports  her  lean- 
visaged,  long-sided,  gobber-toothed,  yellow-com- 
plexioned,  with  a  wen  in  her  neck,  both  manifests 
his  malice,  and  disparageth  the  judgment  of  king 
Henry,  whom  all  knew  well  read  in  books,  and 
better  in  beauties ;  who  would  never  have  been 
drawn  to  so  passionate  a  love  without  stronger  load- 

>  [Burnet  says  (Ref.  ib.  p. 
388.)  that  queen  Anne  "  ex- 
"  pressed  too  much  joy  at  it, 
**  both  in  her  carriage  and 
"  dress/*] 

t  Gen.  xxvi.  22. 

▼  [Created  earl  of  Wiltshire 
after  his  daughter's  promotion, 
being  before,  as  Cavendish 
says, ''  only  a  bachelor  knight." 
Life  of  Wolsey,  p.  119.  By 
her    mother's    side    she    was 



"  nigh  of  the  Norfolk  blood : 

"  and  of  her  father's  side  line- 
ally descended  of  the  earl  of 
Ormond,  he  being  one  of  the 

"  earl's   heirs  general.'*    Ibid. 

P-  123.] 

w  Daughter  to  Thomas  earl 

of  Ormond. 

X  [Burnet,  Ref.  I.  p.  81.] 
7  Sanders  de  Schismate  An- 

glicano,  [p.  15.] 


TAt  CkwrcA  HiMtary 

A.  a  nil. 



it.     Thw 

,  rptnembrnng  bow 

:«  qiitwn,  r 
her  |iiiiilfiiiiMfir  Imt  ihi-  kiiiffo  Ioto  with  hut  orvr- 
untoritjr,  tamed  hentelf  to  a  more  open  nnd  (lt*bo- 
nair  behaTiour.  cTpn  trvanallj  to  all  with  wham 
she  couTcned.  Wliivb  being  obHTT«d  bT  ber  ad- 
TWii— » WM  tmpnived  bjr  tbMn  to  her  oT^rthraw ; 
•o  that  ibe  bot  Ifar  •  my  ibort  time  had  the  nle 
•ad  peaceable  powowoo  of  her  hatband.  In  a 
word,  Khc  wu  a  great  patroDun  of  the  protcitaali^ 
pnitfK^or  of  the  pcnecntcd,  prelbrrer  of  hmd  of 
merit,  (smoDfr  whom  Ifngb  Latimer.)  a 
Tvlifver  of  tbe  jtoiir,  anil  tho  bappj*  motber  of  t\ 

81.  On  tlic  eighth  of  June  began  a  short  bot 
•harp  imriiainont,  (iliiMilvod  the  righUvnth  of  July 
(ollowitig,)  oBwrtiDg  mucb  in  little  timt',  nimtten  it 
■eeaw  being  wed  jir^iaml  nrurvbatHl.  and  the  booae 
anemUed  ooC  to  debate,  but  do  tbu  lung**  deriiea. 
Tlio  [mmllel  convoeation  begin  the  dqr  after,  being 
one  iH-w-ni>Klfll(<d,BiMl  of  a  flidiiaa  diftrent  tnm  aD 
fonncr  mnvtKmtiacN.  Therein  tho  lord  CranweO, 
prime  Mvn-Ur;.  Mt  in  rtate  above  all  the  bbbopa. 
M»  the  king'*  vicar  or  vieegereot-genrral  in  all 
flpiritual   nuittfn'.     Deformi  tati*  ^ectaemlo,  mUk 

ifW.  I.  p.  3&S.)  tfcM*  wn  mt* 
*■  TIm  in*  Ml  al 

■q.wtWWilinpi.  — rIeJW 

iCnmwtU  view- 

tU   kW*    -I" 

1.  Ml  yrd  rfailar  "  annAmea   min  llw    nnl 

tW  ww^«w<»  Md  "  Iniljr.  M   it  aotlMd    Urn 

— ly.iwi/iwm»bd»riUi  "  of  llw  ltW«  »)Mb  mw 

bwiM<li|nihT<^vic»-  ••  ta  ii  iliili»liil«fcl»«.*  B^ 

b  mliiiiiliMl  MMt-  ColUw  pram  Umi  W  k  nb> 

-of  aU  tW 
"  atfaar  pfMligil 

-  IM«  1    Ui  Otuf   mwn  lw»    ukM  (m«  Bed.  IIhi.  11- 
•  diiiraM  plMM.  Mil  l»U  br     104  >■  Ml  hM  imUUnJ  d 


of  Britain. 


my  author,  indocto  laico  ccetui  pnssidente  sacratorum  a,d.  ts$$. 
antistitumy  omnium^  qtios  ante  Jubc  tempora  Anglia  *Viil^ 
unquam  habuissety  docttssimorum\  In  one  respect, 
that  place  had  better  become  the  person  of  king 
Henry,  than  this  lord  his  proxy,  all  allowing  the 
king  a  very  able  scholar.  But  Cromwell  had  in 
power  and  policy  what  he  lacked  in  learning,  if  he 
may  be  said  to  lack  it,  who,  at  pleasure,  might  com- 
mand the  borrowing  thereof  from  the  best  brains 
and  pens  of  those  of  his  own  party  in  the  convo- 

22.  This  convocation  consisted  of  two  houses :  the  The  sUenoe 
lower,  of  the  clerks  and  proctors  of  their  respective  bots  of  the 
cathedrals  and  dioceses,  with  the  deans  and  arch-^^^ 
deacons  therein :  the  upper,  of  the  bishops,  with  the 
lord  abbots  and  priors,  (I  mean  so  many  of  them  as 
voted  as  barons  in  parliament,)  as  may  appear  by 
their  several  subscriptions**.     However,  I  find  not 
the  abbots  active  in  any  degree  in  canvassing  matters 
of   religion.      Whether  this  proceeded   from   any 
desire   of  ease,   their   laziness  being    above   their 
learning,  or  out  of  humility,  counting  it  more  proper 
to  permit  such  disputes  to  the  sole  disposal  of  the 
bishops,  as  most  concerned  therein,  or  out  of  fear, 
loth  to  stickle  on  religion,  knowing  on  what  ticklish 
terms  they  stood.     For,  in  this  very  parliament,  all 

commission  in  which  Cromwell 
is  appointed  vicegerent,  vicar- 
general,  commissary,  special 
and  principal,  with  all  the 
power  which  belongs  to  the 
supremacy  of  the  king  ;  see 
his  Collection  of  Records,  N°. 


^  Godwin's   Annals,    A.  D. 

1536.  [p.  202.  ed.  1653.     He 

signed  the  articles  of  reli. 
gion  printed  below,  before  all 
the  bishops  and  others.] 

^  Concordatum  erat  per  ho- 
norandum  virum  [Cromwell] 
et  reverendos  episcopos  abba- 
tes  et  priores  domus  superioris 
acta  convocationis  celebrat,  an. 
1536.  fol.  antepenult. 

[See  Burnet,  I.  p.  388.] 

IM  Th»  C/^rrA  tf  ufwy  mob  v. 

A.aiuf.ftbben  wliloh  <miM  not  <ii«p«iic)  800/.  a  jtn 
*  vnT'  frrro  dtMoIvud,  and  hfctnwt-d  on  the  kin^f;  md 
tboM  rich  abbnu  (whirli  luul  mora  than  m  many 
tfatMnaudt  yeorij^)  knew  tiial  maxim  m  loffle  to  bo 
trac,  Mugit  et  Miuta  moa  varituU  rp&dem,  **  mnro  and 
"  Um  dn  not  alter  the  Idnd  ;**  and  might  mjr  wiA 
him  on  the  ertMi,  they  werr  i»  lie  i 
liany  tboi^  aa  jet  the  lentenco  was  not  [ 
tudhinmi  93.  We  will  ob«!m  the  duly  rootioiu  in  thb 
II  ■!!  I  coaTocalion,  a»  with  mine  own  liand  I  hAvi*  fiUth- 
AiUy  tiBDKiibed  them  ovt  of  tbe  ReooitLi:  Ilogfa 
Itftimjer,  biahop  of  Worcuitcr,  taaA*  the  l<atia 
asnooa,  takit^t  for  hia  text.  71i  ckiUrm  of  lAia 
morU  ata  ra  Iketr  ymeratiom  wiaer  Uum  tie  ekMnm 
t^tiyit'.  On  tbe  Friday  folhiwinf  Richard  < 
arrhdncon  or  l»niloii,  wa>  [irrafUtwl.  and  e 
protocutnr  in  this  conTocatiot].  f>n  tbe  i 
mBBlt'r  William  Pftcr.  doctor  «f  the  bwi,  came  IBM 
the  hoiue.  a«  defulL'd  tvitn  hit  maHtur  tbe  lord 
Cromwell,  wbo  could  not  be  [vmenl,  becanae  of  Ua 
gnater  anpliqrBMM  ia  pariiararat.  Thia  Dr.  Vwtm 
eWmed  the  higheat  pbee  in  tbe  boue^  a>  dse  to  Ua 
luMlcr  the  kwd  CtnnweU.  ideo  pHiil  , 

and  he  (dudl  I  aay  reqoeited.  or)  reqnitBd  t 
prraMlcncy.  a>  dtw  to  him.  lit*infr  hi*  |»n>c^<ir,  and 
tibtaim'd  it  acei>rdin)flT,  withoat  any  itirput*-.  Thoogfa 
atttdL*.  jMfrhaiHH-.  might  (|iu>tton  whcllKT  a  dc]>uty'a 
dei'iily  (n*  om*  di*frn^'  furtht-r  n'inoTr><l)  mijfht  |in>- 
[NfriT  rtaini   bi»   )>tart^-  «bi>   ww  |irimitirL'ly    rvjmv 

I.  ^  ao}.) 


of  Brit  am. 


gented.     Next  Wednesday  came  in  the  lord  Crom- a.  0.1535. 
well  in  person,  and  having  judiciously  seated  himself    viii. 
above  all,  tendered  unto  them  an  instrument  to  be 
publicly  signed  by  all  the  convocation,  concerning 
the  nullity  of  the  king's   marriage  with  the  lady 
Anna  Boleyn®. 

24.  Some  ten  days  before ^  archbishop  Cranmer  a.  0.1536. 
at  Lambeth  held  an  open  court,  in  the  presence  of  solemnly 
Thomas  Audley,  lord  chancellor,  Charles  Brandon,  ^nna  Bo- 
duke   of  Suffolk,  and  most  of  the  privy  council. ^,?^ 
Wherein  the  king  and  queen  were  cited  to  appear, 
as  they  did  by  their  proxies,  doctor  Richard  Samp- 
8on«f  being  the  king's,  and  doctor  Nicholas  Wotton^ 
the  queen's.     Then   proceeded   the   archbishop   to 
discuss  the  validity  of  their  marriage,  and  at  the 
last,  by  his  definitive  sentence,  pronounced  the  same 
"  invalid,  frustrate,  and  of  none  effect'."     No  parti- 

«  [Which  they  signed  on 
the  28th  of  the  same  month. 
See  Wilkins  as  above.] 

f  [The  word  ten  must  not 
be  interpreted  literally.  The 
queen  received  sentence  on  the 
1 7th,  (Burnet^  Ref.  I.  p.  409.) 
and  was  beheaded  on  tne  19th 
of  May  1536.  On  which  day 
a  dispensation  was  granted  by 
the  archbishop  of  Canterbury, 
authorizing  a  contract  of  mar. 
riage  between  the  king  and 
lady  Jane  Sejrmour.  (See  Cat. 
of  Manuscripts  for  the  Foe. 
dera,  p.  188.)  The  convo- 
cation began  to  sit  the  9th  of 
June,  and  Cromwell  made  his 
motion  for  confirming  the  sen- 
tence of  the  invalidity  of  the 
king's  marriage  on  the  aist. 

S  [Dean  of  the  chapel,  and 
afterwards     bishop     of    Chi- 


^  [£t  Joh.  Barbour.  See 
Wilkins,  ib.  p.  804.] 

i  [The  king  wrought  upon 
her  fears  to  confess  a  pre-con- 
tract, and  so  it  was  judged  that 
her  marriage  was  null  and  void. 
The  record  of  the  sentence  is 
burnt,  but  these  particulars  are 
repeated  in  the  act  that  passed 
in  the  next  parliament  touch, 
ing  the  succession  to  the 
crown.  Burnet,  Ref.  I.  p.  409. 
It  is  plain  that  Cranmer  was 
both  a  mournful  and  unwilling 
agent  in  this  affair ;  for  on  the 
confession  of  the  queen,  the 
result  could  not  be  otherwise. 
See  also  his  earnest  letter  in 
behalf  of  the  queen  in  Burnet, 
Ref.  I.  p.  402,  and  Cranmer's 
Works,  I.  p.  163.  Further  in- 
terference on  his  part  was  pre- 

190  TAc  CMurtA  Hutory  woi  t. 

A.11^  iu6.  cnkr  cmtuo  i»  ipceiGcd  in  tbat  iKiiti>nr«\  (Ntill  uKtuit 
niu^  in  ttx)  Beooni,)  nud  tlioufHi  (Ik-  jiutf^*  uiA  mart 
aecmed  abatMlmntl}'  mtwfifnl  in  tlie  n'sttoiw  of  tkk 
nullity,  Tf't  nmoi-ftlitig  the  mmo  untn  UiiiittclTe^ 
tfaoy  thouffht  iwt  fit  to  mmmunioUt'  Uiii  ttvaaura  to 
poMcrity;  oxcfpt  tbi'T  «liut  thiir  c^iHtTi  on  paryam, 
beoMHW  tbtft'  wiu  nothinjr  in  (hi-m.  Sun*  1  am, 
thcro  b  nn  thuhiiif;  <m  ihv  crLitit  of  t)ii>  lattv,  i 
any  the  Inwt  inRiniuilionvof  incliutity  in  that  i 
int'ht :  Prttclarti  dt'tminn,  rt  ureuwimtt  RyilMi,h 
tbc  vntnl  title*  that  aiv  pwi  hor  tfaomn. 
I*!***  85.  Mvn    may  justly  ihaitpI  what  kinjr    llrnry 

A^htai^  meant  hy  thii  aokinn  and  WTtmonlcHu  dimrrr, 
*h4h««.  which  the  edge  of  the  axo  or  nroid  waa  mmn 
efleotuidly  to  pLifnrm  the  day  after,  ber  death  hdag 
'  thflo  deaifpivd.  Was  it  brcsoaii  bo  atood  oo  Ibia 
panetnio  or  eritidni  of  credit,  tbat  be  tnigtit  iMit 
hereafter  bo  cfaar;^  with  cniulty  fiir  cxe-cutinx  hi* 
wife,  tbat  flnt  he  wimU  be  divurrmi  fntm  bpr,  aod 
ID  eaanot  be  nid  to  pat  bia  queen,  hut  Anna  Boleyn 
to  dnalhl  Or.  did  be  tint  but  Imn-ly  intend  her 
divutVR,  and  aAmrnr<l«  wuijioetinjit  this  wituld  n«it 
make  ■uffideut  aToidaooe  in  bin  bed  to  clear  all 
eUima,  took  np  new  molutiom  to  take  away  her 
Ufc!  Or,  waa  it  beeaoae  be  eiinreived  tlu<  ciecotkMi 
wottU  only  veadi  tbe  root,  the  qneen  becvflC  and 
not  hhat  tbe  bnuich.  the  lady  Elixabotb,  whon  hj 
lUa  diTDTDC  be  deatred  to  render  illogitimBto  r  Wha^ 
ever  bi>  aims  were,  he  got  ber  dimreo  euDunied 
both  by  eoDTocation  and  i«riiamentJ.  IntereiCing  all 


WakiM-  C»hU.  hi.  m.  «e5.1 


CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  127 

equally  therein,  that  hereafter  none  should  accuse  a.  d.  1536. 
him  of  this  act,  but  first  they  must  condemn  them-     viii. 
selves.     However,  after-ages  take  the  boldness  to  ' 

conceive,  that  the  greatest  guilt  of  Anna  Boleyn 
was  king  Henrjr^s  better  fancying  of  another,  which 
made  him,  the  next  day  after  her  death,  to  mourn  so 
passionately  for  her  in  the  embraces  of  a  new  and 
beautiful  bride,  the  lady  Jane  Seymour^. 

26.  But  to   return   to   the   convocation.      That  The  convo- 
mstrument   of    divorce   was    no    sooner    tendered  om  to 
therein,  but  all  subscribed  it.     The  papists  willingly,  king  in  all 
the  protestants  faintly,  but  all  publicly.     Yea,  in*'"^' 
this  convocation   nothing  was  propounded   in  the 
king's  name,  but  it  passed  presently.     O  the  ope- 
ration of  the  purge  of  a  priemunirey  so  lately  taken 

by  the  clergy  (and  an  hundred  thousand  pounds  paid 
thereupon) !  How  did  the  remembrance  thereof  still 
work  on  their  spirits,  and  made  them  meek  and 
mortified !  They  knew  the  temper  of  the  king,  and 
had  read  the  text.  The  lion  hath  roared,  who  will 
not  fear^  ?  Gardiner  the  fox  durst  not  so  much  as 
bark  to  oppose  the  king,  nor  the  proudest  in  the 
place.  As  for  Edmund  Bonner,  archdeacon  of  Lei- 
cester, present  and  active  in  this  convocation,  I  may 
say,  Bonner  was  no  Bonner  yet,  but  a  perfect  Crom- 
wellist,  and  as  forward  as  any  to  promote  his 

27.  On  the  Friday  following  Mr.  Gwent  the  pro-  a  catalogue 
locutor  brought  to  the  upper  house  of  convocation  a  opinions 
book  containing  the  m(da  dogmata^,  those  erroneous  ^nii^B 
doctrines  then  (as  he  complained)  publicly  preached, 


^  [Ibid.  p.  416.]  "  ciouatores  infra  provinciam 

*  Amos  iii.  8.  "  Cantusr.      publioe      prsdi- 

"»  ["  Mala  dogmata  per  con-     "  cata."] 

vm  r^a 

jt»3       c    «f 

diem  it!f«»  :rui»rTTiiif«i    mc  <if  :atf  !«!«vii«L  Mfttr  fi^ 

^^riW^fr^iA  '^^'  rif'  ^wJb»  ^b^  -Muh^  r^Mib  Am^ 

**  In  ▼^rr  hombie  xdA  nfvirfviit  omiiirr.  with  prrv. 
**  U'^catkvo,  Hfeti  v^  ibe  ^kuTTj  of  the  li>«er  boajni* 
^  vtthm  the  p<mr:nre  *4  Carvf^mrr.  Mtht^  in  won!, 
*•  #WrL  r,r  rithf-rwi^e,  dLrertlr  or  imlirvrthr.  intriKl 
**  Mnj  tb;n/,  Ub  ^^^'^^  att^^npc  «ir  d*v  which  in  mnt 
**  manner  '#f  wim*  mar  U*  db^^'AAnt  anto  the  kin^V 
••  h)trtif>e«i,  r«f  m^Mt  dn-ad  soveivign  loni  an^l  «i- 
•  fm^m*'  \wt'%A  of  thi-  rhiirrh  of  KnsHand ;  bat  in  all 
••  ttiiug^  irrriffliny  U^  the  cnmniand  of  CtmL  to  !m» 
••  m/iiit  otif^ii-nt  to  hi'i  jrraee,  to  whom  armrdinyly 
••  wf  •fjlimit  #inirvidirf%  minding  in  no  wi^*  hx  anv 
••  f^ffUmmUU'  fashion  to  nHNkjjni***'*  pririlj  or  ajuTtlr, 
*•  iJm*  Iii4i#»fi  of  llome,  or  hi*  usurpiNl  autboritr.  or 
in  any  wiwi-  to  hrinjr  in,  dt-f^nd,  or  maintain  the 
mt994%  iuUf  tbifi  noble  n-alm.  or  dominioa<i  «>f  tbt* 
'*  aAfni* :  Imt  ttiat  the  Mone  binhop  of  Kome,  with  ht^ 

•     I    lii»»     ruM    titt'ti    *l.l.-   to    fiiul    an\     (KIk'T    Ci»p5     tif    till* 

( EMT.  XVI.  nf  Biitam.  189 

"usurped  authority,  utterly  for  ever  with  his  in-A-D- 's^fi- 

"  ventions,  rites,  abuses,  ordinances  and  fashions,  to     viii. 

"  be   renounced,    forsaken,   extinguished   and    abo- 

**  U*hed ;  and  that  we  sincerely  addict  ourselves  to 

"  Almighty    God,    his    laws,    and    unto    our    said 

"  sovereign  lord  the  king,  our  supreme  head  in  earth, 

*'  and  his  laws,  statutes,  provisions  and  ordinances 

"  made  here  within  his  grace's  realm.     We  think  in 

"  our   consciences   and   opinions   these    errors    and 

"  abuses  following  to   have  been,  and  now  to  he, 

"  within    this    realm,   causes    of  dissension   worthy 

"  special  reformation.     It  is  to  wit, 

i.  "  That  it  is  commonly  preached,  taught,  and 
"  spoken,  to  the  slander  of  this  noble  realm,  dis- 
"  quietness  of  the  people,  damage  of  Christian  souls, 
"  not  without  fear  of  many  other  inconveniences  and 
"  perils,  That  the  sacrament  of  the  altar  is  not  to  be 
"  esteemed ;  for  divers  light  and  lewd  persons  be  not 
"  ashamed  or  afeared  to  say.  Why  should  I  see  the 
*'  sacring  of  the  high  mass  ?  Is  it  any  thing  else  but 
"  a  piece  of  bread,  or  a  little  predie  round  robin? 

ii.  Item,  "  That  they  deny  extreme  unction  to  he 
"  any  sacrament. 

iii.  Item,  "  That  priests  have  no  more  authority  to 
"  minister  sacraments  than  the  laymen  have. 

iv.  Item,  "  That  children  ought  not  in  any  wise  to 
"  be  conlirmed  of  the  bishops  afore  they  come  to  the 
"  age  of  discretion. 

V.  Ifcm,  "  That  all  ceremonies  accustomed  in  the 
"  church,  which  are  not  clearly  expressed  in  scrip- 
"  tare,  must  be  taken  away,  because  they  are  men's 
"  inventions. 

vi.  Item,  "  That  all  those  are  antichrists  that  do 



\  /titlory  BOM  V. 

'  deny  tbo  Iivbimi  I)h>  mmtncnt  n(  the  alUff  mI 
*•  Hirtuptr  nftrrif. 

vii.  //nn.  "  Tliat  kII  tliat  bp  ptvM>nt  at  m»m.  and 
"  do  not  rtvrivp  tlif  mrmmcnt  with  the  prkM*  an 
"  not  [mrtnkcn  of  the  tni<l  nmm. 

TJti.  ttem,  -That  it  is  prrarhtnl  niid  tanj^hl.  That 
"  l)io  rlmit-h.  that  i«  rotniiionlT  lak^ri  frirtlip  chutrh. 
"  if>  itif  oM  djtuipopiip ;  and,  that  th<'  rhuivh  is  tbc 
**  roniy^vgat  ion  of  pootl  mem  onljr, 

)x.  firm,  "  It  m  pnwhod  agakut  the  litany,  and 
■*  aim  mid.  Tliat  it  wiui  tK'Ttf  tnnrj  in  EaglHid 
**  aithi-nro  lhi.>  IJtarrT  wan  ordatm^.  and  mwM 
"  Maria,  tanrta  Cnl/tttriHa,  iif.  mingvn  and  nid. 

X.  Ittm,  ••  That  a  man  liath  no  free-v^U. 

%i.  /trm,  '•  That  fiod  Twvfr  jfavr  fnev  nor  k»ow- 
**  IHfTt*  of  holy  trripturp  to  any  ^rrvat  MitaW  or  rieii 
**  man.  and  that  they  in  nowiw  follow  the  muM. 

zii.  firm.  **  TItat  alt  tvli^onN  and  fimfpMdam.  what- 
••  BocTrr  thi'T  be.  an-  rlran  contrary  to  Qiriil^ 
"  rrllfpon. 

xiii.  firm,  >*  That  it  hu  pn<ach<Hl  aiid  Mttj^t,  TluU 
"  all  thtnfTB  ftujrbt  tn  bo  rommfln.  and  that  priiata 
**  should  have  wivi<«. 

xir.  Item^  **lliat  prearfacn  will  in  oowiae  twiHiM 
"  thratsdvcs  otf  teeMcm  ratkoHMm,  nm  atak  or 
**  TvMve  eamtmitm  el  jtroMnt  tmtkore*,  but  'will 
"  haT(>  thi'ir  own  fiutdes  and  imvntioiu  preaebed 
"  and  H^t  forward. 

>▼.  /tern,  "  That  Imajini  of  lahtts  air  not  in  any 
"  wise  to  be  TWrn-nrrd  ;  atid,  tltat  it  b  plain  idofaurr 
"  and  abomtnatioa  to  srt  op  any  liffai*  hpfi>n>  any 
**  inagea,  or  in  any  |dac-t>  of  the  rhtuvh  the  ttaie 
**  of-Avlne  fBrrire.  as  Uin^  as  tbr  mn  pfftfa  HglM. 



CEVT.  xvi.  of  Britain.  181 

xid.  /iS0f»,  ''That  it  is  idolatiy  to  make  aoy  ob-A.D.is3i. 
« lations.  ^^^ 

xvii.  Item^  "  That  it  is  as  lawfiil  to  christen  a 
''  child  in  a  tub  of  water  at  home,  or  in  a  ditch  by 
^  the  way,  as  in  a  font-stone  in  the  church. 

xviii.  Item^  **  That  the  water  in  the  font^stone  is 
^  akmely  a  thing  co]]{|uied. 

xix.  Item,  *'  That  the  hallowed  oil  is  no  better  than 
^  the  bishop  of  Rome  his  giease  or  butter. 

XX.  Itemj  ''That  priests'  crowns  be  the  whore's 

marks  of  Babylon. 

xxL  Item,  "  That  the  stole  about  the  priest's  neck 

is  nothing  else  but  the  bishop  of  Rome's  rope. 

audi.  Item,  ^  That  images,  as  well  of  the  crucifix 
'^  as  of  other  saints,  are  to  be  put  out  of  the  church, 
"  and  the  relics  of  saints  in  no  wise  to  be  reyerenced. 
"  And,  that  it  is  against  God's  conmumdment,  that 
"  Christian  men  should  make  courtesy  or  reverence 
**  to  the  image  of  our  Saviour. 

xxiii.  Item,  ^  That  it  is  no  sin  or  oflfence  to  eat 
"  white  meats,  eggs,  butter,  cheese,  or  flesh  in  the 
"lent,  or  other  fasting-days  commanded  by  the 
"<;hurch,  and  received  by  consent  of  Christian 
"  people. 

xxiv.  Item,  "Tlbiat  it  is  lawful  to  eat  flesh  on 
"  Good  Friday,  as  upon  Easter  day,  or  oth^  times 
"  in  the  year. 

XXV.  Item,  "  That  the  sinner  offending  in  the  lent, 
^  or  other  high  feasts  of  the  year,  is  wortJiy  no  more 
''  punishment  than  he  that  transgresseth  ip  any 
''  other  time. 

xxvi.  Item,  "  That  confession  auricular,  absolution, 
"  and  penance,  are  nother  necessaiy  nor  profitable 
"  in  the  church  of  God. 

>U^«f  heA  fcwn.M4toHi  I 

sill.  Am.  -TkK  U  U  m 

'  M  %  fniat*  am,  wti  ^  m  w^  m  W  hi^si 

'fthMulw  or  looa»aay  maa  ft«^  the  i 
xzxJT.  /ha,  "Tlal  it  b  ■o<  i 

-  to  bne  1*7  dincli  or  rhf  tl  to  pnj  ii^  or  ••  4b 
"  M17  4iviBe  MntM  In. 

■ss*.  Ahm.  -  Hmc  tbe  rfcnnh  «m  ■ 

-  odMr  pvpoM,  h«  otber  to  kccfi  the  | 
-«M  Md  nfa.  o(h««ln  t^  tlw  1 

-  the  wof^iif  God  dfclwed  nmo  then. 

iiivi.   Am,  "Tim   boiTv^  ia  chwihw  I 
*  chwvbTwdi  be  nnpniCtaUe  aad  vbIb. 

mrti  /(na.  "  That  tbe  rich  Mil  eeitfy  a 
**  hi  the  pborrh  arc  fBther  hi| 
"  piMMim  or  hockoor  toGed. 

nnttt.  /laM.  -TbM  it  te  pity  that  ttvr  tbe  n 
"  — rtw^  BTHMuuy,  or  UT  Other  diTioe  lerwe 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  188 

"  made,  or  suffered  to  be  read,  said,  or  sung  within 
"  any  church,  because  it  is  only  to  the  deluding  of 
"  the  people, 

XX3CUE.  //cm,  "  That  saints  are  not  to  be  invocated 
"  or  honoured ;  and  that  they  understand  not,  nor 
"  know  nothing  of  our  petitions,  nor  can  be  me- 
"  diators  or  intercessors  betwixt  us  and  God. 

xl.  Item,  "  That  our  lady  was  no  better  than 
"  another  woman  ;  and  like  a  bag  of  jiepper  or 
"  safiroii  when  the  spice  is  out :  and  that  she  can  do 
"  no  more  with  Christ  than  another  sinful  woman. 

x!i.  Item,  "  That  it  is  us  much  available  to  iiray 
*  unto  saints,  as  to  hurl  a  stone  against  the  wind : 
"  and  that  the  saints  have  no  more  power  to  help 
"  a  man,  than  a  man's  wife  hath  to  help  her 
"  husband. 

xlii.  Item,  "  That  dirige,  commendations,  mass,  suf- 
"  frages,  prayers,  almsdeeds,  or  oblations,  done  for 
"  the  souls  of  them  that  be  departed  out  of  this 
'•  world,  be  but  vain  and  of  no  profit. 

xliii.  Item,  "  That  the  souls  departed  go  straight 
"  to  heaven,  other  to  hell. 

xliv.  Item,  "  That  there  is  no  mean  place  between 
"  heaven  and  hell  wherein  souls  departed  may  be 
"  afihcted. 

xlv.  Item,  "  That  if  there  be  a  place  where  they 
"  be  punished,  God  is  not  yet  bom,  nor  ho  that 
"  shall  redeem  the  world. 

xlvi.  Item,  "  lliat  jirayers,  suffrages,  fasting,  or 
"  almsdecds,  do  not  help  to  take  away  any  sin. 

xlvii.  Item,  "  That  there  is  no  distinction  of  sins 
"  after  this  sort,  sin  to  be  venial,  and  sin  to  be 
"  mortal. 

xlviii.  Item,  "That  all  sins,  after  that  the  siraier 
K  3 

A.D.  iji6, 



gVCJMrrl  Mtnrjt 

A-Vju*-'  be  ooee  eaawtcd,  an  awde  br  tbe  Biertii  of 
*Vta'  *  ClniK'f  pM^oa  tomU  nw.  tktt  fat  to  i^,  du 
"  dean  finTifi»'<tL 

xlix,  //m.  *•  Tbst  Almif(fatT  God  doth  not  Isok 
"  feft  nor  jd  rc«inin.>  of  «  rinoer  aftcff  Ui  uuuviuiiia 
"Iha  fin  mj  teeing;  alnudced,  or  mf  alhcr 
^'twnutoe;  bM  oal]r  tkat  tka  rinnor  ba  Mnjr  ftr  Ui 
**  riM,  WMiKliBg  Ui  life,  md  rinniqf  do  man. 

I  /Ion,  **Tbak  bmllowod  wmter,  bnllowod  brand, 
"  hallowed  eaodlei,  hallowHl  arfia,  hallowed  pafan, 
**  and  mrii  Ufce  eonBoaiaa  of  the  ehnreh,  ara  at 
-  Moa  eabot  and  to  ba  taka  miMm  aad  vanlli« 
**  to  aednM  the  people. 

U.  /b^,  -That  holidaT*  ordaiaM  aad  I 
**  by  the  church  are  not  to  be  olwerrod  i 
**  tcverenre,  iiunnuoh  vi  all  tltrtt  and  t 
*■  and  that  tonile  work*,  u  pkmghiaf  aad  i 
**  majr  be  done  in  tlie  tame.  withoBt  any  c 
"  all.  ■■  in  other  ferial  dan. 

lii.  Itrm,  "That  the  linjrinft  or  mjinfi  of  mam, 
"  matJnn,  or  evaamnf ,  ia  but  a  muiof.  howfing, 
"  whittliiiff.  mummiiiy.  ronjitring  and  jufirtinf :  and 
"  the*  pinTinfT  at  the  or|taBf  a  foolbh  nnif  j. 

IHL  Item,  -  That  piljrrimafrfs  fiutinfr.  almedeadi, 
"and  focb  tike,  are  not  tn  Iv  ux-d;  and  that  a 
**  man  ia  not  bnmnd  to  the  oburrh,  bot  only  to  the 
"  pnaehiag. 

liv.  Iiem,  -  That  U  b  nfieieat  and  aaa^gh  fe» 
**  believQ.  tboDffa  a  Ban  4o  no  good  wocfca  at 

1*.  Jimi,  -  That  nwn  be  Mt  eoatent  to  praacb  of 
**  oaftaia  abnaea  fimnd  ia  |dlgiiaiag«h  la  b«tiag,  tn 
"  pmrar.  in  laTocation  ot  aalnta,  in  reTn-flDciaf  of 
"  1^1 1,  ia  almadewk  bat  tb^  will  ban  naeda 

CKNT.  XVI.  uf  Brilaiii.  135 

"  the  thine  itself  taken  away,  and  not  enouch  theA.D.  1536. 

«     u  *     1.  f  1  18  Henry 

"  abuses  to  be  reiormed.  vin. 

Ivi.  Item,  "That  by  preaching  the  people  have 
"  been  brought  in  opinion  and  belief,  that  nothing  is 
"  to  be  believed  except  it  can  be  proved  expressly 
"  by  scripture, 

Ivii.  Item,  "  Tliat  it  is  preached  and  tauglit,  that 
**  forasmuch  as  Christ  hath  shed  his  blood  for  us  and 
"  redeemed  us,  we  need  not  to  do  any  thing  at  all 
"  but  to  believe  and  repent,  if  we  have  oflended. 

Iviii.  Item,  "  That  there  is  of  late  a  new  cmifiteor 
"  made  after  this  form,  Confitmr  Deo  cceli  et  terrep, 
"  pcccapt  nmis  cogitatioiie,  locutions,  et  opere,  mea 
"  culpa.  Ideo  deprecor  majestaiem  tttam,  ut  tu  Dews 
"  deifos  iiiiquitatem  mmm,  et  vos  nrare  pro  me. 

lix.  Itait,  "  That  it  is  preached,  that  because  auri- 
"  cular  confession  hath  brought  forth  innumerable 
"  vices,  it  is  clearly  to  be  taken  away. 

Ix.  Item,  "  That  the  canon  of  the  mass  is  the  coni- 
"  ment  of  some  foolisli  unlearned  ])riest :  and  that 
"  the  names  of  the  saints  there  expresse*!  are  not  to 
*'  be  rehearsed. 

Ixi.  Item,  "  That  water  running  in  the  channel  or 
*'  common  river  is  of  as  great  virtue  as  the  holy 
"  water. 

IxU.  Item,  "  That  holy  water  is  but  juggled  water, 

Ixiii.  Item,  "  That  tlie  holy  water  is  more  savoury 
**  to  make  sauc«  with  than  the  other,  because  it  is 
"  mixed  with  salt ;  which  is  also  a  very  goo<l  niedi- 
'*  cine  for  an  borwe  with  a  galled  back  :  yea,  if  there 
"  be  put  au  onion  thereunto,  it  is  a  good  sauce  for  a 
"  gibbet  of  mutton. 

Ixiv.  Item,  "  That  no  human  constitutions  or  laws 
"  do  bind  any  Christian  man,  but  such  as  be  in  the 

A.  2 

mtc   zioc  &   ma 

sue   ^rriniMiiiif   iNtiii:* 

^1     1*1     HTffviaiC     211 




CEST,  XVI.  of  Britain,  1S7 

professed  by  the  protestants;  but  Wended  with  these  A.D.  1536, 
are  some,  rather  expressions  than  opinions,  (and  those  vm."^ 
probably  worse  spoken  than  meant,  worse  taken 
than  spoken,)  which  we  will  not  go  about  in  any 
degree  to  defend,  only  may  the  unpartial  reader  take 
this  into  consideration.  It  happeneth  in  all  heights 
and  heats  of  oppositions,  as  in  horse-races ;  wherein 
the  rider,  if  he  doth  not  go  beyond  the  post,  cannot 
come  to  the  post,  so  as  to  win  the  prize ;  for  being 
upon  the  speed,  he  must  go  beyond  it  that  he  come 
to  it,  though  afterwards  he  may  rein  and  turn  his 
horse  back  again  to  the  very  place  of  the  mark. 
Thus  men  being  in  the  heat  of  contest  upon  the  very 
career  of  their  souls,  because  of  their  passions,  can- 
not stop  short  at  the  very  mark  they  aim  at,  but 
some  extravagances  must  be  indulged  to  human 
infirmity,  which  in  their  reduced  thoughts  they  will 
correct  and  amend.  As  some  protestants,  no  doubt, 
now  lashing  out  so  far  in  their  language,  retrenched 
them  afterwards  to  a  just  proportion  of  truth  1. 

30.    Two    contrar)'   interests    visibly    discovered  Two  con- 
themselves  in  the  upper  house  of  this  convocation  i[«  it,  tbe 
betvrixt  the  bi8ho]>9  therein;  and  certainly  in  the^^ 
lower  house,  their  clerks  and  chaplains  adhered  to  the 
j>arties  of  their  lords  and  masters'",     jVn  honourable 
]>en'  hath  stated  the  principal  parties,  whom  we  im- 
plicitly follow  herein;  only,  where  he  mentions  their 
bare  sees,  we  will  add  their  names  and  surnames  for 
the  better  clearing  thereof: 

1    [After    various    prnroga-  cler^  gave  their  assent.     See 

tioiis,  nothing  was  concluded,  Wilkina,  III.  p.  803.] 
until  the  nth  nf  July,  when         f  [Bumet,  Ref.  I.  p.  430.] 
Fox.  bishop  of  Hereford,  pro.         *  I<ord  Herbert  in  the  Life 

dut-vd    the    Book  of    Artides  of  Henry  VIII. 
printed    below,   to  wliich    the 

la  TU  a—*  NUlmy  •«  T. 

<-K>l^  W    II     I  Jtr  ae  M^  rntHl  • 
'rSr'          ITtm^tC  .       Ill  I  .fCV 

«.  Hi^  Uliaar,  biiliii|>  of  W<«niur. 
C  Eilvira  I'Mti  hiinfi|>  (■  HenniMti. 
0.  Jofcs  II3ii7,  biilMp  </  Rocfanln-. 

1.  Kdwud  UcMcbfaMiopflf  Ysfc. 
t.  Mid  SbAaity,  fa^bup  «f  UhIm. 
&  CoihlHn  TinHuU,  biihap  vt  DwtiM. 

4.  Sl«|>hn  Gw«fiD*r,  bbop  of  WmdHtcr. 

5.  Roberi  Rhntnnir,  bnlMip  at  Chidmiar. 
A  Rjchard  Nix,  bi*hi>p  uf  Nfmrich*. 
7.  John  Krtc,  tWohofi  oT  Cwtnle. 

Ob !  what  tajoruv  *»  l****^  betwixt  ihtae  Ofipoiito 
wiAmt  {(in  1  iluD  doC  take  Iwhop  LatuDcr't  phraao. 
w  be  to^  it  out  of  bk  text,  Bttwifi  iU  tkiUrm  V* 
tku ynmratim,md  Ik*  rUUrm  i^liskt'^imXSlitlLm^ 
■U  I'MnnetoeM  Iber  tbowgfat  to  adniice  tb«ir  aomal 
Bat,  w  wbett  two  Mout  and  ■lunly  ti»> 
MMt  tofediar.  Htd  botb  dean  tbe  way,  yet 
nrithrr  ue  wUUnf  to  flf(bt  fnr  it,  in  tbeir  prwige 
tbov  Mi  ibove  awl  ibout'ii-r  um>  oiiiilhur,  UhU  d^ 
vidinx  tb«  way  betwixt  tbtio  Iwili,  and  yrt  ncttbor 

*  [Nil,  biitwp  of  Nvwidi,  aiary   14,   15)6.   i*«   Wifci 

»M  oa  fAnarj  9,  1  S>4.  nw-  bfurv  Um  ihtiag  af  tint  ram- 

rin»<  fai  ■  fwwwwOT  ia  iW  nxatiiM.      Hw   Oarfwfa.  O* 

Kia^i  Baaik,  km   *    cwm.  Pitwil  Am.  p.  440. 

■dam  wUi   Rmm.    7W  Raf.  I.  p.  43i] 

W.blllltllllll     I  *(H«pMUdl]M 

t  Mr  utd  hifwL  ■■  thM  tat ;  fitt)  inu  « 

«4  yak.  fU  itirp«'»  MOTb  L  14$.] 

of  bi  VMtMr  M. 
4M  U»nw  — 

of  Britain. 

get  the  same:  8o  these  two  opposite  parties  in  the  ^.u,  rjj* 
convocation  were  fain  at  last  in  a  drawn  battle  to  viii. 
part  the  prize  between  tliem,  neither  of  them  being 
conqaering  or  conquered :  but  a  medley  religion,  as 
an  expedient,  being  made  up  betwixt  them  both,  to 
Ralve  (if  not  the  consciences)  the  credits  of  both 

81.  Some  zealots  of  our  age  will  condemn  the  tw  pro. 
Liiodicean  temjKjr  of  the  jtrotestant  bishops,  because  jiojH''[|,e,v 
if  stickling  to  purpose,  and  improving  their  power  to^|^™^ 
the  utmost,  they  might  have  set  forth  a  more  pure 
and  perfect  religion.  Such  men  see  the  fiiults  of 
reformers,  but  not  the  difHcotties  of  reformation. 
These  protestant  bishops  were  at  this  time  to  en- 
counter with  the  popish  clergy,  equal  in  number,  not 
interior  in  learning ;  but  far  greater  in  power  and 
deiK'ndencies,  Besides,  the  generality  of  the  people 
of  the  land  being  nnsled  in  ignorance  and  super- 
stition, could  not  on  a  sudden  endure  the  extremity 
of  an  absolute  reformation.  Should  our  eyes  be 
instantly  posted  out  of  mi<lnight  into  noon-day,  cer- 
tainly we  should  be  blinded  with  the  suddenness 
and  excellency  of  the  lustre  thereof.  Nature  there- 
fore hath  widely  provided  the  twilight,  as  a  bridge 
l^  degrees  to  pass  us  from  darkness  to  light.  Yea, 
our  Saviour  himself  did  at  the  first  connive  at  the 
carnality  of  his  apostles,  and  would  not  put  new  tcine 
info  old  bottles  for  fear  ofbr€akmg\  Yea,  he  had 
some  commandments,  which  as  yet  t/ici/  were  not 
afile  to  bear'  :  and  therefore  till  they  could  bear 
them,  his  wisdom  did  hear  with  them.  Tlius  the 
best  of  artists  do  not  always  work  to  the  height  of 

140  TAe  TAmcA  HiMtory  »«»  t 

A-iJvjM^  their  nwn  ftkill,  but  ■ccontiiijE;  to  thi*  aptneas  of  tbc 

VIIL     imtrumeiit)!  wlit>n*w)th,  aiid  the  mparitr  of  the  mb* 

jectn  wbiTPon.  thcT  ttii|ilo)r  iht-ntSL'hoH. 

J**  34.  And  hvtv  we  present  the   mwlcr  with    tbu 

■httvO^afbreMid  idihIU't  rvligiou  piMvd  in  tbfoi  coovootkifu 

MJiii'ilIii   uid  eoDflnned   with   my^l  uMmt:  n>>)ue*ting  him, 

^■iiir^  thoogfa  it  ho  woiewhat  long,  not  to  frniitfi^  bU  tine 

uid  paina,  aorioiulv  to  penue  it.     I'uilj  fur  Uw 

autbcntlcalneM  thereof,  being  hj  mo  tremwribed  out 

of  tbc  ArtB  of  tbcV'onvoeatioo :  partly  for  its  oaeftil- 

tiMi,  shewing  by  wliat  (b-gree«  the  go<pcl  inriomtad 

itself  into  tht<  tK>uIn   f>r  men.     What  Mid  ZmnA, 

Hanuui's  wife  to  her  htiJiband  ?   If  tkou  ktul  Jofm  Iv 

fall  if/ore  Morderai,  lAou  thalt  not  frteoil  i 

Aim,  biU  $hali  iMrrftffiUi  U/nrt  kim^.    Seeinf  p 

began    even   now  to   n^-l  aiul   ctogger.  > 

yean  we  nhall  haTe^it  tnmhle  down  and  lav  proatrBte 

with  the  face  tbcrvof  at  the  footstool  of  truth. 

CKST.  XVI.  of  Britain.  141 

35.  *Henry  *the  Eighth,  by  the  grace  of  God,  kitH/A.Jt.ii^G. 
of  Etigland  and  of  France,  ^defensour  of  the  '  viu!^ 
faith,  lord  of  Ireland,  and  in  earth  supreme  head 
of  the  church  of  England ;  to  aU  and  singular 
our  most  loving,  faithful,  and  obedient  subjects, 

Amongst  other  cures  ''appertaining  unto  this  our 
princely  office,  whereunto  it  bath  pleased  ''Almighty 
God  of  his  infinite  mercy  and  goodness  to  call  us, 
we  have  always  esteemed  and  thought,  *like  as  we 
also  yet  esteem  and  think,  ""that  it  most  chiefly 
belongeth  unto  our  said  charge,  diligently  to  foresee 
and  cause,  ethat  not  only  the  most  holy  word  and 
commandments  of  God  should  most  sincerely  be 
believed,  and  most  reverently  be  observed  and  kept 
of  our  subjects,  ''but  also  that  unity  and  concord  in 
opinions,  namely,  in  such  things  as  do  concern  our 
religion,  may  increase  and   go   forthward,  and  all 

>  the  Eighth]  the  Eight.  MS.         <>  defensour]  defensor,  MS. 
«  appertain ing}  committed,  MS.  ^  AJmighly]  omitted  in 

MS.  '  like]  omitted  in  MS.  '  that  it— and  cause]  this 

to  be  most  chief,  most  ponderous,  and  of  most  weight,  MS. 
8  tJinl  not  only^-oiir  subjects]  that  bis  holy  word  and  com- 
mtkndments  sincerely  may  be  without  let  or  hindrance  of  our 
subjects  truly  believed,  and  reverently  kept  and  observed,  M9. 
^  but  also]  and,  MS. 

•  [TheseArticles  1  have  col- 
lated with  the  original  copy  in 
the  British  Museum.  (Cotton 
MSS.  Cleop.  E.  V.)  This 
MS.  contains  the  original  sig- 
natures of  the  two  houses  of 
convocation,  printed  in  note  *, 
p.  159-  It  in  scarcely  needful 
to  mention,  that  two  copies  of 
these  Articles,  one  from  bishop 

Burnet's  History  of  the  Re- 
formation, and  one  from  the 
edition  of  Berihelet,  in  1536, 
were  reprinted  by  bishop  Lloyd 
in  the  Formularies  of  Failb, 
Oxford.  8°.  1815.  Fuller  baa 
followed  the  latter.  Tlie  va- 
riations of  the  Cotton  MS.  are 
printed  nt  the  foot  of  the 

Itf  Tht  CkurtA  Uutory  to 

A.D.  iM&oecuinn  of  dJiwnt  •nil  diseord  toaehinf  tlw  i 
'"^VT'  W  reprand  md  uUerlj  exUagnlihed. 

For  thn  which  eauie,  wo  boing  of  kte  to  oar 
gnmi  regKt  credibly  adveitwod  of  such  diivnitjr  m 
opinioMi,  M  hiTe  grown  uu!  8|)n)ugtm  in  this  oar 
■■■hit  M  "aU  ooaaendng  eertain  utidei  noeww ly 
to  our  Mlndon,  u  also  tooebing  eortais  'otber 
•od  commendable  oeremooies,  nim,  and 
^nov  ■  toog  time  ued  and  iocoalonBd  in 
'oar  ebnivbn,  for  "wmieiiatiuu  of  an  honeit  poB^ 
mid  decent  *aad  seemly  ordn-  *to  be  had  tberrin: 
ntndlng  to  bare  ibat  uriilT  and  agTvcmcnt  eita- 
bfiriied  thnmgb  our  aaid  rhuich  ronrenung  the 
pTrniiM<R.  And,  bpiiij;  vpry  dennnta  to  eacfaew,  not 
only  ttio  dangvra  of  soaU,  bat  abo  the  outward  i»- 
qniotDCOT,  wtiirfa,  by  oramon  of  tbe  mid  direnltj  la 
ofdniom  (if  rnncdy  'were  oot  prorided)  night  per^ 

I  haro  eomipd;  hare  tmC  only  In  oar  own 
St  many  timv«  takm  great  pain,  fltodjr, 
and    traraili,    Init    also    bare    csuaod   nor 

I,  and  other  the  m<Mit  dixcroet  and  Imit  learned 
SMQ  of  oar  eleigy  of  this  our  whahj  realm,  to  be 
■MonUed  In  oar  conTocatluo,  for  the  full  debate 
MBOt  and  qnlet  defterminatlon  of  the  aune.  Whera^ 
lAor  Uag  aad  natnn  «delibenlion  hwl  of  nd 
upon  tbe  prembea,  finally  they  haw  eoocluded  aad 
i^reed  npon  'the  moat  ■peirial  poiuta  and  article^  ■• 

'  oiWI  MBklfld  Is  Uft.  k  Mw  ■  loM  tina  mm4  aoJ  m^ 

inn  mill]  oniucd  b  MS.         ■  onr]  imt  mmI,  US.  -  «». 

nnMM  ^  a^tW  in  MA.        >  uJ  "«kIj]  Milud  la  MB. 
■  In  hi  haJ  tknia]  hwHwft—  Mf  lo^  Uaw  mmJ  tmi  MiM. 

1  iMd  nol  hr**.  US. 

dd  pptaM  mi  «tU»3  ika  mM  ■ 

t,f  nritnin. 


well  'such  as  be  commanded  of  God,  and  are  necos-A.D.  1536. 
sary  to  our  salvation,  'as  also  divers  other  matters  vin. 
touching  the  honest  ceremonies,  and  good  and  politic 
orderg,  as  is  aforesaid.  Which  their  detemiination, 
debatement,  and  agreement,  for  "so  much  as  we 
think  to  have  j)roceeded  of  a  good,  right,  and  true 
Judgment,  and  to  be  agreeable  to  the  laws  and  ordi- 
nances of  God,  and  much  profitable  for  the  stablish- 
ment  of  that  charitable  concord  and  unity  in  our 
church  of  England,  which  we  most  desire,  we  have 
caused  the  same  to  be  published,  willing,  requiring, 
and  commanding  you  to  accept,  repute,  and  take 
them  "accordingly.  And  further,  we  most  heartily 
desire  and  pray  Almighty  God,  that  it  may  ]ilea8e 
him  80  to  illuminate  your  hearts,  that  you,  and  every 
of  you,  may  have  no  less  desire,  zeal,  and  love  to  tlie 
said  unity  and  concord,  in  reading,  divulging,  and 
following  the  same,  than  we  have  had  and  liaye  ^in 
causing  them  to  be  thus  devised,  set  forth,  and 

And  for  because  we  would  the  said  articles,  and 
every  of  them,  'should  be  taken  and  understanden  of 
you,  after  such  sort,  order  and  degree,  as  apper- 
tainetb  accordingly,  we  have  caused  by  the  like 
assent  and  agreement  of  our  said  bishoj)s,  and  other 
learned  men.  the  said  articles  to  be  divided  into  two 
sorts ;  "whereof  the  one  part  containeth  such  as  ''be 
commanded  expressly  by  God.  and  ""be  necessary  to 
our  salvation  ;  "^and  the  other  containeth  such  things 

•  said  as]  those  which,  MS.  '  an  niso  divers  other  mat- 

ters] as  the  other.  MS.  "  so]  as,  MS,  '  accordingly— 

and  pray]  accordingly  ;  most  heartily  desiring  and  praying,  MS. 
T  in]  omitted  in  MS.  *  should  be]  to  be,  MS.  ■  whereof 
the  one  part  containeth]  that  is  to  say,  MS.  *•  be — be] 

are — are,  MS.  "^  and  the  other — have  been]  and  such  other 

aa,  although  thej  be  not  expressly  commanded  of  God,  nor  ne- 
cessary to  our  salvation,  yet  being,  MS. 


7)W  CAuirh  ffittory 

^fcff  »  docmt 

A.lxmt.M  haro  bf'oii  of  a  luiifr  c«intiiiuuio', 
VIII.  order  am)  boni'rt  '{xtljty,  |int(lontlT  institiitcal  'and 
used  in  the  chtirch  of  our  nmliii.  ami  be  for  tbst 
mmc  {mriHwc  utd  end  to  be  obwrred  *uid  kept 
■nNinlinjfl^r,  althou^  tbcj  be  not  cxpnmdf  eom- 
mandcd  of  (>i>d.  nor  necciMiy  to  our  MlvBtkM. 
W')ien*ron-\  wl>  will  and  reqoiro  ytm  to  aeeef*  tlw 
Nune,  after  iiurh  aoK  m  we  have  here  praacribid 
them  unto  jnu,  and  to  conform  jronrsclTca  obedioKtljr 
onto  tlie  same :  whereby  tou  shall  not  onlj  attalB 
that  Bwat  diaritable  nnitr  and  loring  eonconl. 
wbweof  riiaO  awoe  jrour  inrompanbic  ronimoditjr. 
ptoii  and  Inecci,  as  well  s{iiritiial  m  other;  ^bat  alao 
70a  dull  not  a  littlu  viirouragv  us  to  take  fnrthw 
tninJbi,  pait».  and  Inboun  for  your  rommodltiea  la 
all  such  otbiT  matteni  um  in  thne  to  come  n^ 
to  occur,  and  as  it  shall  be  most  to  the 
r  *of  God,  the  profit,  tranquilHlT.  and  quletOMB 
of  all  JDO  our  most  loving  subjects. 

*  far  •  dMCBt  unlw)  oBitMd  b  MS.  •  p«Utv1  ^0%. 

Ma  '  hmI  iMd  b  Un  dwrdi  at  ma  tmim,  Md  W]  w«. 

Ma      c  >^  iM|ii  amdiwir— whmbr  tm]  (■  ifk*       n. 

Wkkb  n  faUowMg  bIW  mtA  Hft  m  «•  hmn  wiM-itWd  «■■■ 
yM.  HH.        k  bNi  iW  yoM  dMdII  hut  wim>  J*,  wfiiriaa 

,  Hid  Miac  ihN*  WW  wl  utidH  ■     '        •>  --^^ 

at  God]  mT  G<id  ud  BCfcm.  Ua 


CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain,  145 

^  The  principal  Articles  concerning  our  Faith,  a.D.  1536. 

28  Henry 

Firsts  As  touching  the  chief  and  principal  Articles  of  our  VIII. 
Faith,  it  is  thus  agreed,  as  hereafter  followeth,  by  the 
whole  clergy  of  this  our  realm.  We  will,  that  all  bishops 
and  preachers  shall  instruct  and  teach  our  people  by  us 
committed  to  their  spiritual  charge,  that  they  ought  and 
must  most  constantly  believe  and  defend  all  those  things  to 
be  true  which  be  comprehended  in  the  whole  body  and  canon 
of  the  Bible;  and  also  in  the  three  creeds  or  symbols, 
whereof  one  was  made  by  the  apostles,  and  is  the  common 
Creed  which  every  man  useth :  the  second  was  made  ^by 
the  council  of  Nice,  and  is  said  daily  in  the  mass :  and  the 
third  was  made  by  Athanasius,  and  is  comprehended  in  the 
Psalm,  Quicunque  vult.  And  that  they  ought  and  must 
take  and  interpret  all  the  same  things,  according  to  the  self- 
same sentence  and  interpretation,  which  the  words  of  the 
selfsame  creeds  or  symbols  do  purport,  and  the  holy 
approved  doctrines  of  the  church  do  intreat  and  defend  the 

Iteniy  That  they  ought  and  must  repute,  hold,  and  take 
all  the  same  things  for  the  most  holy,  most  sure,  and  most 
certain  and  infallible  words  of  God,  and  such  as  neither 
ought  ne  can  be  altered,  or  convelled  by  any  contrary 
opinion  or  authority. 

liem^  That  they  ought  and  must  believe,  repute,  and 
take  all  the  articles  of  our  faith  contained  in  the  said  creeds 
to  be  so  necessary  to  be  believed  for  man's  salvation.  That, 
whosoever  being  taught  will  not  believe  them,  as  is  afore- 
said, or  will  obstinately  affirm  the  contrary  of  them ;  he,  or 
they,  cannot  be  the  very  members  of  Christ,  and  his  spouse 
tlie  church,  but  be  very  infidels  or  heretics,  and  members 
of  the  devil,  with  whom  they  shall  perpetually  be  damned. 

Iteniy  That  they  ought  and  must  most  reverently  and 
religiously  observe  and  keep  the  selfsame  words,  according 
to  the  very  same  form  and   manner  of  speaking,  as  the 

^  The  principal  Articles  concerning  our  Faith]  The  Articles  of  our  Faith, 
Ms.         1  by  the  council]  in  the  holy  council,  MS. 


\4B  Tht  CAwrek  Hutnry  torn  v. 

A.a  luLartkfai  6t  our  fiutb  be  alrcadjr  conceivnl  aad  expnaod  im 
'^^^  Uw  «wl  mcda,  wiibuut  slleiing  in  Mijr  wiw,  or  nrytag 
'  ■■  ■   ■InNii  the  HMDCi 

Am,  That  they  ought  aod  tnuil  aitcrly  rvftnt  am)  eo»- 
J^^^ff  ill  iboae  opiauaa  oontrary  l»  the  wd  anidc*,  whidi 
wtt*  of  kMg  time  poMcd,  condrmneii  in  (he  four  holy  c«nMi> 
dk,  that  i>  la  My,  in  ihff  council  of  Nior,  romiaMiaoptt, 
EphcMH,  umI  Ctwlmloo,  and  «Il  other  anoe  thai  ikM  ia 
■njr  point  oooauanut  tu  the  «in«. 

Steom^^  At  louching  th«  holjr  menmma  at  Ympamt, 
«c  win,  ihu  aQ  bnho|M  nd  pwadwtB  AaO  i 
Uach  (Mjr  paopla  enmnwiud  (7  ua  a 
that  they  owghl,  and  nuK  at  Mecoity  li 
thoa*  ttinnp  which  hava  been  alwaja  by  Uw  « 
of  the  chuich  apfaowd,  RceiTcd,  and  taad  in  1 
amtof  bapitm;  that  is  to  aiy,  that  tha  ■ 
tkm  wa«  tnrtitutcd  and  onlainad  in  tba  Now  1 
our  Saviour  Jcuii  Chriat,  aa  •  ihiBg  I 
Ulainiog  of  wcrlaatiBg  Ua,  acntdbf  to  tho  1 

M-B-t-Chtirtt-AbaNM  CM  mtor  Mo  HktUmgJtm^k 
twetft  it  Ar  AopM  ^aim  </ wafer  a«d  <*r  ffafy  GBIaat. 

Am,  That  it  ia  ofrml  uoio  all  mra,  aa  watt  iaAHlam 
■neb  ■•  hate  the  um  of  nwaou,  that  by  baptMti  thay  riMM 
ha*«  wihaiow  of  ma,  and  tha  graoe  oimI  (araur  at  God, 

ai>k art.  acsomlav  lo  tho  wjnog  td  "Chrirt,  ■  tVAomtntr  Itrflnrf 

'*-  mdif*v«ai4a*all*CJ«m/. 

Am,  That  the  praonr  at  grata  and  everhidag  Rb 
(wbidi  pfamw  ia  a^fanad  unio  thia  Mcraamtl  of  l 
parlaiawh  Ml  oaly  udid  auch  aa  hmn  iha  om  of  n 
bvt  ain  to  infinla,  iwneaota,  and  duldnm :  md.  that  tbqr 
iM^I  ihaRfan,  and  moat  nacda  be  baptitd ; 
Iba  nenaaai  of  baptian  they  do  aim  obtain 
ihair  Ma,  tba  gna  aod  fii«-our  of  God,  and  I 
~  f  tba  voy  mm  md  cfaildm  of  God.    loi 

la   M* 

•  CMmJ  Ms  M. 

CEKT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  147 

infants  and  children  dying  in  their  infancy  shall  undoubtedly  a.D.  1536. 
be  saved  thereby,  and  else  not.  ^^vu\^ 

Item,  That  infants  must  needs  be  christened,  because 

they  be  bom  in  original  sin,  which  sin  must  needs  be 
remitted,  which  cannot  be  done  but  by  the  sacrament  of 
baptism,  whereby  they  receive  the  Holy  Ghost,  which 
exerciseth  his  grace  and  efficacy  in  them,  and  cleanseth  and 
purifieth  them  from  sin  by  his  most  secret  virtue  and 

Item,  That  children  or  men,  once  baptized,  can,  nc 
ought  ever  to  be  baptized  again. 

Item^  That  they  ought  to  repute  and  take  all  the  Ana- 
baptists and  the  Pelagians  P their  opinions,  contrary  to  the 
premises,  and  every  other  man'^s  opinion  agreeable  unto  the 
said  Anabaptists'  ^  or  Pelagians^  opinions  in  this  behalf,  for 
detestable  heresies,  and  utterly  to  be  condemned. 

Item^  That  men  or  children  having  the  use  of  reason, 
and  willing  and  desiring  to  be  baptized,  shall  by  the  virtue 
of  that  holy  sacrament  obtain  the  grace  and  remission  of  all 
their  sins,  if  they  shall  come  thereunto  perfectly  and  truly 
repentant,  and  contrite  of  all  their  sins  before  committed : 
and  also  perfectly  and  constantly  confessing  and  believing 
all  the  articles  of  our  faith,  according  as  it  was  mentioned 
in  'the  first  article. 

And  finally.  If  they  shall  also  have  firm  credence  and 
trust  in  the  promise  of  God  adjoined  to  the  said  sacrament, 
that  is  to  say,  that  in  and  by  this  said  sacrament  which  they 
shall  receive,  God  the  Father  giveth  unto  them,  for  his 
Son  Jesus  Christ's  sake,  remission  of  all  their  sins,  and  the 
grace  of  the  Holy  Ghost,  whereby  they  be  newly  rege- 
nerated, and  made  the  very  children  of  God,  according  to 
the  saying  of  ^St.  John,  and  Uhe  apostle  St.  Peter,  "Z>oAct8ii.  38. 
penance  for  your  sins,  and  be  each  of  you  baptized  in  the 
name  of  Jesu  Christ,  and  you  shaU  obtain  remission  of 

P  their]  omitted  in  MS.  q  or  Pelagians]  or  the  Pelagians,  MS. 

r  the  first  article]  the  article  before  or  ells  not,  MS.  »  St.  John] .  Christ, 

MS.  t  the  apostle]  his  apostle,  MS.  "  Do  penance — IMy  Gho9i] 

L<atin  in  MS. 

L  2 

140  Tht  Chunk  HUtor^  looi  *-. 

A.D.  i|jft.jvow  mw.  md  «U0  rttfivt  titt  g^fl  tf  tkt  Hdg  GUtl. 

**Ym^  And  aceorUinjt  alio  to  the  HTUig  of  St.  Paul,  'GM/Atft 

—       '  ■  wo*  tmvtd  M4  Jbr  iJu  works  ^Jtntia  tMcA  HV  A«M  Amt, 

^'^l-   6mt  ^kU  mnryi^  btptitm,  mmd  rtmovaiiiM  ^ Ukr  Half 

GAoff.     ntoM  if  iaM  paurtH  out  m/Km  w  MMfi  ^knl*. 

JUfyJbr  IAm  km  tfJtau  C/triH  omr  Savitmr,  to  Ik*  imUnl 

Ahrt  m  MmffJtuH/Ua  bg  kit  gracr,  tkmU  be  mmit  tkt  ia- 

keriion  ^tvrriutitig  Ijfi,  aomnfiny  to  omr  kept. 

The  Sacnmtnt  qfPmaiue. 

TkinOjf,  Coorrrning  the  tMmoMii  of  pauatct,  w« 
will,  tluu  dl  btWicifM  aod  pnaehrra  thall  irutruct  uid  tewb 
our  pMpk  coMnittcd  bjr  lu  unio  tbnr  ■pintual  ch«rp-, 
tlMt  tli^  oogbt  and  moM  rcoiMUntN  brhrvr.  thkl  ihat 
iwnHntm  mam  iattiluta  or  Cbiisl  to  the  N>w  Tcvtjuimit  «• 
a  thing  m  oeeeMuy  fur  man'*  tal* atiiiD,  ihai  no  tamo,  which 
after  bit  baptim  t*  fillim  again,  and  halh  nanaiitlMl 
dsadly  lb,  cao  without  ihr  tmme  be  iarcd,  or  attain  < 
laitiBg  lifr. 

/mi>  That  hie  ai  tuch  mm,  wh>rh  aftrr  1 
again  into  mi*,  if  thrjr  do   nut  {wtuuKv  in  iMa  I 
mdoubudljr  be  Jaaiiwd  j  even  lo,  wbemoever  the  ■ 
■hall  eonvm  thewachfta  AtMn  'their  nai^tj  li~ 
Boch  penanve  fnr  the  Mote  aa  Christ  rajuinrth  of  ll 
•ball  aitbout  doubt  attain  mnaawp  of  ihch-  Aa*,  and  tk^ 
be  Mrcd. 

Item,  I'hat  •the  Hmmrnt  t/  pcrfcrt  penance,  whidr 
ChfMt  rrquirrth  of  Nicfa  manner  prrvan,  GDOMMcth  «f  ikfw 
|Mnie«i  ihat  n  to  m;,  nmtnlinn,  anfeaaon,  ^and  (ka 
■neodmenl  of  the  furwer  life,  and  a  new  obedinrt  rNaa> 
dhatKWt  unto  the  law*  aod  will  of  (»od;  tlial  is  la  ^r« 
valerior  acu  in  works  «t  charitr,  accurdiog  as  ihey  be  eoai- 
l^sB.1.  nandad  at  God,  which  be  called  in  Kfipture.  *A€  wmit§ 

Furlkermorr,  A*  touching  coatrttiuo,  which  is  the  Int 

■  (M  fcM*    WW  **r'l   Lm^  *•  Mfl  t  ■— ■»!   MM  «■•• 

mtmtf.  Ma.  •  ili*]  *•  au,  H&  •  *•]  *s  m         *  ^ 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  149 

part,  we  will,  that  all  bishops  and  preachers  shall  instruct  A.  D.  1556. 
and  teach  our  people  committed  by  us  unto  their  spiritual  *  vill.*^ 

charge,  that  the  said  contrition  consisteth  in  two  special 

parts,  which  must  always  be  conjoined  together,  and  cannot 
be  dissevered ;  that  is  to  say,  the  penitent  and  contrite  man 
must  first  knowledge  the  filthiness  and  abomination  of  his 
own  sin,  ^unto  which  knowledge  he  is  brought  by  hearing 
and  considering  of  the  will  of  God'  declared  in  his  laws ; 
and  feeling  and  perceiving  in  his  own  conscience  that  God 
is  angry  and  displeased  with  him  for  the  same.  He  must 
also  conceive  not  only  great  sorrow  and  inward  shame  that 
he  hath  so  grievously  offended  God,  but  also  great  fear  of 
God'^s  displeasure  towards  him,  considering  he  hath  no 
works  or  merits  of  his  own,  which  he  may  worthily  lay 
before  God,  as  sufficient  satisfaction  for  his  sins.  Which 
done,  then  afterward  with  this  fear,  shame  and  sorrow  must 
needs  succeed  and  be  conjoined  the  second  part,  <^that  is  to 
wit,  a  certain  faith,  trust  and  confidence  of  the  mercy  and 
goodness  of  God,  whereby  the  penitent  must  conceive 
cert£un  hope  and  faith  that  God  will  forgive  him  his  sins, 
and  repute  him  justified,  and  of  the  number  of  his  elect 
children,  not  for  the  worthiness  of  any  merit  or  work  done 
by  the  penitent,  but  for  the  only  merits  of  the  blood  and 
passion  of  our  Saviour  Jesu  Christ. 

Iteniy  That  this  certain  faith  and  hope  is  gotten,  and  also 
confirmed  and  made  more  strong  by  the  applying  of  Christy's 
words  and  promises  of  his  grace  and  favour  contained  in 
his  gospel,  and  the  sacraments  instituted  by  him  in  the  New 
Testament.  And  therefore  to  attain  this  certain  faith,  the 
second  part  of  penance  is  necessary,  that  is  to  say,  confession 
to  a  priest,  if  it  may  be  had ;  for  the  absolution  given  by 
the  priest  was  institute  of  Christ  to  apply  the  promises  of 
God^'s  grace  and  favour  to  the  penitent. 

Wherefore^  As  touching  confession,  we  will,  that  all 
bishops  and  preachers  shall  instruct  and  teach  our  people 
committed  by  us  to  their  spiritual  charge,  that  they  ought, 

tl  unto  which  knowledge]  whereunto,  MS.         c  that  U  to  wit]  viz.,  MS. 

L  3 

A.a  iHCMd  a 

[■of  «bKi)ulioii 


J  by  ibe  |inal  be  wpokea  by  Uw  KDtburilj  gmn  lo 
bin  by  CbriM  n  the  gnpe). 

/Irn.  Tbu  ibcy  uugfat  and  roust  pve  no  lea  Ulb  aad 

gfwfam  III  ibe  Mine  oonl*  a(  ahiulution.  mi  prnaouiwid  by 

lb«  Binuten  of  tbc  church,  than  thoy  would  gtr*  unto  Um 

vny  wotda  and  raicv  nf  God  buudf,  if  be  (hould  tpcak 

uDto  lis  out  at  hoiTcn,  Mooonfiiig  to  the  MyiDft  of  ('hrwt, 

JdM  u.     '  Ifltaar  miw  Mnvr  yr  dajbrgive,  Aatt  bejbrgivm  ,-  wAiwr 

'^  «*iu  aonrr  ^  da  rrtaim,  Aali  bt  rrtMmtd.     <  And  a^HO  ia 

UiU  s.  tA-  aDothrr  plan  Chmt  Miib,  >■  Whoaoevrr  kavtik  jfott  itar^ 

etk  mf. 

caiftariBM,  tthieh  »  nails  into  lbs  wiiM«ii  of  lbs  cbwcb, 
bst  thai  tbay  oi^t  to  npMa  lbs  aaow  at  a  'very  «Tpcdkai 
wbcfcby  tbcy  may  raquin!  and  aak 
'  t,  at  Mcb  lime  aa  they 
ih  OMVtal  no,  and  hare 
I  K)  to  do ;  to  the  intent  they  may  therrfay  attaw 
certain  comrort  and  ooaaolaiiaa  of  ibcir  oooneaen. 

^  ImtdUi^  ^  to  the  third  part  (/ peaanoe,  «B  will,  that  all 
b«lMipa  and  pfwchtira  shall  inatnict  and  leach  our  pwfle 
coBnuited  by  ui  lu  tbrir  ■pbiinal  charge,  that  Jlhoi^ 
Chriat  aad  bb  death  bs  tb«  iuftcient  oblatiDn,  BKriflea, 
■Miafactioa,  and  raeoaipciMe,  for  the  which  God  ibe  Father 
Istyivvlh  and  mniuech  to  all  MacTa,  not  only  their  an,  bui 
aho  eternal  pon  due  for  the  nuns ;  yet  all  men  mily  p 
lent,  conliitf  and  oonTraacd,  mutt  ocadi  alao  bring  faeth  iha 
flruita  of  penance,  that  i»  lo  ny,  prayer,  faattag,  a 
aad  nu*t  make  reatitutiun  or  fslii&clian  in  will  and  d 
thrir  nci|ihtuun  in  luch  ihingm  as  ibey  have  c 
wtung  and  injury  in,  and  also  must  do  all  other  g 
at  mercy  and  charity,  and  npnaa  thrir  obrdicnt  will  li 
caccuiiag  and  fulfilling  uf  God's  eaaunandinmu  outwardly. 

tkrt^  Ml*]  a^Hrf  la  M 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Brilaiii.  151 

when  lime,  power,  and  occasion  shall  be   ministered  unto  A.  D.  1136. 
them,  or  else  they  shall  never  be  saved.     For  this  is  the  *  viir^ 
express  precept  and   commandment  of  God,  'i>o  y<m  the  '"'"... 
KortAy  fruits  o/penance.     And  St.  Paul  swth,  "^Liie  aa  in  ig, 
times  past  you  have  given  and  applied  yourselves,  a»d  all  the 
M&mbers  o/your  body,  to  alljilthy  living  and  wickediKss,  eon- 
imuaUy  increasing  the  same ;  in  liie  manner  note  you  mutt 
yive  and  apply  yourtelvea  tr'hoUy  to  Justus,  increasing  conti- 
nually in  purity  and  cleanness  of  life.     "And  in  another 
place  he  saith,  "/  chastise  and  suhdue  my  carnal  body,  andi  Cor.  ix. 
tAs  affedioiM  of  the  same,  and  make  them  oiedimt  unto  ihe'^' 

Item,  That  these  precepts  and  works  of  charity  be  neces- 
sary works  (o  our  salvation,  and  God  necessarily  requireth 
that  every  penitent  man  shall  perform  the  same  whensoever 
time,  power,  and  occasion  shall  be  ministered  unto  Pthem  so 
to  do. 

Item,  That  by  penance,  and  such  good  works  of  the 
same,  we  shall  not  only  obtain  everlasting  life,  but  also  we 
shall  deserve  remission  or  mitigation  of  these  present  pains 
and  afflictions  in  this  world,  according  to  the  saying  of  St. 
Faul,  Hjfwe  would  correct  and  take  punishmet^  of  ourselves,  •  Cor.  xi. 
tee  should  not  he  so  grievously  corrected  of  God,     And  Za- 
charias  'the  prophet  saith, '  Tarn  yourselves  unto  tM,  and  /Zodi.  i,  3. 
teill  turn  again  unto  you.     And  '  the  prophet  Esay  saith, 
^BreaJc  and  deal  thy  bread  unto  tlte  hungry,  bring  into  thy  '•»-  I'l".  ;■ 
house  the  poor  man,  and  suth  as  imnt  harbour.     When  thou  '  ' 
gffest  a  naJted  man,  give  Mm  clothes  to  cover  hitn  with,  and 
nfuse  not  to  succour  and  help  the  poor  and  needy,  for  ha  is 
thine  ownfesh.    And  if  thou  leilt  thus  do,  then  shall  thy  l^ht 
glister  9^  as  bright  as  the  sun  in  the  morning,  and  thy  health 
$iaU  sooner  arise  unto  thee,  and  thy  jastiee  shall  go  before  thy 
faee,  and  the  glory  of  God  shall  gather  thee  up.  that  thou  shall 

I  Do  s/oa—pmanee]  talJn  in  MS.  «  tAkt  at  in — rieanMu  ifflifi] 

Latin  in  MS.  "  Aod  in  uiother  place  be  tailhj  oniitud  in  HS.  "  I 

ehartiM— JVipJrti]  ImtininMS.  P  ihem]  him,  MS.  t  Vf 

•rawM— 4/'C«f]  tidtin  in  MS.        '  the  prophet]  omitted  in  SIS,        •  Turn 
fourtlitf — tmJo  i/ov]  Latin  in  MS.  t  the  prophet]  omillcd  in  MS. 

■I  Bmtk  mvl  iftal — ihatl  yianl  ivaler]  LAtiii  in  MS. 

1.4  ~ 

The  ChMnk  irutortf 


».«(j«Mf  yUK.     Amd  winmnw  iAm  dUA  raff  vpM  6*1,  Oirf 

mlMUMwr  flM  «l«fr  <*y  M*  OU:  (M 
-iimBmg,U!kmIamr*adgt9h^llmf.    nM«U«% 

m  tJU  mm  ml  umiuttft;  amJ  Mm  fM  «UJI  fNv  aiatlw 
I— tf— /  rwt.  aW  <4«tf  /tiW  liy  mmt  trM  Ifiytftw.-  Mirf 
OattMiMtlAfMf/i^  aJMnilf:  oiW  Ora  aIm  ataJt  I* 

Jruit,  ami  IH»  (ir  wW^prwy  fi«l  Mwr  «Aa0  kwiI  ' 

■7%Mf  ri««^  and  aud)  otbvr.  thoold  be 
Uuj{ht  umI  iDculcatpd  intu  the  ran  t/  our  |Mnp)a,  i 
inirat  to  rtir  woA  {wtxvtAe  lb«m  unia  good  work*,  i 
tbt  wUwine  good  works  lo  excfdM  awl  cunfim  ihrtr  Wtk 
■id  bopr.  Mid  look  for  lo  ttemz  at  (.nxTa  hand  iniii|ptiaa 
md  ramiiiiuri  of  the  ■Jwrii^  calamitin,  and  ^rimiua 
puimhincfits  which  G<id  tcedelh  to  ncii  in  llw  world  lor 
ibeir  lint. 

T%t  RaerammA  i/A»  AMar. 
FourtUf.  j^fttouchiof  tbeMcmBHUoftlwalur.wtwin. 
thai  all  bi*lK)|w  and  prwwhtn  thall  iMiuct  and  indi  our 
peopbt  cwawitMd  bjr  ui  unlo  their  t)nntual  rhwKr,  ihM 
Uwjr  oogbt  and  muat  ootMUntlr  bclMnrr,  that  under  tlw 
fprm  «ad  Apin  of  bcvad  and  wimr,  whirfa  wc  their  preatBtly 
dn  Hc  and  pmrin  bjr  outwatd  MMca,  ta  vrrilv.  iiihilMi 
tklly,  and  ntUj  coauuied  nnd  ramprriiendcd  ifa*  v«fy 
wiflua  body  and  Uood  at  our  Sariuar  Jcmh  ChiMI, 
whidi  WM  bora  of  iho  Virgin  Mary,  and  lulvrcd  Hpni  A* 
OMi  lor  our  ndcmptioa.  And,  that  under  the  «as  tmm 
■■d  Aginw  vi  brad  and  wtDr,  the  nry  w^tmmm 
Uood  of  CbriM  it  corporally,  mdly,  and  in  ihe 
■taoc*  obifailad,  duiribulcd,  and  rcrcivnl  J  unto  i 
t  the  Hid  McnuBf-Dt.  And.  lltat 
ml  ta  to  be  uacd  with  all  due  rrtrTyncc  i 
I  that  CTrry  man  ought  fim  tit  ptnvr  . 
e  himarif,  and  rrKgioutly  to  try  and  tuuvh  hia  < 

«  Tl— ihtag*.  laltitnia.]    naiL  I  !■  Mv  r  «m^  ^]  na 




CEKT.  XVI.  of  Britam.  1 53 

conscience  before  he  shall  receive  the  same,  according  to  the  a.d.  1536. 
saying  of  St.  Paul,  ^  Whoioe'cer  eateth  this  body  of  Christ  tm-  ^^JJ??'^ 

worthily^  or  drinketh  of  this  blood  of  Christ  umoorthily^  shall ;— 

be  guilty  of  the  very  body  and  blood  of  Christ.  Wherefore  letl^^  ^^' 
every  man  first  prove  himself  and  so  let  him  eat  of  this  bread 
and  drink  of  this  drink  ;  for  whosoever  eateth  it  or  drinketh 
it  untoorthilyy  he  eateth  and  drinketh  to  his  oum  ahmnation^ 
because  he  putteth  no  difference  bettoeen  the  very  body  of 
Christ  ^and  other  kinds  of  meat. 


Fifthly^  As  touching  the  order  and  cause  of  our  justifi- 
cation, we  will,  that  all  bishops  and  preachers  shall  instruct 
and  teach  our  people  committed  by  us  to  their  spiritual 
charge,  that  this  word  justification  signifieth  remission  of 
our  sins,  and  our  acceptation  or  reconciliation  into  the 
grace  and  favour  of  God,  that  is  to  say,  our  perfect  reno- 
vation in  Christ. 

Item^  That  sinners  attain  this  justification  by  contrition 
and  faith  joined  with  charity,  after  such  sort  and  manner  as 
we  before  mentioned  and  declared.  Not  as  though  our 
contrition,  or  faith,  or  any  works  proceeding  thereof,  can 
worthily  merit  or  deserve  to  attain  the  said  justification :  for 
the  only  mercy  and  grace  of  the  Father  promised  freely 
unto  us  for  his  Son'*s  sake  Jesus  Christ,  and  the  merits  of 
his  blood  and  passion,  be  the  only  suflScient  and  worthy 
causes  thereof.  And  yet,  that,  notwithstanding,  to  the 
attaining  of  the  ^ same  justification,  God  requireth  to  be  in 
us,  not  only  inward  contrition,  perfect  faith  and  charity, 
certain  hope  and  confidence,  with  all  other  spiritual  graces 
and  motions;  which,  as  we  said  before,  must  necessarily 
concur  in  remission  of  our  sins,  that  is  to  say,  our  justi- 
fication :  but  also  he  requireth  and  commandeth  us,  that 
after  we  be  justified,  we  must  also  have  good  works  of 
charity  and  obedience  towards  God,  in  the  observing  and 
fulfilling  outwardly  of  his  laws  and  commandments.     For 

2  Whosoever  eatelh — very  body  of  Christ]  Ijatin  in  MS.  a  and  other 

kinds  of  meat]  omitted  in  MS.  ^  same]  said,  MS. 

KM  TIk  CImnA  HitUry  aoos  *. 

A-Di  i||S.ahhoiigfa  Moefitaiiaii  lo  everkitiiig  fife  fas  eoajnitil  vidi 
''vm^  j"'*M^'wii,  yet  our  good  woriu  bt  otcHnriljr  wqwired  M 

lbs  Btuioiag  of  ercrlming  Ibtt.    Ami  «•  Iniag  jwiiiWd 

be  ncGCMwily  bomd.  «ik1  it  is  our  wwiw ry  dutjr  to  4b 
tiam.  im.   ifood  vorki,  accordiii^  to  tba  Mjring  of  8l  Paul,  *  IT*  b 

Hlmi  /vt  if  w  lit*  M,  m  alotf  nWwrf^rf^y  J« 
Amdtmtnry,  if  ^  iriU  mtrtify  Om  JmJt  tfmu-  Jl^md 
Km  aeeorJimy  l«  bU  Sfiiril,  tn  aioA  J«  tawtJ,  F'or  (nboMMir 
UMiftl^'si>iriii,fG^titfittiutluUrmofGU.  Ant 
MaiLmls.  Chfiit  MJih.  ^ If  y«»  TJU esmt  tt  immm,  titf  Ii0  tm^mtmd- 
*''  aMirfMi.      And   St.  Paul,    *ipMkuig  of  evil  wark% 

(M.r.11.  '  FTAmmmt  <«Mi«l  mm/iU  Jtmb  aU7  wmtmw  to 
Whcfcfbnwcwill,  that  all  btthopaand  jaiiwliiin  JiwMf 
and  Icacb  our  people  cDmautled  by  ua  unto  ibair 
ctiaf]|r,  (that  God  Dccoawiljr  ra|inntb  of  ua  to 
works  omouuidcd  bjr  bim,  and  that  boI  only  outi 
dtU  workt,  but  alto  the  inward  iqpirilual  motio 
of  th«  f  idy  GboM :  ihu  ia  to  iay,  to  diiad  a 
to  low  God,  to  hare  firm  eoofidnee  umI  trwt  ia  God,  to 
inrucale  and  call  upon  God,  to  tu**  ptienca  in  all  ad* 
vcrutiH,  to  bate  am,  aad  to  bava  crttain  purpoaa  wuA  *iB 
not  to  ain  again,  aad  aueh  otbar  blia  BKnioo 
MMLr.  M.  For  CfarM  laitb.  >^E»eifi  ftmr  riyiUammmi  aiaO  mtmd d9 
riflitmmmtm  ^  li«  AbrAio  mad  Pimrimmy  ft  AaS  im  ••  tm» 
miktimtttimhiiifitmtfhmnm:  that  ia  to  ay,  «c  muN  Mt 
only  do  outwaad  civil  good  woflu.  but  alio  «e  tniM  Im»« 
iImh  fawMJd  inward  tpiritual  moUom,  on 
'  •  ID  tbt  law  (/  God. 

^Artidm  nttmmimg  tltt  LndMt  t»nmmiM  mtd 
Clar«l  ^OLfitl;  anJJtnl  »flmafim. 
At  Imtiimj  immfm,  tnitb  it  t*,  that  the  wutie  hav 
uwd  in  lb*  Old  TcMameni,  and  alw  fiir  ibe  gnat  afa 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Briluiti.  155 

lliem,  sometime  destroyed  and  put  down.    And  in  the  New  A.  U.  1536. 
Testament  ihey  have  been  also  allowed,  as  good  authors  do     vill. 

declare.    Wherefore  we  will,  that  all  bishops  and  preachers 

shall  instruct  and  leach  our  people  committed  by  us  to  their 
spiritual  charge,  how  they  ought  and  may  use  them.  And 
first,  that  there  be  attributed  unto  them,  that  they  be  repre- 
senlers  of  virtue  and  good  example.  And,  that  they  also 
be  by  occasion  the  kindlers  and  stirrers  of  men's  minds,  and 
make  men  oft  to  rcmemlwr  and  lament  their  sins  and 
ofTences,  especially  the  images  of  Christ  and  our  Lady.  And, 
that  therefore  it  is  meet  that  they  should  stand  in  the 
churches,  and  none  otherwise  to  be  esteemed.  And,  to  the 
latent ''  that  rude  people  should  not  from  henceforih  take 
such  superstition  as  in  time  past,  it  is  thought  that  the  same 
hath  used  to  do  ;  We  will,  that  our  bishops  and  preachers 
diligently  shall  teach  them,  and  according  to  this  doctrine 
nrfurm  their  abuses :  for  else  there  might  fortune  idolatry 
to  ensue,  which  (iod  forbid.  And  as  for  cen»ng  of  them, 
and  kneeling  and  offering  unto  them,  with  other  like  wor- 
shippings, although  the  same  hath  entered  by  devotion,  and 
fallen  to  custom,  yet  the  people  ought  to  be  diligently 
raught,  that  they  in  nowise  do  it,  nor  think  it  meet  to  be 
done  to  the  same  images  j  but  only  to  be  done  to  God  and 
in  bis  honour,  although  it  be  done  before  the  images, 
whether  it  be  of  Christ,  of  the  cross, '  of  our  Lady,  or  of  any 
other  saint  beside. 

Of  honouring  0/ Saint*. 
As  touching  the  honouring  of  saints,  we  will,  that  all 
bisliops  and  preachers  shall  instruct  and  teach  our  people 
committed  by  us  unto  their  spiritual  ""charges,  ihat  saints, 
now  being  with  Christ  in  heaven,  be  to  be  honoured  of 
Christian  people  in  earth,  but  not  with  that  confidence  and 
honour  which  arc  only  due  unto  God,  trusting  lo  attain  at 
their  hands  that  which  must  be  had  only  of  God.  But, 
that  they  be  thus  to  be  honoured,  because  they  be  known 

k  tW  nidej  Uie,  MS.         ■  orj  or  of,  MS.         "  durgo]  charge,  AIS. 

IM  7k  Ckmrrh  tJitlory  mmw  v. 

LI).  isjLtbc  rterl  pmni  uf  Chriti,  bccauw  the;  be  pmmtd  m  gaJtf 
•■^J™'  life  out  al  th»  tntiMiur)'  world  j  bccauw  thqr  «hndy  do 

niga  in  gtiH?  vitli  Chriai ;  and,  moai  ■pccully  to  Uud  aid 

pnujr  Chmt  in  iheni  for  tlwtr  ncrllml  vinuea,  wUdi  W 
planted  id  ihcm,  fur  rxaniple  of  and  l>y  ihera  tn  audi  •• 
"vet  arc  in  tin*  wiirici,  \o  Vnc  in  virtue  nnd  fpniagmi  tmd 
■Ik)  dm  to  fcsr  to  die  for  ClirtM  ami  hii  csum',  m  «■■•  at 
ibcra  did.  And  flnallT,  to  take  theni  in  that  thcv  may,  to 
be  the  advanccri  of  our  prayer*  and  Utrtnand*  uua  CbriM. 
JI5  tbcw  ways  and  tuch  like,  be  HtnU  ui  be  buooufcd  aad 
bad  in  rercrrnce,  and  by  none  other. 


Of  Pnyi»$  h  Saimu. 
prajrinft  lo  mxM,  we  trill,  that  *Q  1 


1  [Kgacht'ra  ihall  inMruct  ud  leach  our  peoi^ 
hj  u*  uHo  their  ipiritual  charge,  that  albeit  graoe, 
itfiio,  and  ■Ivatiao,  oanaut  be  ubuuncd  but  1/ 
faj  the  Bcdiatioci  of  our  Saviour  Cbrirt,  which  b  ooly 

t  mediuof-  Urn  tMx  siu ;  yrt  it  i*  wry  laudaMc  to  pnij 
I'Ib  mioU  in  heaven  evcrUitiagly  living,  wboae  charity  ia  r*v 
I   pwwnent  to  be  inirraeMarB,  and  to  pray  for  u«  and  witll 
a*  uaio  Abnigfaly  God,  after  llii*  manner : 

**  All  holy  angela  and  lainta  in  hravrn,  pray  for  na,  aid 
**  with  UB,  unto  the  Father,  that  for  lib  d«sr  Sga  J«ai 
■  **  Chrift  fail  akr,  «e  may  have  grace  ttf  him,  and  r^mmm 
I  **of  ouTHoa,  with  an  caniot  purpoae  (not  wainiag  gtwrfjf 
**  atreagth)  to  obaervc  and  keep  hi*  holy  cMmnandaiH^ 
*'  and  never  tii  decline  fnmi  ll>e  aanw  again  unto  our  Sv*^ 
**  end."  And  in  thit  manner  wc  ntay  pray  to  our  bkaHd 
Lady,  to  Si.  John  BaptUi.  to  all  and  every  of  tht 
or  any  other  aint  particuUrly,  a*  our  devotion  dolh 
III :  m>  that  it  be  done  without  any  vam  MtperMilion,  aa  t» 
ihiok  that  any  laint  ia  morr  merciful,  or  will  hear  im  aoiBir 
than  Chriat :  or  that  any  aainl  doth  mtvc  tat  one  tU^ 
mm  than  'another,  or  b  pnlron  uf  tiw  aainv.  Ami  Gka. 
t  we  oMial  kavp  biJy*<Uy»  unto  Gud,  in  nenory  of  Bm 



CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain,  157 

and  His  saints,  upon  such  days  as  the  church  hath  ordained  A.D.  15.^6. 
their  memories  to  be  celebrate,  except  they  be  mitigated  ^  yiij"^ 

and  moderated  by  the  assent  and  commandment  of  Pus  the 

supreme  head,  to  the  ordinaries;  and  then   the  subjects 
ought  to  obey  it. 

Of  Rita  and  Cerenumies. 

As  concerning  the  rites  and  ceremonies  of  Christ's 
church ;  as,  to  have  such  vestments  in  doing  God^s  service 
as  be  and  have  been  most  part  used  :  as  sprinkling  of  holy- 
water,  to  put  us  in  remembrance  of  our  baptism,  and  the 
blood  of  Christ  sprinkled  for  our  redemption  upon  the 
cross :  giving  of  holy  bread,  to  put  us  in  remembrance  of 
the  sacrament  of  the  altar,  that  all  Christian  men  be  one 
body  mystical  of  Christ,  as  the  bread  is  made  of  many 
grains,  and  yet  but  one  loaf;  and  to  put  us  in  remembrance 
of  the  receiving  of  the  holy  sacrament  and  body  of  Christ, 
the  which  we  ought  to  receive  in  right  charity,  which  in  the 
beginning  of  Christ's  church  men  did  more  often  receive 
than  they  use  nowadays  to  do :  bearing  of  candles  on  Can- 
dlemas-day, in  memory  of  Christ  the  spiritual  light,  of 
whom  Simeon  did  prophesy,  as  is  read  in  the  church  that 
day:  giving  of  ashes  on  Ash- Wednesday,  to  put  in  remem- 
brance every  Christian  roan  in  the  beginning  of  Lent  and 
penance,  that  he  is  but  ashes  and  earth,  and  thereto  shall 
return,  which  is  right  necessary  to  be  uttered  from  hence- 
forth in  our  mother-tongue  always  on  the  ^Sunday: 
bearing  of  palms  on  Palm-Sunday,  in  memory  of  the 
receiving  of  Christ  into  Hierusalem  a  little  before  his  death, 
that  we  may  have  the  same  desire  to  receive  him  into  our 
hearts:  creeping  to  the  cross,  and  humbling  ourselves  to 
Christ  on  Good- Friday  before  the  cross,  and  'there  offering 
unto  Christ  before  the  same,  and  kissing  of  it  in  memory  of 
our  redemption  by  Christ  made  upon  the  cross:  setting  up 
the  sepulture  of  Christ,  whose  body  after  his  death  was 
buried :  the  hallowing  of  the  font,  and  other  like  exorcisms 

p  us]  omitted  in  MS.  4  Sunday]  same  day,  AIS.  r  there  offering] 

offering  there,  MS. 


Tita  Oumh  Hu*aey  iom  «. 

A.U.iu*-*'''!  Iwiiwtoinw  by  Uw  maimKn  at  Chh«t'i  church,  — d  ill 
"'v'lTl^  other  Bkc  huddtte  eintdOM,  ritct  Knd  ccTctRonin,  be  not  to 
-  br  ctnimwi)  tad  caat  awsjr,  but  la  br  um«1  and  onoliniwJ, 

■I  ibaagt  ipwd  and  UudaUc,  la  put  a»  m  nmaahnmn  til 
iboae  ■piiitiul  ihings  that  thcjr  do  ■goifyt  i 
Ana  to  br  forgotun,  or  lo  be  put  in  oUivioo,  bul  r 
then  in  our  tBcBiori»  from  tiinr  lo  limr ;  but  nootr  at  thnr 
•nwBooin  hare  powvr  to  remit  tin.  but  ooly  to  ilk  a 
Gft  up  our  antida  unto  God,  by  whan  oaly  our  mm  W 

0/ Piuyatmf. 

Forunach  ai  due  order  at  cbariiy  reqntrrth.  and  ihr 
Bnoh  of  Maeoibee*  and  diver*  anamt  doirton  plainljr 
■bewm.  that  it  is  a  very  jjood  and  dianlafab  deed  lo  pray 
far  ioula  dqianed ;  aul  foraMnurh  alM  u  mHi  iiijii  hath 
1  in  tlkc  rburch  ■»  ninny  years,  even  frvMS  tW 
we  will,  that  all  biihopi  and  prmdiera  riMll 
I  tncJi  our  pcciple  oommitivd  by  ut  uMo  iWir 
J  chvge,  that  no  nun  ought  to  be  grirvnl  with  tb» 
coolinuanoe  of  the  niiKt  and.  that  ii  ataodcth  with  the 
very  due  nrder  of  charity,  a  Cbrutiaa  maa  lo  pray  far  Mmk 
departed,  and  to  oomiaii  them  in  our  prayos  to  God'a 
nercy,  and  alao  to  cause  other  lo  pr^  far  then  in  I 
■od  exequies,  and  lo  give  alms  to  other  to  pray  C 
whmby  they  may  be  relieved  and  holpeo  of  bom 
their  paia.  But,  forasfRucfa  as  the  place  where  they  fa 
MBe  thereof,  and  kind  of  puns  there  also,  he  to  us  naocr* 
tn  by  Krtpture,  ihm-furc  this,  with  all  other  thinpi,  »r 
emit  to  ■  Alaiighty  God,  uniu  whose  mercy  it  i*  meet  and 
wwinW  far  us  to  commeBd  tbcmt  trwtijig  that  God 
MeeptMh  our  pniyerv  for  them,  rrfrtring  the  rest  wholly  to 
God,  to  whan  is  known  their  estala  and  ooodiltaa.  Whera- 
far*  it  IS  noeh  iMCcmwy  thai  audi  abuses  be  clearly  put 
•w^  which  tmdir  iJm  BMSe  of  pui|pu«y  halb  been  ad- 
vMMed.  as,  to  mmk*  omh  beficve  that  lhrou|(h  the  faoliop  of 
*BMM'a  paidaaa  souk  niglK  ckarly  be  drlivered  out  nf 

« >w^r  os<l  «rf  *fc"Wiit.  M<         *Bmm\)  ft^mm. 


of  Britain. 


purgatory  and  all  the  pains  of  it;  or,  that  masses  said  atA*I>*  1536- 
scaJa  ccdiy  or  otherwise  in  any  place,  or  before  any  image,  *  vill^^ 

might  likewise  deliver  them  from  all  their  pain,  and  send 

them  straight  to  heaven.     And  other  like  abuses^. 

*  [Theie  articles  were  signed  by  the 
wkidi  they  now  stand.  Burnet  has 
printed  in  his  History.  Addenda,  N^.  I 

Thomas  Crumwell. 
nardot  Ebor.    T.  Cantuarien. 

Joannes  London. 

Johes.  Lincohi. 
hbertos  Dunehnens.    Johes.  Lincoln,    no- 
mine procuratorio  pro  Dno.  Jo- 
hanne  Exon. 

Ja  Bathoniensis. 

Thomas  Elien. 

Johes.  Lincoln,  nomine  procuratorio 
pro  Bna  Rowlando  Covent.  et 

Jdbei,  Bangor. 

Nioolaus  Sarisburiens. 

Edoardus  Herefordens. 

Hugo  Wigom. 

Joannes  Roiffen. 

Rich.  Cicestr. 

Wiielmus  Norwicensis. 

Willmus.  Menevens. 

Robertus  Assaphen. 

Robertus  Abb.  S.  Albani. 
Willmus.  Abbas  Westm. 
Johes.  Abbas  Burie. 
Ricus.  Abbas  Olastonie. 
Hugo  Abbas  de  Redynge. 
Robertus  Abbas  Malmesber. 
Clemens  Abbas  Eveshamen. 
Johes.  Abbas  de  Bello. 
Wildm.  Sd.  Petri  Olooestrie. 
Richardus  Abbas  Wincheloombensis. 
Johes.  Abbas  de  Croyland. 
Robertus  Abbas  de  Thomey. 
Robertus  Abbas  de  Waltham. 
Joannes  Abbas  Cirencestrie. 
Johes.  Abbas  Texber. 
Thomas  prior  Couent. 
Johes.  Al)bas  de  Osene^^ 

following  persons,  and  in  the  order  in 
committed  several  errors  in  the  list 


Henricus  Abbas  de  Oratiis. 
Anthonius  Abbas  deEynsham. 
Robertus  prior  Shen. 
Robertus  prior  sine  Mgr.  ordinis  de 

Ricus.  Abbas  de  Notteley. 
Hugo  prior  de  Huntyngdon. 
Willmus.  Abbas  de  Stratfford. 
Oabriel  Abbas  de  Buckfestria. 
Henricus  Abbas  de  Wardona. 
Joannes  prior  de  Merton. 
Ric.  prior  de  Walsyngbam. 
Thoms.  Abbas  de  Oarendan. 
Thomas  Abbas  de  Stanley. 
Richard.  Abbas  de  Bytlesden. 
Ricus.  prior  de  Lanthoni. 
Robertus  Abbas  de  Thama. 
Johes.  prior  de  Newenham. 
Radulphus  prior  de  Kyme. 
Richardus  Abbas  de  Bruera. 
Robert.  Abbas  de  Welhowe. 
Bartholomeus  prior  de  Ouerey. 
Willm.  de  Birgaveni. 
Thomas  Abbas  de  Abendon. 

Inferior  domus, 

Ri.  Gwent  archi.  London  et  Breck. 

Robertus  Aldrydg  Arch.  Colcest. 

Thomas  Bedyll  Archidiaoon.  Comub. 

Ricus.  Strete  Arch.  Derbie  et  procur. 
deri  Couen.  et  Lich. 

Dauid  Pole  Archnus.  Salop,  procura- 
tor Archi.  et  deri  Couen. 

Ricardus  Doke  Aichnos.  Sarum. 

Edmundus  Boner  Archi.  Leyoestrie. 

Thomas  Baghe  Aichid.  Surri«. 

Ricardus  Rawson  Arch.  Ess. 

Edmundus  Cranmer  Achnus.  Cant. 


Tk€  Chunk  HUtury 

*'P-'M^  86.  Notliing  t'l»o  of  niuinont  [mihnI  in  thb  cooto- 
*vni.  eation,  mto  thnt  on  tlit^  2Uth  of  Julv.  Kdwrnrd  [Fox] 
TW<M»«»  bMi»p  (if  Hcn.'fitnl  brought  in  a  book  cmitaioii^  ibe 
2i3.tli  kioK**  rviioQji,  cfinrcivinj^  it  unfit  in  pt'iMin  or  by 
mZX!^  proxy  to  appcsr  st  tlie  Ki*i>enil  rouncil,  bUuly  oUled 
by  tbo  |M>pi>  at  Muitua  (Kftemud  removed  to 
Tn-iil);  And  then  the  cunvocmtiou,  haTing  fine  eon* 
linnctl  till'  king's  mtsoiu,  wiu  dtMolvcd. 

It  WM  tnuuau4oil,  in  n'latinn  t»  cbun-b  or  rfaarrb- 
nion.  in  the  coiiti.'m)N>rAnr  parliament  *, 

■  tTjiiitrfiil  rnrat 

GSHT.xvi.  of  Britain.  161 

L  That  felons  abjuring  for  petty  treason  should  a.  d.  1536. 
not  have  clergy^.  ^  vin.'^ 

ii.  That  eveiy  ecclesiastical  and  lay-officer  shall  be 
gwom  to  renounce  the  bishop  of  Rome  and  his 
authority,  and  to  resist  it  to  his  power,  and  to  repute 
any  oath  taken  in  the  maintenance  of  the  said 
bishop,  or  his  authority,  to  be  void.  And  the  re- 
fusing the  said  oath,  being  tendered,  shall  be 
adjudged  high  treason'. 

iii.  That  fruits,  during  the  vacation  of  a  benefice, 
shall  be  restored  to  the  next  incumbent,  whose 
charge  for  first-fruits  shall  begin  from  the  first 

iv.  Which  spiritual  persons  shall  be  resident  upon 
their  benefices,  and  which  not ;  and  for  what  causes'*. 

V.  Release  of  such  who  have  obtained  licenses 
from  the  see  of  Rome*'. 

But  all  these  are  set  down  at  large  in  the  printed 
statutes,  and  thither  we  refer  the  reader  for  satis- 
faction ;  as,  to  our  History  of  Abbeys,  to  be  informed 
about  the  rebellion  in  the  north,  occasioned  in  this 
year  by  these  alterations  in  religion. 

37.  Towards  the  end  of  this  year,  the  faithful  The  Wrth, 
servant  of  God,  William  Tyndal,  alias  Hichins^,  wasfint  *"*^' 

martyred  at  Fylford  in  Flanders,  bom  about  Wales,  ^^^S^^d-** 
bred  first  in  Oxford,  then  in  Cambridge,  after  school-  yj^*^|'" 
master  to  the  children  of  Mr.  Welch,  a  bountiful  d«i- 
housekeeper  in  Gloucestershire.     To  his  house  re- 
paired many  abbots  of  that  county,  (as  indeed  no 
one  shire  in  England  had  half  so  many  mitred  ones 
which  voted  in  parliament,)  and  clergymen,  whom 

y  Cap.  I.     «  Cap.  10.      *  Cap.  11.     ]}  Cap.  13.]     «  Cap.  16. 
»^  Bale,  in  vita,  p.  658.  [Burnet,  Ref.  I.  p.  323.] 


lot  Tim  CImnh  HiMtan,  mob  t. 

AjaujA-iyodtl  M  welflo— J  vHb  Ui  diiDoane  igiinit  tbeb 
via  ntpentjtioiu,  tint  dtenruds  tbey  prefanrfid  to  fcr- 
bear  master  Welch  bb  good  efaeer,  ntlwr  thia  to 
iMve  ibe  atmr  mudc  tbwirith  Mtwr  I^mUI^  eooi- 
paajr.  Out  thift  aet  tbnr  stoniflefaii  k>  iharp  KgifaMt 
him,  that  be  vnm  (nreei  to  i(uit  Gtfiurcrtenliire.  and 
tender  htt  frrrtce  to  Cuttibort  Tuii^tall.  bUbnp  of 
Uottdtut,  a  gnat  teholar  tiiniBulf,  luttl  tlivrvforv  pfo- 
baUlc  to  pmvo  a  fAtmn  to  a  IcanKid  laan.  Uini 
TyDdal  pmeated  io  vaiti  with  an  oration  out  of  Uo- 
enXm,  which  be  bad  tmnlatcd  bto  Engliah.  Bat, 
tbongb  he  nied  Air  hinudf  fai  two  tODgoM,  Gmak 
and  Englbh,  both  proTcd  ioHlbetaml;  tbo  btahop 
nlanihi|r.  Tliat  ho  hiul  mo  alreadj  than  be  mold 
woU  Biauilairi.  ita  thin  tlvnial.  urer  haMoi  Trndal 
bejwtM]  the  nciui ;  and,  a(U>r  much  travctUo^,  fuiPth 
at  last  at  Antverp.  where  b«  became  drrk  to  the 
companjr  of  Enghsh  tnprdomt  adTvntitren. 
"loul^  ^'  '''*'°  ^  ^xf*  *i*^  the  New  Tiatament.  (aa 
.N«*.  .nd  or  mtMt  eooeeniment  to  mas'*  aalntioa.)  and,  wiA 
rfuL'oM  the  help  of  John  Frith,  the  Banieh  to  tfab  Jenny, 
^^*"****^  tniwlating  it  out  of  thp  itnek  origfa»L  flBfabad, 
prfaMod.  aad  publisbcd  it.  Thrn  be  proceeded  to  Ab 
Old.  and  aeDomiilMbed  H  fmm  Omt^  to  Nrbemiak 
inehHivefy,  bot  tranalMed  none  of  the  Propheu  nn 
Jonah*,  htiltg  ptwenled  by  dnUb.  I  | 
mtdend  the  CHd  TeMarorot  out  of  the  1 
beat  frianda  not  enthling  him  to  any  ikiU  i 
the  Hebrpw.  And  maarfcable  It  was,  that  i 
to  Hambonth  i»  print  the  ftwialnwh',  be  loat  all  Ui 
booka  and  ropiea  by  shipwieelt,  which  donbled  kk 
pafna  hi  rtstramlatin;  it     But  fac>re  he  lighted  ea 


'  r«.  HvtyraL  omL  II.  p.  3«4. 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  168 

the  help  of  Miles  Coverdale,  afterward  bishop  ofA.  0.1536. 
Exeter,  to  assist  him ;  and  safely  they  went  through  ^  viii7 

the  work,  even  when  the  sweating  sickness  sw^t 
away  thousands  in  the  city  with  a  general  mor- 
tality :  as  if  the  useful  sweating  of  their  brains  were 
a  preservative  against  the  hurtful  sweating  of  their 
bodies.  And  indeed  painfulness  in  a  lawful  calling 
is  the  best  antidote  against  a  public  infection. 

89.  Yet  none  will  deny,  but  that  many  faults  Faults  mhw 


needing  amendment  are  found  in  his  translation ;  oonfeased 
which  is  no  wonder  to  those  who  consider,  first,  such  ^J^' 
an  undertaking  was  not  the  task  for  a  man,  but 
men  :  secondly,  no  great  design  is  invented  and 
perfected  at  once :  thirdly,  Tyndal,  being  an  exile, 
wanted  many  necessary  accommodations:  fourthly, 
his  skill  in  Hebrew  was  not  considerable ;  yea,  gene- 
rally, learning  in  languages  was  then  but  in  the 
infancy  thereof:  fifthly,  our  English  tongue  was 
not  improved  to  that  expressiveness  whereat  at  this 
day  it  is  arrived.  However,  what  he  undertook  was 
to  be  admired  as  glorious ;  what  he  performed,  to  be 
commended  as  profitable ;  wherein  he  failed,  is  to  be 
excused  as  pardonable,  and  to  be  scored  on  the 
account  rather  of  that  age,  than  of  the  author  him- 
self. Yea,  Tyndal's  pains  were  useful,  had  his 
translation  done  no  other  good  than  to  help  towards 
the  making  of  a  better ;  our  last  translators  having 
in  express  charge  from  king  James  to  consult  the 
translation  of  Tyndal. 

40.  But  when  the  Testament  of  Tyndal's  trans-  Tyndal  and 
lation  came  over  into  England,  O  how  were  the  lation  boch 
popish  clergy  cut  to  the  heart !   how  did  their  blear- ^JJj^J^ 
eyes  smart  at  the  shining  of  the  gospel  in  a  vulgar 
tongue !  Down  must  their  Dagon,  if  this  ark  be  set 

M  2 

16ft  Tke  CMmrdk  Huhry  wmc  «. 

A.&ii)&.up:  down  iheix  Diuia,  if  Paul  bv  )N-nnittcd  to 
'vmT'  pfwieh  u.  the  |*(«..  Sumf  mill,  that  the  BiWe 
oaffht  not  I«  bt-  Iniiwlnti-fl ;  Mmtc,  that  it  could  not 
be,  tliat  it  wan  iniptnr>iblL-«;  f>tht-n,  thai  the  tnnii- 
latin)if  tbvn*of  would  uiaki'  mi'ti  rebel  affaioft  the 
kinj^:  and  wbr,  I  pmy,  aemtiK  thejr  diall  roftd 
thi-Tcin.  Zrf4  i-nr/y  mh/  he  nAjeet  to  Me  ifjiter 
poiterM\  f(c^  aiid  manj  other  place*  piijring  «li^ 
dieacof  Settle  went  not  ao  mtich  angfj  ' 
text,  m  vntb  l^ndal'i  commeDt.  Ua  pnfiwe  1 
•nd  notes  apon  tbo  aame :  in  Bn«,  they  did  nol  4 
prorun*  hi»  book  to  be  publicly  burnt  in  Paid'a 
ebun^hyofd.  but  &1mi  their  maliw  (wliieh  bath  long 
anm  to  reach  at  iiurh  diittanf^)  contrived  and  ef- 
feetod  the  ftimngUojr  and  baniing  of  Tyndal  in 
A|inJy  41.  Bale  ealleth  him  the  apoatle  of  the  EngUah. 
had  Ml  And  indeed  aoaie  general  parallel  (far  be  it  froa  om 
^"^  to  enforev  it  to  an  abaolnte  conformilT)  nuy  be 
obMTved  betwixt  Su  Fnul  and  uur  Tyndal :  .St.  Paid 
withMootI  anil  defeattxl  the  {tower  of  Klyntai  the 
Borre-ivH;  IVTMlal.  with  tbe  grace  and  gravity  of  hk 
company,  put  a  tnagirian  out  c^  e«iunl<nancE^  bailif 
brought  thither  to  »hew  a  eaat  of  hto  ikill  by  ca- 

ff Fm.  ■!  f^-m.  "  wUMMet  madm,"  mm  mf 

fc  Bnw— ■  tUi- 1-  priatnlbMliar  HMMMcmtMl 

•  [TbfM  h  a  ptwelMwrinw  Ibnfc  ia  tW  mom  oT  PMa^ 

kr  tU  kkf.  wMmM  dM«.  I»l  Tysdib.  Wridif,  Jayv.  ilmf, 

H(  farth  prahaUjr  abmit  154s,  BmtW.  DmIv.  Bw»m.  Cew- 

■gofaiH  t^  >Aar  *)«  iMt  d^*,  Tvorwivr,  TrMy,  or  mf 

mf  at  Aami  aait  wti^  otWr,  wwwiaiaa  ■atttt  «a«- 

B9  «M  Mi  ha**  ia  Ubh*.  tntr  to  dto  tbtfmt  m(  fatib 

««b«"ilMMttardM  Kc»  ia  lU  ptfilnwoi  >i  Wmala- 

~  ***    ~       nl   «f  Tyaisb'a  «r  Mh-.    hi    tfc*  . . .  jw    at   tkl* 

J«'t    tmadirtw    hi  rd^  Am  TraaMnpta  far  Uw 

>.  mat  BBj  oUkH  Umi  Fad.p  iit.8UTp>'a(>.p.99.) 

•  r«^n«d  bj  tte  art  of  I  Am  KiS.  «. 


of  Britain. 


chanting'^:    St.  Paul,   in    Thyatira,   converted   his  A.  0.1536./ 
jailer  and  all  his  household';  Tjnidal,  during  his  year    viii. 
and  half  durance,  converted  his  keeper,  his  daughter,  '"'""""■"" 
and  other  of  his  family™ :  St.  Paul  was  in  perils  by 
waters^  in  perils  by  robbers^  in  perils  amongst  false 
brethren^;  so  was  Tyndal,  whom  one  Philips,  pre- 
tending much  friendship,  by  cunning  insinuation  be- 
trayed to  his  destruction.     We  take  our  leaves  of 
Tyndal  with   that  testimony  which   the   emperor's 
procurator  or  attorney-general  (though  his  adversary) 
gave  of  him,  Homo  fait  docttiSy  piusy  et  bonus :  "  He 
**  was  a  learned,  a  godly,  and  a  good-natured  man®.'* 

k  Pox,  [II.]  p.  367. 

*  Acts  xvi.  33. 

™  Fox,  ut  prius. 

"*  I  Cor.  xi.  26. 

o  [Fox  in  his  account  of 
Tyndale  observes  that  "it  is  of 
"  him  reported,  that  as  he  was 
"  in  the  castle  [of  Vilworden] 
'*  prisoner,  there  was  much 
"  writing  and  great  disputing 
"  to  and  fro,  between  him  and 
"  them  of  the  university  of 
"  Lovaine ;  which  was  not  past 
"  nine  or  ten  miles  from  the 
"  place  where  he  was  prisoner; 
"in  such  sort  that  they  all  had 
"  enough  to  do,  and  more  than 
"  they  could  well  wield,  to  an- 

"  swer  the  authorities  and  tes- 
"  timonies  of  the  scripture, 
"  whereupon  he  most  pithily 
"  grounded  his  doctrine."  Mar- 
tyrol.   II.  p.  367.     It   is  not 

Jerhaps  generally  known  that 
acobus  Latomus,  the  cele- 
brated opponent  of  Luther, 
wrote  a  confutation  of  Tin- 
dale's  treatise,  which  he  com- 
posed in  prison,  '^  Super  hac 
"  assertione,  sola  fides  justificat 
"  apud  Deum  :  in  quo  quidem 
"  libro  omne  bonorum  operum 
"  merita  toUere  conabsitur." 
See  Latomi  Opera,  f.  i8x.  b. 
ed.  Lovanii,  1579.] 

M  3 

SKCT.   V. 



/  knofw  noi  of  wkai  plaa  properkf  to  fuiinr  omd  itucribt 
yoUf  whether  cfMiddUsex^  where  you  have  your  preMui 
dwellings  or  of  Soiiinghamuhire^  whence  Jlrsi  youjeiched 
your  namu^  orjrom  DerbyMhire^  and  oiher  neighbourimg 
eouniuM^  wherein  you  are  hetr  apparent  §o  ajair  mherii^ 
anee.  I  enty  noi  your  deterred  happiness^  bui  omiy 
6k$erve  it  is  almost  as  difficult  to  Jir  a  rich  muin  as  a 
befigar ;  the  one  Jot  his  variety^  the  other Jbr  his  want  cf 
habitation.  But  be  you  styled  Jrom  what  place  you 
please^  be  pleased  also  to  accept  this  cjrpression  qf  my 
9Crvicc  unto  you.     All  that  I  will  add  is^  that  teeing  two 

*  [Arnift,  SAblr,  •cimc 
cinqurfoTlm  and  «  licm  rmm- 
puit,  argrtit.  I>ncrndnl  from 
•  vrrr  ancient  familr.  ■ituated 
•t  l*lifum  in  XtKtin|(bainftkirt*, 
m  rarly  ■»  thr  time  of  the 
Conqumir.  He  %nu  the  mni 
oC  Mr  (vervM  (*lift(m,  one  of 
tbe  rmrlie«t  barimc*tJi  created 
bj  Janie«  I.,  and  Frances,    hit 

Mcoad  wife,  who  via  a  dangli. 
tcr  c>f  Francta.  the  rarl  of 
Cumberland.  (Utford  ilifUm 
married  Francra,  a  daii|(hter 
of  ftir  Ileneage  Finch,  and 
hu  family  Aucoeeded  to  the 
barooetcT.  Sir  Cliflkird  dird 
in  1670.  See  Thc«nHon't  N<^ 
tinghanuhire,  I.  p.  103.] 

ciMT.  XVI.       The  Church  History  of  Britain.  167 

anaent  and  honourable  JamUiet  {the  one  ofNomuui,  the 
other  qf  Saxon  extraction)  Itajre  met  in  your  name,  tnay 
their  Joint  virtues  be  untied  in  your  nature. 

REAT  the  king's  profit  at  this  time  a.d.  1537. 
firom   the   office    for   the   receipts   of 'V"n^ 
tenths  and  first-fruits,  which  was  now  Thebegin- 
first  set  up  in  London,  and  something  g^^jj)," 
must    be    observed    of    the    original  "*»■ 
thereof:  such  monies  formerly  were  paid  to  the  pope, 
vhOfSa  pastor  pastorum,  claimed  dedmas  decimarum; 
entitling  himself  thereunto    partly  from  Abraham 
(a  priest)  paying  tithes  to  Melchizedeck  the  high- 
priest^,    partly  from  the  Levites   in   the  Mosaical 
law  pajring  the  second  tithes,  that  is,  the  tithes  of 
their  tithes  to  the  priest :  Thus  shall  you  offer  an 
heave-offering  unto  the  Lord  of  all  your  tithes,  which 
ye  receive  of  the  children  0/ Israel;  and  ye  shall  give 
thereof  the  Lord's  heave-offering  to  Aaron  the  priest '. 
Hereupon  the  pope  had   his  collectors   in    every 
diocese,  who  sometimes  by  bills  of  exchange,  but 
generally  in  specie,  (to  the  great  impoveriBhiiig  of 
the  land,)  yearly  returned  the  tenths  and  first-fruits 
of  the  English  clergy  to  Rome. 

2.  But  the  pope  being  now  dead  in  England,  the  Commit, 
king  was  found  his  heir  at  common  law  as  to  mostlHu^ta" 
of  the  power  and  profit  the  other  had  usurped.    ButSeri^BaJ 
now  as  the  clergy  changed  their  landlord,  so  theiri™^- 
rents  were  new  rated,    (and,  I    believe,  somewhat 
raised,)  commissioners  being  employed  in  all  counties 
(the  bishop  of  the  diocese  being  always  one  of  them) 
to  value  their  yearly  revenue,  that  so  their  tenths 
and    first-fruits    may  be  proportioned    accordingly, 

"  Gen.  xiv.  7,0.    Heb.  vli.  4.  '  Nam.  xviii.  38. 

TUt  CkmrtA  Oitary 

A-D-isn-Tlivte  rmtenwera  the  chiefert  penoni  in  ill  c      

ym^  under  the  degrve  of  buoni,  knd  I  hid  m  pn^eot  to 

"  preaeot  th«ir  names,  h  of  men  of  upgnMrtBtwhWi 

extrartion,  nune  as  jH  st&nding  on  the  ndni  of 

abbejw  to  beiffatmi  their  dmui  birth  into  the  r 

of  gentility. 

Nichola*  Cuw,  km.;  Mutbew  Brown,  km.; 
Stidolfr.  eaq.;  John  Bwiirivr,  g«tt. 

iU^snl  Scpoot,  knt-t  Lawrvncc  Tiylard,  knL;  Joba 
Gotfwick,  CM).;  John  Goodrick.  nq. 


WitlUm  Courtney,  knt.;   Thomu  Dranis,  knt.;  Joha 

Hiroall,  mayor  of  Esricr;  Jiihn  Hull,  auditor;  Wdfiaia 

SiiDonda,  aud'ilor;   John   Fard,  audilor;  Joba   Soatboola; 



William  Srouriim,  koL]    John  llortry,   knt.;    Andnw 

Luttmll,  knt. ;   Thonuu  Sfwki-,  «q.;   Huifh   rowk-t,  «q.; 

Henry    CapH,    knt.-';    Williain    Purtman,  gvnL;    Rogrr 

Kiai»y,  audhor. 

John  Talbul.  kol.;  John  Giflord,  knL;  Wahcr  Wrolicy. 
c«).;  John  Wrotlry.  geat. 

John  llolfurd,  knt.;  Pclcr  DulUm,  knt.;  G«urgc  Booth, 
«]  ;  Thomu  Alriun.  Hi|.i  Hichanl  Ligh,  aq.;  Wiffian 

RfTfCUIOi  CM]. 

Bat  ray  deidfrn  fiiUled.  when  I  found  the  retoni  of  tbo 
mnuniaHoneni'  oanii*  into  the  ottra  w  daJactiw^ 
that  in  moat  rountit-ti  thpy  uv  wlrally  unH^f^ 
4  U  tkii  Mtkod  llwr  ar*  aaBNd. 

csNT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  169 

8.  These  commissioners  were  empowered  by  the  a.  D.  1537. 
king  to  send  for  the  scribes   and   notaries   of  all  *Vin7 
bishops  and  archdeacons,  to  swear  the  receivers  and  inttnic- 
auditors  of  incumbents,  to  view  their  register  books,  ^^^J^ 
E^ter  books,  and  all  other  writings,  and  to  use  all  «»•*<»»»• 
other  ways  to  know  the  full  value  of  ecclesiastical 
preferments,  with  the  number  and  names  of  persons 
enjojring  the  same.     They  were  to  divide  themselves 
by  three  and  three,  allotting  to   eveiy  number  so 
many  deaneries,  and  to   inquire   the   number  and 
names  of  all  abbeys,  monasteries,  priories,  brother- 
ships,  sisterships,  fellowships,  &c.,  houses  religious 
and  conventual,  as  well  Charter-house*  as  others, 
(these  Carthusians  being  specified  by  name,  because 
proudly  pretending  privileges  of  papal  exemption,) 
and  meeting  together  to  certify  into  the  exchequer, 
at  the  time  limited  in  their  commission,  the  true 
value  of  such  places  or  preferments.     Herein,  repa- 
rations, fees  of  inij-s  ^  were  not  to  be  deducted,  but 
perpetual  rents,  pensions,  alms,  synods,  fees  paid  out 
yearly  to  persons,  were  to  be  allowed. 

4.  This  being  a  work  of  time  exactly  to  perform,  Some  y/mn 
took  up  some  years  in  the  eflTecting  thereof.   Devon- ^!^ 
shire  and  Somerset  were  done  in  the  twenty-seventh, 
Staffordshire,  and  many  other  counties,  in  the  thirty- 
fourth  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  and  most  of  Wales 
not  till  the  reign  of  king  Edward  the  Sixth.     Yea, 
I  am  credibly  informed,  that  in  Ireland  (to  which 
kingdom    such   commissions  were  afterwards    ex- 
tended) the  commissioners,  partly  tired  with  their  . 
troublesome  work,  partly  afraid  to  pass  the  dangerous 

«  Transcribed  with  my  own        '  No  clerk  in  the  office  could 
hand  out  of  the  original  in  the     read  this  word, 

A-D.  .(ji, 


ThtCAmnA  Hhtary 

hill  of  nub(>«.  (in  Imh.  lSU>ut>-Logber,)  obtbt  came 
into  ttie  <Niiuity  of  Klitv,  tin*  KWiUi-waii  extrani^ 
of  that  blond.  So  IhU  titf  clijrjfj  thiveof  (tboogh 
th*  pooTMt  of  tbn  poorviit  in  Ireland)  et^^  thk 
pririlciKe^  that  they  an>  pruttuntl;  pul  into  tbdr 
Uriagit  or  baoefieoa  latlier,  without  nnr  pannctita. 

5.  But  no  tuA  Ikvoar  wa>  »]|uwl><]  to  vaiy  pUee  in 
Engbud,  wbwtt  all  were  unpartialty  iat«d.  aod 
TieangM  vahied  tm^  high  aeoonlinf;  to  Uuir  iiwcet 
rawmw  b^  penonal  pefqabitet.  In  that  agv^  h» 
gwwrdly  waa  the  richest  ^vphirrd  who  had  the 
groabstt  flock,  where  obtationn  from  iho  livioj^  and 
obits  for  the  dead  (aa  c^rtainlj  paid  a*  [wedtal 
titbM)  luucb  adTaaead  tbdr  inoatDe.  In  raoai- 
duration  whi-rrof,  vkangM  (oMitljr  lying  in  market 
lowna  and  [topuloai  parMhaa)  went  aet  tltjt  high, 
thoQitfa  aoon  after  thoae  obventioiw  ninlc  with  ■ 
■titkm :  and  the  liesia  in  vain  dcaired  a  propoctkifr 
able  abatcnkcnt  in  the  king's  booka;  wUdi  i 
drawn  up  werv  no  more  to  be  altend. 

6.  Now  <|iit.'c'n  Marr.  a  prtnoeM.  i 
waa  never  pnne-riddco.  as  one  wbi>  wimid  go  to  the 
coat  of  her  own  prinripliw,  did  by  art  of  puliainent 
ewaratc^  Mxpiit,  and  diaebarge  the  clergj  fnmi  aO 
It*  fluita.  Aa  for  teniha,  the  Mune  lUtute'  ordewth 
thaai  to  be  paid  to  eatdinal  Pole,  who  tmm  tW 
•anw  WM  to  pay  the  pesaloni  allowed  by  hrr  fiuber 
to  Monka  and  aam  at  the  diiMilotioa  of  abbcyn :  yvt 
■(^  that  when  aoch  penooi;  who  were  bat  few  and 
agvd  (all  naned  in  a  deed  indarted)  ■ 
all  mob  payoMitB  of  the  dcixy*  laaamid  i 
ifarii*,  riioald  ccMc,  and  be  eleariy  extinct  and 

1 1  ft  s  PyUp  »i  Mary.  Of.  4. 

CBUT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  171 

7.  But  her  sister  queen  Elizabeth  succeeding  her,  a.d.  1537. 
and  finding  so  fair  a  flower  as  first-fruits  and  tenths  ^Viil7 
fidlen  out  of  her  crown,  was  careful  quickly  to  gather  Queen  eu. 
it  up  again,  and  get  it  reset  therein.     A  princess  ^^Jj|^™" 
most  facile  to  forgive  ii\juries,   but  inexorable  to**"*™- 
remit  debts;  who  knowing  that  necessitous  kings 

are  subject  to  great  inconveniences,  was  a  thrifty 
improver  of  her  treasure.  And  no  wonder  if  she 
were  exact  (though  not  exacting)  to  have  her  dues 
from  the  clergy,  who  herein  would  not  favour  her 
grand  favourite  sir  Christopher  Hatton,  who  by  the 
way  was  master  of  this  first-fruits  office,  and  was 
much  indebted  unto  her  for  monies  received ;  aU 
which  arrears  her  majesty  required  so  severely  and 
suddenly  from  him,  that  the  grief  thereof  cost  him 
his  life.  I  say  this  queen  in  the  first  of  her  reign 
resumed  first-fruits  and  tenths,  only  vrith  this  ease  to 
parsonages  not  exceeding  ten  marks,  and  vicarages 
ten  pounds,  that  they  should  be  freed  from  first* 
fruits^  A  clause  in  this  statute,  empowering  the 
queen  to  take  all  that  was  due  unto  her  from  the 
first  day  of  this  parliament,  was  so  improved  by  her 
officers  in  the  exchequer,  (who  sometimes  have  none 
of  the  softest  palms  to  those  that  fall  into  their 
hands,)  that  many  ministers  were  much  vexed 
thereby:  yea,  one  observeth  that  the  courtesy  in- 
tended to  the  clergy  by  queen  Mary  in  remitting 
their  tenths,  proved  in  event  an  injury  to  many,  so 
vexed  about  their  arrears  ^ 

8.  In  vain  have  some  of  late  heaved  at  this  office.  The  itate, 
which  is  &stened  to  the  state  with  so  considerable  a^cyof 
revenue,  as  it  advanced  thereunto  by  tenths  and**^****" 

^  See  the  statute,    i   Eliz.         '  M.  Parker,  Ant.   Brit,  in 
cap.  4.  vita  Reginakli  Poll.  [p.  527.] 

A.D.  )|]T.  flrst-rniitH.  The  fnnncr  nitmirt.  the  btter  ramiftl,  u 
viK.'''  dt'pcmling  (in  tlit?  unn-rtain  di-stha  of  tnrurobiiita, 
and  ntcli  lu  succeed  thtrm.  Mauy  indtn^l  arcttM- 
mch  fmymeniM,  a»  popbh  in  their  original.  But 
oodM  that  be  aaperaticlotu  whit^  was  plorkfd  down 
tij  quM'n  Marr,  ftnd  wt  up  aj^n  Iit  quvcti  Kli^ 
zaltotli?  Dewidt'K,  utiipiKiiw  them  mi  in  their  fini  fmil 
rountaiti,  Mince  iH-lriK  iihifled,  rea,  trtnuo«<d  tbmodb 
the  haitdfi  of  pnrteotuit  kingn,  toiithn  have  their  ntd 
|tr(i)iertT  oltervd.  and  aniuirc  nn  dnubt  a  new  purity 
ta  UieniwKe*.  And  the  advocates  for  this  office  do 
perttnentlr  ptewt.  that  there  ought  to  be  a  badge  of 
nbjeetion'  of  the  clerfry  to  tbo  aerabr  power,  hy 
public  ackimwlodf^ent  of  their  dcpeDdeoce  tbetvun, 
which  hv  such  [«Tnient«  u  best  perlbniied. 
A.liLiiJ''  9- John  Lomhert,  alias  Nicobon,  bm)  in  Ckm- 
IwiMw  bridgi\  had  latdv  boon  much  periMwutcd  tiT  areh> 
^J^  bishof t  Warboni  about  scnne  opinioni  be  held  afpunat 
the  mr|tHnd  )>reM>noe  in  the  Mcrament.  And  now 
heinf;  fallen  into  frewh  troubles  on  tbe  a 
to  nuke  the  quicker  work,  (fnllowing'  the  ] 
of  St.  Paul  appealinft  (o  Cmr,)  he  appeals  to  the 
king" :  who  having  Ut4-tv  taken  upon  him  the 
tHle  of  the  aopmne  head  of  the  rhureh  of  E 
woald  shew  that  bead  hwl  a  tongue  eould  i 
natten  of  diviaitj.  to  \\'hitehall,  tliu  pi 
day  is  appirinted,  where  an  art-n>jal  was  kept ;  the 
king  hinnelf  Iteing  the  opikoncnt,  and  Lambert  the 

for  LsMiWrt  don  ant 


of  Britain, 


answerer;  and  where  his  highness  was  worsted  or  a.  d.  1538. 
wearied,   archbishop   Cranmer    supplied  his  place,    viii. 
arguing,  though  civilly,  shrewdly,  against  the  truth 
and  his  own  private  judgment ". 

10.  Was  not  this  worse  than  keeping  the  clothes  Cranmer'* 
of  those  who  killed  St.  Stephen,  seeing  this  arch- abieww- 
bishop  did  actually  cast  stones  at  this  martyr  in  theJJjJJ^^^" 
arguments  he  urged  against  him  ?  Nor  will  it  excuse 
Cranmer's   cowardice   and  dissimulation   to   accuse 
Gardiner's  craft  and  .cruelty,  who  privily  put   the 
archbishop  on  this  odious  act,  such  Christian  courage 

^  See  Fox,  Acts  and  Mon. 
[II.  p.  425.  For  a  full  ac- 
count of  this  disputation,  see 
Fox,  1.  1.  Strype's  Cranmer, 
p.  65.  The  reader  will  find 
that  Cranmer  was  not  only  an 
unwilling  actor  in  this  scene, 
but  shewed  also  a  charity  and 
humbleness  which  even  his  ad- 
versaries  must  admire.  Lam- 
bert was  not  condemned  by 
the  archbishop,  but  by  the 
king  in  person,  Cromwell  read- 
ing  the  sentence.  Before  this 
was  passed,  there  was  a  dispu- 
tation,  which  was  opened  by  a 
speech  from  Sampson  bishop 
of  Chichester,  (or,  according 
to  Burnet,  Dr.  Hayes,  Ref.  I. 
p.  506.)  The  king  disputed 
against  the  first  position ;  and 
then  commanded  Cranmer  to 
continue  the  argument ; — 
^  who  first  making  a  short 
"  preface  unto  his  hearers, 
"  began  his  disputation  with 
"  Lambert  very  modestly,  say- 
"  ing,  *  Brother  Lambert,  let 
"  this  matter  be  handled  be- 
'*  tween  us  indifferently,  that 
"  if  I  do  convince  this  your 
"  argument  to  be  false  by  the 
•'  scriptures,  you  will  willingly 

*'  refuse  the  same;  but  if  you 
**  shall  prove  it  true  by  the 
"  manifest  testimonies  of  the 
'^  scripture,  I  do  promise  I 
"  will  willingly  embrace  the 
•*  same,* "  &c.  —  The  observa- 
tions therefore  of  Fuller  are 
not  just.  It  is  very  clear  that 
Cranmer's  sentiments  respect- 
ing the  sacrament  of  the  eucha- 
rist  underwent  agradual  change. 
And  though  at  the  time  of  Lam- 
bert's trial  he  had  given  up  the 
doctrine  of  transubstantiation, 
yet  he  was  still  a  believer  in 
the  corporal  presence,  and  did 
not  arrive  at  the  opinions  which 
he  finally  held  on  this  subject 
till  1546,  when  he  was  brought 
over  from  these  sentiments  by 
Ridley,  who  had  been  con- 
verted by  reading  the  treatise 
of  Bertram.  See  Cranmer's 
Answer  to  Smythe's  Preface, 
vol.  III.  p.  13.  (of  his  works.) 
Preface  to  the  Defence  of 
C.  D.  Embdae,  1557.  His 
Examination  before  Brokes, 
vol.  IV.  p.  97.  (Works),  and 
also  Jenkyn's  Preface,  p.  Ixxiii, 
where  the  subject  is  very  clearly 


ThtCkanA  HMary 

A.Di|)i- being  JwUjr  «ipMtad  firom  ■  pHMO  of  hli  parti  Mid 
^vvS!?  piano,  aa  not  to  be  acted  hj  anotbar  eootimiy  to  Ui 
owD  eoMciencc.  I  mc  not  tbereforo  wbat  man  ha 
aatd  in  Cnuinior'o  brbitlf,  sare  onlr  that  I  vr^T 
bopi%  one)  Hteadfutly  bcUevr.  that  hu  mvcd  Uod'n 
pardna  for  this  particular  o4K*nn\  uid  obtained  tbe 
nine  on  bit  nnJbigned  n.*|ientanr«.  Anil  becaaw 
tbe  fiuw  of  men'i  fiuUta  is  caannonlv  tern  in  tbo 
friaai  of  ibdr  panidunent.  it  b  ofaaem)*le,  that  ai 
I^mbert  now  wai  bomt  Ibr  donyinir  tbe  curporal 
pnaeooc  to  Cranmcr  (now  bit  opponent)  was  i 
wardi  coodenincd.  and  divd  at  Oxford  for  : 
tahitng  tbe  HUno  opinion;  vhirh  Talnar,  if  k 
■hewn,  bifl  nonaricnci?  had  [tnibabljr  bcfn 
deaivd  witbin  bim,  and  hi«  rmlit  witbout  bim  to  all 

11.  A  nutrb  XnAag  now  niadv  up  hy  tbu  bud 
Cromnvtr*  mntrivooco  U-tnixt  king  IIcnrT'  and  tbe 
ladjr  Anno  of  Clevea",  Dutchmen  Aoeked  fiwter  Iban 

-[BonM.  IM.  I.  p.  s'S-  inU.Mrfalrtlwll-aldMlMr 

M-    TIm  mmmhd^  to  hk  far    Im    ithiwul    bflM^Mr. 

Mr,  Aadain,  and  Mfean.  (o  tlw  wmmSm  «f  |imIIiwiH  m 

:    fv   tUt   MMTMM   widi  wmmwitj  vt  4,oo«  aMrfcs.  ■■4  a 

CWvn.  fa  4 

iW  dak*  vl  CWvn.  fa  ^ird     boM« 

bv.  (Hm  Cai. 
far  dM  rmi.  p. 

On  lb*  iTtfcdM 
arMta  IUcb> 

■f  Tnmimii»t  ttmi  to  iThfJMy  a^ 

p.  It*.)    TW  ula  M  Kliwdif  apu*  I 

■09  OT    Mr  81*  ^Mifl^    MA  rppslHl  OlJ> 

>«■  taweliMliJ  is  «wm>  arnt  moa  Mr  w  th«  Um'« 

M  tlM    9ik  of  Jmtj.  ^Mr.    Oa  Um  iiMdw  kfajf 

ObiW  I3tk  nT  Jwlvlbr  kM  mmt  •  Irtuf  far  brr  bntWr, 
>mi  b.  hM  lord  J«U  IImJi  tMii*  »k  ww  iw^rf  wkfc 
wWi  ft  tolwa.    5«o   Mwin  «(    kw  tfMtwmt.     And  kkn  ««l 



of  Britain. 


fonnerly  into  England:  many  of  these  had  active  a.  d.  1539. 
souls,  so  that  whilst  their  hands  were  busied  about  ^  vii^ 
their  manufactures,  their  heads  were  also  beating 
about  points  of  divinity.  Hereof  they  had  mimy 
rude  notions,  too  ignorant  to  manage  them  them- 
selves, and  too  proud  to  crave  the  direction  of  others. 
Their  minds  had  a  by-stream  of  activity  more  than 
what  sufficed  to  drive  on  their  vocation;  and  this 
waste  of  their  souls  they  employed  in  needless  specu- 
lations, and  soon  after  began  to  broach  their  strange 
opinions,  being  branded  vnth  the  general  name  of 
anabaptists.  These  anabaptists  for  the  main  are  but 
Donatists  new  dipped,  and  this  year  their  name  first 
appears  in  our  English  Chronicles ;  for  I  read  that 
four  anabaptists,  three  men  and  one  woman,  all 
Dutch,  bare  fagots  at  Paul's  cross,  and  three  days 
after  a  man  and  woman  of  their  sect  were  burnt  in 
Smithfield  p. 

12.  It  quickly  came  to  the  turn  of  queen  Anne  of  a.d.  1540. 
Cleves  to  fall,  if  not  into  the  displeasure,  out  of  the  SnTof 
dear  affection  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth.     She  had^l^';;^^ 
much   of   Katharine   dowager's  austerity,  little   of 
Anna  Boleyn's  pleasant  wit,  less  of  the  beauty  of 

the  king  the  ring  delivered  to 
her  at  their  pretended  mar- 
riage, with  a  request  that  it 
might  be  broken  in  pieces.  See 
the  notarial  instrument  of  this 
proceeding,  dated  July  29, 
among  the  Transcripts  for  the 
new  Foedera,  p.  220.  Two 
other  reasons  against  this  mar- 
riage were  pleaded  in  convo- 
cation ;  first,  that  the  king  had 
married  her  against  his  con- 
sent ;  and,  next,  that  the  mar- 
riage    had    never    been    con- 

summated; and  accordingly  it 
was  judged  null  and  of  bo 
force.  Burnet,  Ref.  I.  p.  562. 
See  the  letter  of  the  convo* 
cation  to  the  king  in  the  Firtt 
Collection  of  Records,  p.  308, 
but  more  correctly  printed,  to. 
gether  with  the  signatures^  in 
the  State  Papers,  p.  629.  It 
IS  also  printed,  with  a  full  ac- 
count of  the  process  of  the  di- 
vorce from  Cranmer's  Register, 
in  Wilkins'  Concil.  III.  p.  851.] 
P  Stow  in  his  Chron.  p.  576. 

Juio  Sejmour.  Home  fcmitiinr  tiii[M)tcnr}-,  that  Ac 
aiumrptl  itot  her  prration.  »-ii»  otij(>rto«l  ii^irut  her. 
tl)uuf[)i  unlr  licr  |>n<-«'niilniri  with  thv  mhi  of  thr 
duke  of  Utmutic  mui  (mblicly  in^rtod  on.  tat  wUeh, 
br  set  uf  p«Hiaiiit>[it  ituw  mttiag,  Ae  «m  wIuhmIj 

19.  Kin^  Hoiinr  durst  not  hut  dral  hcttcr  with 
Anne  of  Clevca  than  with  mich  btn  wirtm  which  wen* 
hia  tuitivv  subji-cti:  not  90  murh  for  love  of  her,  a* 
for  fcmr  of  h«'r  brother  tin*  duko  of  CIctvi,  candAer- 
ahle  (if  not  tnurb  hi  hitnn'ir)  in  bi«  union  with  tbr 
proteatjuit  [irinci>*  of  Gi-rmany.  Whervfore  he  nv 
Rtorvd  her  all  her  }owuls,  uMij^ned  tier  pRCvdeac}' 
aboTe  all  Engliih,  {mre  hh  own  that  iduiald  b« 
qiwai,  and  chihlreo,)  graeed  her  wHh  a  new-deriaBd 
■tjle  at.  His  adopted  dster.  (by  which  from  )tme»- 
forward  he  Mluttr<l  hvr  in  hb  h-lter«,  and  the  in 
BMWvr  MubaMTilfvd  bcnH*tf.)  aJlottvd  htv  RlchnMnl- 
booae  for  her  rPtirem<>nt,  with  an  angsientatioa  of 
■wnt  for  hiT  maintfitocer  And  now  let  her  b* 
gfald  that  khf  cAcniNtt  mi  well,  voving  all  wUck  had 
fihninpi*  to  kiof;  Ileuf^'*  bed  eamo  off  gaiiMff^  if 
mmu  of  tbWr  own  tire*  and  repatatiaaa.  Sbe 
Ktnmn)  no  more  into  her  own  ronntry,  bat  lirinf, 
and  rlTtnir  anno  1J)A7.  in  Enfrhuid,  wac  buried  in 
Wntniinster  church,  at  iho  hnul  of  kinj;  Sfbert.  in  a 
tmnb  not  yet  finistied:  none  other  of  kinjr  llenrr* 
wfrea  having  any.  and   thi«  Aqih*  but  half  a  mo- 

aJiM         14.  In  the  last  paHiomont.  rvfomutioii  ninning  a 
^SZak.  rBir«  with  lapefBtiliou  banlly  carrifnl  it  by  the  head's 

ml  3.ACMI,    par   awiiii 

I  fMato     Banrt.  Rrf.  I.  p,  564.! 
.     Hm        'Hum'tSmmj.f.  $ii. 


of  Britain. 


length;  but  it  was  hoped  that  in  this  new  parlia- a. 0.1539. 
ment  (now  sitting)  true  religion  would  run  her  rival  ^  V^ii.'^ 
quite  out  of  distance:  whereas,  alas!  it  not  only 
stood  still,  but  went  backwards,  the  Six  Articles 
being  therein  enacted,  that  whip  with  six  knots, 
each  one  (as  heavily  laid  on)  fetching  blood  from  the 
backs  of  poor  protestants*. 

15.  King  Henry  was  much  blamed  for  passing  KingHenry 
this  act.  Indeed,  power  and  profit  being  the  things  {^^. 
politic  princes  chiefly  desire,  king  Henry  had  already 
attained  both  by  his  partial  reformation.  Power,  by 
abolishing  the  pope's  usurpation  in  his  dominions; 
profit,  by  seizing  on  the  lands  and  goods  of  sup- 
pressed monasteries.     And  thus  having  served  his 

own  turn,  his  zeal  wilfully  tired  to  go  any  further, 
and  (only  abolishing  such  popery  as  was  in  order  to 
his  aforesaid  designs)  he  severely  urged  the  rest  on 
the  practice  of  his  subjects. 

16.  Herein  he  appeared  like  to  Jehu   king   of  Compared 
Israel*,  who  utterly  rooted  out  the  foreign  idolatry  jdm.  "*^ 

*  [Burnet,  Ref.  I.  p.  513. 
See  the  king's  draught  of  an 
act  of  these  Six  Articles  in 
Wilkins'  Concilia,  vol.  III.  p. 
848,  where  the  articles  are 
given  at  length.  The  sixth  is 
thus  expressed  ;  "  that  auri- 
"  cular  confession  is  necessa- 
**  rily  to  be  retained  and  con- 
"  tinued,  used  and  frequented 
"  in  the  church  of  God,"  and 
not  "  of  necessity  to  salva- 
•*  tion/'  which  was  the  very 
issue  of  debate;  the  popish 
party  labouring  to  have  it  de- 
clared that  auricular  confession 
*'  was  commanded  by  Christ  as 
"  a  part  of  the  sacrament  of 
*•  penance  ;*'    on   which   their 


arguments  were  confuted  by 
the  king  and  Cranmer,  to 
whose  reasonings  the  house  as- 
sented, declaring  that "  though 
"  it  was  good  and  profitable, 
"  yet  it  was  not  necessary  by 
•'  any  precept  of  the  gospel." 
See  Burnet,  Ref.  I.  Add.  p. 
738,  and  p.  519,  where  they 
are  printed  as  worded  in  the 
act  published  on  this  occa- 

*  [This  was  Calvin's  com- 
parison. See  the  letters  of 
Fr.  Baldwin  to  J.  Calvin,  pre- 
fixed to  a  treatise  entitled ;  O. 
C.  (George  Cassander)  Author 
libelli  de  officio  pii  viri,  &c. 
Paris,  1564.] 



Thr  CAvrrh  Hutan/ 

a.Ol  i}j«.  nf  BaJil,  (ft*trliod   fnHn   the  Zidonivia,  uid   kluioii 

'"viiT'^  spprnprintitl  to  tli<'  family  r>r  Aiui)>.)  but  Htill  iror- 

nhiiiiKil  till'  ralvf*   in    l>&ii   uhI  IW-ttitM.  ibo  ■late- 

iilnlaliT  itf  tlic    kiiifH^im :   m>   our    Henry,   thoof(li 

liani!>Umj;  all  (>ulluHli*h  Kujivrstition   of  papal  «lo- 

pnidonce»  Mill  nawrrtnl  niul  maintained  liomc-brad 

popery.  pMWcntiiig  the  rpfuM<Tii  tn  submit  tbeti^ 


Tw^         ]?■  For,  bj  the  pennaakm  of  bUwp  Gatdiner  <in 

tin!?!       itefianrf  of  arohUabop  CratiniBr,  and  tlw  toed  Crnd- 

well,  with  might  and   main   oppodng'  It)  it  m 


i.  That  in  the  aaonuneot  of  the  altar,  after  c 
cntion,  no  nibstauee  ot  bread  or  wine  i 
but  the  natural  body  and  blood  <^  Cbriat. 

ii.  Hiat  the  eotnmnnion  in  both  lundt  it  t 
cvtmrj  ad  Hdittfrn.  by  the  law  uf  (t<Nl  to  all  f 

iii.  That   pricMM,  aAer   unlen  r«cciTed,  may  uoi 
marry  by  the  bw  of  God. 

iv.  That  Towi  of  chiatlty  oogbt  to  be  ohiemd  \}if 
the  UwoTGod]. 

V.   That   it  if   meet  and   aecetmrj  that   private 
ma«c«  be  admitlod  and  o^Milinucd  in  riiorrh«ii. 

vi.  Tliat  aurienlar  coafnaion  muit  be  frf^ucntrd 
by  people,  aa  of  DMvarity  to  MlTatioa*. 

*  [All  vzOTpl  tW   Cm   »■  rm  IiT  ihr  dakr  of  NaribQi  am 

tiefe.  Ctmumt  M>t  U*iiB(  M  111*    ifitk   »r   Ma*.  tW   tvm. 

fM  illMwl  Ui  Mrtimmli  mym  bIum  wIhi  Ud  Iwa  •iMtari 

Ihaltalf^  f(WBkf*«.p.t;5.  from  tkc  htmm  "in  'nwan 

Mto,  aad  OwMt,  lUC  1-  p>  "  wtidM    «f  aaMam.'  m 

SIJ,  wfcm  tW  Mbtnn  of  wUdi  dft  iufcSfcnf  wm  Ika 

OiBBMn'i  MfntniB   -y-^—  ImmI.  sat  kviMg  bMn  lib  la 

iUn  MtidM  May  W  wm.]  onm   to   m   yii— I.      On 

■  [BwMt.  It«r.  I.  jL  CI9-  tU  jotb  of   Ifaj,  tU   lard 

TUw  wtkiM  wtr«  «&fnl  to  HMMftir.  m  T^mmm  AalW. 


of  Britairt. 


Laws  bad,  as  penned,  worse,  as  prosecuted,  which  a.  d.  1539. 
by  some  bishops'  extensive  interpretations  were  made  ^  viii!^ 
commensurate  to  the  whole  body  of  popery. 

18.  Indeed,  the  lord  Cromwell  (unable  to  riffht  hisThc^ord 
owTi)  had  a  design  to  revenge  himself  on  the  opposite  dengn 
party,  by  procuring  an  act,  that  "  popish  priests  con-  ""'**^ 
"  vict  of  adultery  should  be  subject  to  the  same 

"  punishment  wth  protestant  ministers  that  were 
"  married'^."  But  Gardiner,  by  his  greatness,  got 
that  law  so  qualified,  that  it  soon  became  lea^  eden- 
ttda^  whilst  the  other  remained  mordax^  death  being 
the  penalty  of  such  who  were  made  guilty  by  the 
six  articles,  though  Nicholas  Shaxton  of  Salisbury, 
and  Hugh  Latimer  of  Worcester,  found  the  especial 
fiivour  to  save  themselves  by  losing  of  their 
bishoprics  y. 

19.  And  now  began  Edmund  Bonner,  alias  Savage,  Bonna-fint 
(most  commonly  called  by  the  former,  but  too  truly  to  signer 
known  by  the  latter  name,)  newly  made  bishop  of  ^ 

brought  in  for  punishing  those 
who  offended  against  these  ar* 
tides :  and  a  bill  drawn  up  for 
that  purpose  by  the  archbishop 
of  York  was  approved,  and 
after  going  through  the  usual 
process,  received  the  royal  as- 
sent on  the  28th  of  June.  See 
Burnet,  1.  c] 

*  [On  the  16th  of  June, 
three  days  after  Cromwell's  ar- 
rest by  the  duke  of  Norfolk,  a 
bill  was  brought  in  for  mode- 
rating the  statute  of  the  six 
articles  in  the  clauses  that  re- 
lated to  the  marriage  of  priests, 
or  their  incontinency  with 
women.  By  which  the  pains 
of  death  were  turned  to  for- 

feitures of  goods  and  chat- 
tels. (Burnet,  Ref.  I.  p.  565.) 
But  I  do  not  find  any  such  act 
or  design  of  Cromwell  as  here 
mentioned  by  our  author.] 

y  [Burnet,  Ref.  I.  p.  533. 
They  did  not  escape  entirely, 
for  being  presented  for  speak- 
ing against  these  articles,  they 
were  both  imprisoned:  Shax- 
ton was  confined  till  the  13th 
of  July,  1546,  [Burnet,  Ref. 
I.  p.  682.]  when  having  re- 
canted, he  was  dismissed ; 
but  Latimer  was  not  released 
till  the  accession  of  Edward 
VI.,  about  a  year  after.  (Bur- 
net, ib.  II.  p.  51.)] 


A.tx  ttj9.  London',  to  clis|>la]r  the  t^liiun  of  hb  aneitj 
''viiT'  thvruin.  which  hen*  I  forbcw  to  rrpnU,  becatna 
ciU'il  lit  Urjrc  by  Mr.  Fox.  For  I  Atmn  my  Cbnn^ 
Hiittory  tthould  )M>'hiivu  jtoetf  to  hi*  Ilctok  of  Mutjn, 
H  »  lieutcimnt  to  itN  raptnin,  only  to  uifiply  bk 
ploro  in  his  siMtciloo,  to  txt  nupplcttu'iital  tbrrcanto 
ill  Mirh  matlfra  of  moim-nt  which  havv  cMmprU  hit 

80.  MBtch-amkrnt  b(>tw!xt  (iriTato  p<'r*oiu 
find  grvM  luvc  Tor  thotr  fniiu,  twtwixt  priiiMw 
&11  Into  diuigcr.  at  here  it  proved  in  the  lord 
well,  tht'  jcnuid  contriver  of  tho  kini^'a  luarrtap*  with 
Aunc  orCluvon*.  On  him  (he  kin|t  bad  oonlbnvd 
hotuiun  Ml  many,  and  ao  raddcnly.  tbat  ana  taa.j 
My,  tilt"  tTuditi4-i  tbcTeof  ky  imoooeoeted  In  U* 
KMil,  NO  that  be  could  nut  lutTf  time  to  digMt  tMO 
dignity  before  another  wan  poured  a|Km  Idm.  Not 
to  ifieak  of  hii  maatonbtp  of  tbo  juwel-booae^  be 
«u  BMdo  fanron,  nartw  of  the  ivUa.  the  king^i  vieti^ 
gMMTil  in  ■piiitnal  nuUten,  lord  privy  and,  Icnlgfat 
of  tbe  gKTter,  oari  of  Ehcx.  lord  gnat  cbambefUn 
of  Bogfattld.  And  my  author^  obaerrotb.  that  all 
these  honomi  wero  e«m(erred  upon  bim  in  tbu  ootn- 
!«■  of  fin  yean,  moat  of  tbetn  poatewod  by  bun 
not  flve  HMNttbt;  I  nay  add,  and  all  taken  firNn 
Ub  In  Um  than  flva  ndnotei,  with  his  life  oa  the 

■  SI.  Tbk  waa  tbo  eante  why  be  waa  enmd  of  the 
nohOHy  and  gcntiy.  being  by  birth  ao  nnieh  beniMtli 
all;   1^  profbnncDt  wt  bi|:fa  above  moat  of  tbaoL 

4aM  of  L^Jna.)  f.  3it. 

•  IBaraM.  Rat  L  f.  SS"  J    . 

BriL  km  I 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  181 

Besides,  many  of  his  advancements  were  interprttedA.D.  1540. 
not  so  much  honours  to  him,  as  injuries  to  others,  viii. 
as  being  either  in  use  improper,  or  in  equity  unfit,  or  """"""^ 
in  right  unjust,  or  in  conscience  imlawful  for  him  to 
accept.  His  mastership  of  the  rolls,  such  who  were 
bred  lawyers  conceived  it  fitter  for  men  of  their 
profession.  As  for  the  earldom  of  Essex  conferred 
upon  him%  though  the  title  lately  became  void  by 
the  death  of  [John]  Bourchier,  the  last  earl  without 
male  issue,  (and  so  in  the  strictness  of  right  in  the 
king's  free  disposal,)  yet  because  he  left  Anne,  a  sole 
daughter  behind  him,  Cromwell's  invading  of  that 
honour  bred  no  good  blood  towards  him  amongst 
the  kindred  of  that  orphan,  who  were  honourable 
and  numerous.  His  lord  great  chamberlainship  of 
England,  being  an  oflSce  for  many  years  hereditary 
in  the  ancient  and  honourable  house  of  Oxford, 
incensed  all  of  all  that  family,  when  beholding  him 
possessed  thereof.  His  knighthood  of  the  garter, 
which  custom  had  appropriated  to  such  who  by 
three  degrees  at  least  could  prove  their  gentle 
descent,  being  bestowed  on  him,  did  but  enrage  his 
competitors  thereof,  more  honourably  extracted.  As 
for  his  being  the  king's  vicar-general  in  spiritual 
matters,  all  the  clergy  did  rage  thereat,  grutching 
much  that  king  Henry  the  substance,  and  more,  that 
Cromwell,  his  shadow,  should  assimie  so  high  a  title 
to  himself**.  Besides,  Cromwell's  name  was  odious 
unto  them  on  the  account  of  abbeys  dissolved,  and 

c  [He  was  created  earl  of  "  making  up  the  king's  mar- 
Essex,  April  14,  1540;  and  "  riage."  Barnet,  Ref.  I.  p. 
therefore  bishop  Burnet  thinks  550.] 

*' that  the  true  causes  of  Crom-  **  [See  Burnet's  Ref.  I.  p. 

*'  well's  fall  must  be  found  in  527.] 
"  some  other  thing  than   his 

N  8 


TV  CAHrrt,  MUtary 

Ru  woiwler  if  (hit  Sonisuu  (iluckfog  down  tke  |41- 
Un  or  tbt-  po|>Ub  churrh  hail  tliv  itst  of  the  itnM^- 
tore  falliiif;  u|Min  htm.  'Ilitiie  rpjoiovd  when  th* 
duke  of  Norfolk  arrewtm)  him  for  treason  mt  tlM 
council  UIjIo,  wlu'rioe  lie  ini»  tent  iirimner  to  Um 

S8.  And  DOW  to  t\tc»k  itnportudljr  of  him.  thoafth 
in  priaoo.  If  wi>  n-flc-ct  on  his  pMl»  ami  tnHlovr- 
mottt*.  it  ift  woiidfrfui  to  tec  how  om.'  (|ualilr  in  him 
twrricnded  UHitht*r.  (Irvat  Mcholor  bo  WBti  nooe. 
(the  LatiQ  Tp«tAmont  gotton  hr  brut  being  tho 
mailtTpiocu  nf  bis  leoniiiig,)  nor  any  fttailii>d  Uwyer. 
(nevfr  luii);  livinfr,  if  iulmitt«d,  in  the  iui»  of  oooft,) 
nor  exiH^i-nciHl  Mtldjor,  (though  ueocwaitj  cut  htatt 
on  IhM  calling  wh<'n  the  Uuki*  of  Boatbon  bedeyj 
Bomu.)  nor  eiiurtier  in  \m  voutli,  (till  bfvd  Ift  tbe 
court,  H  1  niar  coll  it,  of  cantiiuU  Wolter't  hoiun.) 
■od  yet,  that  of  the  lawyiT  in  bini  m>  hel|ied  tbe 
•cbular.  tbnt  of  the  Mildier  the  Uwycr.  UuU  of  Cb« 
cuurtier  the  Mililier,  aiul  tliat  nf  ibo  tnTdler  m  fm- 
fcrtcti  nil  the  nr*t,  (being  iio  Atmngrr  to  Gvraiuqr. 
well  nrqiialntrd  with  Kmnre.  mart  familiar  with 
Italy,)  that  the  n?*uU  nf  all  togtrther  made  him  (or 
eodowinenla  ewipeot.  not  to  nj  admirable. 

S3.  It  WM  laid  to  hii  cliarge,  firet.  that  be  h*d 

•  CSwUm* 

m  «r  dMir    pmm4  Uw  ki^i 
H«t  I.  p.     »9th.     On  tk   jatk  af  tte 

On  tb«    talk  of  tte 
I  tk«    kH<«  Mnf^ 

bf  tW  dtJu  of  Norfatk  Jbh*  B|Mettn|   i 

13,  1^40;    1J41    McoHiai  to  wrth Abm «rf CIm* WM toaia 

rot.  11   f..ji].  (BMnMCltrr.  MilwT«i<m(BwMt.lkCalL 

I   p.  sji.);  tiM  UloT  Bitaia.  I.  p.  jo;.).  ud  «a  tW  iWi 

dtrna  bru««fct  in  ■KMMt  kin  of  Jnl;  b«  wm  tm^  is  iW 

m  Um  iTtk  of  Juw.  uhI  nwl  nrfnU.    Fwa,  L  c 

tWimtiM.M  tk*(9tl>  tk«  IWl.  p.  sm] 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  188 

exceeded  his  commission  in  acting  many  things  of  a.  ix  1540- 

J  1  •         3^  Henry 

high  consequence  without  acquainting  the  king  viii. 
therewith ;  dealing  therein,  though  perchance  wisely  upon  the 
for  the  state,  not  warily  for  himself®.  Indeed,  it  iSweU. 
impossible  for  such  officers,  managing  not  only  mul- 
titudes, but  multiplicity  of  matters,  but  that  in  some 
things  they  must  mistake.  As  in  many  words  there 
wanteth  not  iniquity/  ^  so  in  the  actors  of  many  affairs 
&ults  are  soon  found  out.  He  was  also  accused  to 
set  at  liberty  certain  persons  not  capable  of  it ;  ft)r 
granting  licenses  and  commissions  destructive  to  the 
king's  authority ;  for  being  guilty  of  heresy  himself, 
and  favouring  it  in  others.  Traitorous  speeches  were 
also  charged  upon  him,  spoken  two  years  before  in 
the  church  of  St.  Peter's  the  Poor,  in  Broad- 
street  fif;  the  avouchers  thereof  pretending,  that,  as 
hitherto  they  had  concealed  them  for  love  of  them- 
selves, fearing  Cromwell's  greatness,  so  now,  for  the 
love  of  the  king,  they  revealed  the  same.  Indeed, 
on  the  first  manifesting  of  the  king's  displeasure 
against  him,  the  foes  of  Cromwell  had  all  their 
mouths  open,  and  his  friends  their  mouths  shut  up. 

24.  The  mention  of  St.  Peter's  in  Broad-street  An  inju- 
mindeth  me  of  a  passage,  not  unworthy  to  be  recited,  many  poor 
of  an  injury  offered  by  this  lord  Cromwell  to  manyJJ^J^ 
poor  men  in  the  same  parish.     And,  because  ©v^ry^^^ 
one  is  best  able  to  tell  his  own  tale,  take  it  in  the 
words  of  John  Stow,  being  himself  deeply  concerned 
therein : 

*  [See  the  substance  of  the  8f    ['•  On    the  last    day   of 

act  of  attainder  in  Burnet,  Ref.  "  March,  in  the  thirtieth  year 

I.  p.  556,  and  at  full  length  in  "  of  your  most  gracious  reign." 

the  Collections  to  that  volume,  Act   of  Attainder  in  Burnet, 

p.  292.]  Ref.  I.  Coll.  p.  297.] 

'  Prov.  X.  19. 

N  4 

Th»  Churtk  HiMtmy 

A.a  iH*  **  [Thu  lord  Cromwoll  hAvfaig  fiDkhed  hb  boon  In 
"*  vhT*  **  IlimgiDortoD-Atreet  in  Lowkto,]  ud  bnvlog  nmh 
**  leuonablr  plot  of  Kniaod  loft  for  a  fimiden,  be 
"  fluucd  tlic  |«1(>«  or  the  jpudcMW  at^omioff  to  tbe 
"  north  part  tbcrrof  oa  n  niddeo  l«  bu  t&kps  dovti, 
**  tWi'Dt^>twu  foot  Ui  Im!  DicaiunMl  forthright  intu  the 
"  north  of  vwry  iiuui'fl  irruauil,  a  line  thi-rv  to  bo 
"  dniwu.  a  tri'iirb  to  U>  rant,  a  fouudatMn  laid,  and 
"  an  hifth  brirk  wall  to  lie  buiUled.  Ujr  father  had 
"  a  f^ardru  thoiv,  and  then)  waa  a  boow  ■«f"'"f 
**  chiau  to  hia  toiith  |iale :  thii  houw  they  looted 
**  from  thu  gtviuid,  and  ban-  u|Kin  rullen  into  m/ 
"  bthcr'i  garden  twenty-two  foot,  ere  laj  latbor 
**  heard  thereof:  no  warning  waa  given  him,  nor 
**  uthi'r  antwcr,  when  he  i|iake  to  the  MUTeyora  of 
"  that  work,  but  that  their  nuwter,  nr  Thoouuk  oook 
"  niaiidi>d  them  tKi  to  do.  No  man  darvt  fio  to  argne 
**  tho  matter,  but  each  man  loal  hi«  land ;  and  mjr 
"  fiUlKT  |«id  bit  whole  rent,  which  was  u  •**M'fry 
**  and  eightpvnre  the  Tt«r,  for  that  half  which  ww 
"  left.  Thus  morh  of  mine  own  Imowledge  hnv*  I 
**  thought  good  to  not*',  that  the  sudilea  rtHng  of 
**  lome  men  vauMtli  tbcm  to  furjp^t  themflelrea^." 

1  am  mored  the  rather  to  bcliero  our  Butb<v 
berein,  became  elaewbcrc  be  allowL-ih  this  lord  hia 
deacrred  praise  for  bis  virtut^  and  eipectaUj  hii 
bfW|jitalitj,  affirming  he  liad  often  aeca  at  tb»  lord 
Cromweira  gate  above  two  butidrDd  | 
twice  every  day  with  meat  and  drink  i 
Nor  can  1 100  what  ma;  be  miA  in  exrnw  of  tUa 
opt^gMJon.  exoept  any  will  (dead,  that  AhiwtAdCt 

fc  Iwii j  af  Lwiw.  f.  I*?.    >8b«w'»San«7  of  LomfaM,  pu  74. 


of  Britain. 


servants  violently  took  away  the  wells  from  Abrahamiy  a.I},  1^40. 
and  yet  Abimelech  himself  never  knew  more  or  less  ^  viii7 

25.  As  for  the  passionate  expressions  of  Crom- The  wont 
well ;    a    knight^,    aged   well-nigh    eighty,   whose  [|^^^ 
mother  was  daughter  to  the  lord  Cromwell's  son,^^^^ 
hath  informed  me,  that  the  principal  passage  whereon  **^- 
the  lord's  enemies  most  insisted  was  this ;  it  being 

told  the  lord  Cromwell  that  one  accused  him  for 
want  of  fideUty  to  the  king,  Cromwell  returned  in 
passion,  "  Were  he  here  now,  I  would  strike  my 
"  dagger  into  his  heart,"  meaning,  into  the  heart  of 
the  false  accuser;  and  therein  guilty  of  want  of 
charity  to  his  fellow-subject,  not  of  loyalty  to  his 
sovereign.  But  seeing  the  words  were  a  measuring- 
cast  as  uttered  (though  not  as  intended)  to  whom 
they  should  relate,  the  pick-thank  repeater  avowed 
them  uttered  against  the  king  himself.  So  dangerous 
are  dubious  words  and  ambiguous  expressions,  when 
prevalent  power  is  to  construe  and  interpret  the 
meaning  thereof. 

26.  Ten  days  after  his  arrest^  he  was  attainted  ofHUtpeedi 
high-treason   in    parliament,  and    brought  on  the^oUL 

J  Gen.  xxi.  26. 
^  Sir  I.  Strode  of  Pamham 
in  Dorsetshire.  [The  words 
charged  upon  him  in  the  act 
of  attainder  are  these ;  "  *  If  the 
"  king  would  turn  from  it  (sc. 
"  certain  doctrines  uttered  by 
"  Robert  Barnes)  yet  I  would 
*'  not  turn ;  and  if  the  king 
did  turn,  and  all  his  people, 
I  would  fight  in  the  field  in 
mine  own  person  with  my 
"  sword  in  my  hand  against 
"  him  and  against  all  others ;' 




"  and  then  and  there  most 
"  traitorously  pulled  out  his 
"  dagger,  and  held  it  on  hieh^ 
'^  saying  these  words ;  •  Or  else 
"  this  dagger  thrust  me  to  the 
"  heart,  if  I  would  not  die  in 
"  that  quarrel  against  them  all ; 
"  and  I  trust  if  I  live  one  year 
"  or  two^  it  shall  not  be  in  the 
"  king's  power  to  resist  or  let 
"  it  if  he  would.'"  Burnet,  ib.] 
^  [This  is  incorrect.  See 
note,  p.  453.] 

IWJ  7'Ar  rAwn-A  HtMtory  MMM  v. 

A.D.i5«n.KttfroIil  the  npxt  weuk  to  exenitloa.   Here  be  ipafco 

viit.     tlio    followitifT    wonlfl    unto  tbe   pec^le,   whlril  the 

nviler  tn  niiii<'»it«l  the  morr  •eriouulT  to  pmisr,UnC 

thi'ivli^    he  may  bi>  utiablot   to  |uu«   (ir  rntM^Tueil 

theivin)  hifl  wnlict  in  wlutt  n'lifrion  tbtf  lunl  iltud'". 

"  I  am  came  hither  to  tlJe.  and  nnt  to  pUTfpi 
**  mjraelf,  as  Mimu  think  pcnwivcniuiv  that  I  viU. 
"  P<«-.  if  I  ahould  M  d«>,  I  were  a  verr  wretch,  and  & 
**  miaiT.  I  am  by  the  law  oonHemni'd  to  dip,  uaA 
"  thaiik  1117  Lord  God  that  ttath  a{>pnint4K]  mc  thk 
"  deaUi  fur  ndne  oflbnop.  For,  Bithencv  the  time 
"  that  I  bare  had  joan  of  dtMretion.  I  bavu  Itred  a 
**  sinner,  and  ofletHk*)  my  L<mi  (im).  for  the  whirb  I 
**  ank  him  heartily  for)nvene«M.  And  it  ia  not  un- 
"  knuwii  to  nmoy  of  you,  thnt  I  liaro  tteen  a  gmA 
"  traveller  in  this  world,  an«l.  beinj;  but  of 
"  d4*frn-e,  wai  railed  to  hifffa  estate,  and  aitlietKw  tlw 
**  time  1  camo  then-unto  1  ban)  oSbnded  my 
**  fiir  the  whirb  I  oak  htm  hovtily  lbrgi< 
**  and  beteerb  yrni  all  to  pcmy  to  God  with  me^ 
"  lie  wQl  (brjrive  me.  And  now  I  |iray  yon  that  bo 
"  bere.  to  bear  me  recoril  I  die  in  tbe  ralholir  (nith. 
"  not  doubting  in  any  article  of  my  ikitb,  no,  nor 
**  doabtiog  in  uy  Menuneot  of  the  rhurrb.  Many 
**  have  rfmderad  ntci,  and  reported,  that  I  have  licen 

*  k  bmrer  of  micIi  aa  have  maintained  evil  opinioM, 

*  whick  if  antme.  But  I  eunfcaa,  that  like  as  God 
•■  by  hit  Holy  S|iirlt  doth  iortnict  iw  in  the  tnttb.  m 
•*  the  devil  is  ready  to  ledDeo  na,  and  I  haTe  bam 
"  M-ducvd ;  but  boar  nw  witoeai  that  I  die  In  tba 
"  catholic  Ikith  of  tbe  boly  ebareh.     And  I  beartHjr 

ace  tbu         - 

>  [HwMt.  lur.  1.  ^  5«».] 

csvT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  187 

'^  desire  you  to  pray  for  the  king^s  grace,  that  heA.D.1540. 

"  may  long  live  with  you  in  health  and  prosperity :  ^ ViS^ 

"  and  that  after  him  his  son,  prince  Edward,  that 

"  goodly  imp,  may  long  reign  over  you.    And  once 

^^  again  I  desire  you  to  pray  for  me,  that  so  long  as 

^^  life  remaineth  in  this  flesh  I  waver  nothing  in  my 

^^  &ith."     And  so  making  his  prayer,  &c.° 

The  general  terms  wherein  this  his  speech  is 
couched  hath  given  occasion  for  wise  men  to  give 
contrary  censures  thereof. 

Fox  in  his  marginal  note  on  this  speech^  p.  515. 

''  A  true  Christian  confession  of  the  lord  Cromwell 
"  at  his  death.** 

Lord  Herbert  in  the  Index  of  his  History ^  under  C. 

''  Cromwell  died  a  Roman  catholic,  notwith- 
'^  standing  he  had  been  such  a  destroyer  of  the 
"  church^." 

"  [Fox's  Acts,  &c  II.  p.  prayer*  made  after  his  speedi 

512.]  on  tlie  scaffold*  is  printed  at 

o    [This    misrepresentation  length  in  Fox,  II.  p.  513,  from 

arose  from  his  use  of  the  ex-  whom  this  whole  acooont  has 

pression*    "  catholic      fiiith."  been  taken,  without  adknow. 

**  But  it  was  then  used,"  says  ledgment,  by  subeequent  writ- 

Burnet,  "in  England  in  its  era.    It  begins  thus :" O Lord 

true  sense  in  opposition  to  '*  Jesus,  which  art  the  only 

the  novelties  of  the  see  of    '*  health  of  all  men  living,  and 
"  Rome His  praying  in    **  the  everlasting  life  of  them 

**  English*   and  that  only  to  **  which  die  in  thee. ...  I 

"  God  through  Christ,  without  **  and  knowledge  that  there  is 

"  any  of  those  tricks  that  were  *'  in  myself  no  hope  of  aalvm- 

"  used    when    those    of   that  "  tion,  but  all  my  confidenee, 

*'  church  died,  shewed  he  was  **  hope,  and  trust,  is  in  thy 

"  none  of  theirs."   Ref.  I.  p.  '*  moat  merciful  goodness.    I 

570.     This  remark  of  Burnet  *'  have    no  merits,  nor 

is  not  correct.    See  note  on  **  works  which  I  may 

Story's  death  below.       This  '*  befiore  thee,  ftc."  The 




Trw'  it  in,  •»  warj  were  CromwvU'v  exprwiiaM; 
tlut  Lather  uul  BeBannloo  might  in  tltetr  own  per- 
Miiu  huve  Mid  the  mioe,  wftbont  anjr  pnjndiee  la 
thoir  own  pftodito;  md  tamf  concohw  tlMt  tk« 
mott  which  tbeao  his  word*  Bmonnt  to,  will  brt 
mftko  him  a  nx-«ticle«  protMtant. 

S7-  Hut  tot  Cmmwcll'ii  politic  qwoeh  h'  In  put 
ox|MHin<1i>tl  l»r  lii^  plain  prttrer  whirh  be  immf^ltatcly 
mfU'r  imdf.  (to<i  loiifc  here  to  iitMrrt,  but  ovt  dcnro  at 
iBtfe  in  Mr.  Fox,)  uid  which  <i[ieftltctli  him  a  trna 
protcstanL  And  if  nogativD  ngnuMnts  bvuI  aught 
In  thb  natter,  no  mpefstttious  woiring  of  binuHlf^ 
no  pnjing  to  Minia,  no  dedtti^  of  ptm^cn  fur  him 
after  hi*  death,  itc^  nrnj  eridMice  Itim  no  papnt  in 
the  eloao  of  his  life.  Indeed,  inti-Cmmwolliila 
count  thia  controTprx;'  (of  the  n'ligiun  bo  died  in) 
net  worth  the  deciding*.  n»  jttjiiirta  eonenvin^  tlw 
gain  gnat  tn  get  him  on  their  side,  and  tone  pro- 
twtaiiti  aceountfaig  the  lo«  as  little  tn  part  wHh 
htm.  IluweTpr,  this  right  ought  to  he  done  to  hit 
mnnarj.  In  fixing  It  on  ita  own  prindplca,  and  not 
mitproaonting  the  aune  to  poaterftjr. 

Sft.  Remarkable  ia  that  paiwage  In  faia  ipeaeh, 
wherein  ho  confuaaeth  himwif  br  law  condpoined  to 
die,  iNwauae  «  M017  depondfib  thfnn]|M>n.  Not  long 
ago  an  art  had  paned  in  |>arliani4-n(,  thnt  on<>  might 
bt*  nitttinlol  of  iretuuio  b^  bill  in  pariiunont,  and 
roiiM'quontly  low  bit  life,  withfrnt  anv  irfhcr  legal 
trial,  or  being  erer  brought  to  anawcr  in  )ii«  own 
The  lord  Cromwell  waa  vtwy  artire  in 


tBiiwhtfawi    nam  (Owtimli  BtottM). « 
'    '    «'■  M.    at  (udiMl  r  ~ 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  189 

procuring  this  law  to  pass,  insomuch  that  it  is  gene--^-^-»54o- 
rally  believed,  that  the  arm  and  hammer  of  all  king  vin« 
Henry's  power  could  never  have  driven  on  this  act 
through  both  houses,  had  not  Cromwell  first  wim- 
bled an  hole  for  the  entrance  thereof,  and  politicly 
prepared  a  major  part  of  lords  and  commons  to 
accept  the  same.  For,  indeed  otherwise  it  was 
accounted  a  law  injurious  to  the  liberty  which  reason 
alloweth  to  all  persons  accused,  and  which  might  cut 
out  the  tongue  of  innocency  itself,  depriving  her  of 
pleading  in  her  own  behalf.  Now,  behold  the  hand 
of  Heaven !  It  happened  that  this  lord  first  felt  the 
smart  of  this  rod  which  he  made  for  others,  and  was 
accordingly  condemned  before  ever  he  was  heard  to 
speak  for  himself 

Nee  lex  est  justior  ulla 
Quam  necis  artifices  arte  perire  sua. 

Most  just  it  is,  that  they  bad  laws  who  make 
Should  themselves  first  of  their  own  laws  partake. 

Thus,  those  who  break  down  the  banks,  and  let  in 
the  stream  of  arbitrary  power,  (be  it  into  the  hands 
of  prince  or  people,)  are  commonly  the  first  them- 
selves which  without  pity  are  drowned  in  the  deluge 

29.  Thus  far  I  have  swam  along  with  the  wind  vec  the  lord 
and  tide  of  all  our  English  historians,  in  charging  of  J^J[^ 
Cromwell  herein.     But  I  find  one  author  of  strong  p*"*?^ 
credit^  (such  he  needs  to  be  who  swims  against  the*»««in- 
stream)  acquitting  the  said  lord,  deriving  his  intelli- 

be  attainted  and  condemned  in  4  Sir  Edward  Coke^  part  iv. 

parliament,    a.   i539»  without  of  Institut.  in  Jurisdiction  of 

being  brought  to  her  answer.  Courts,  p.  37.  [ed.  1644.] 
See.Burnet's  Ref.  I .  p.  530,7  ac] 

l(ta  7%t  CAnnA  ftitlory  kimik  t. 

A.n.  iMafieneo  from  lir  Thoaiw  Gswdto.  a  gmve  judjrr.  tlten 
%"Tii7  livinjr,  who  ■ctjuaiotnl  him  w  followrth :  ••  King 
**  Henry  VIII.  nunnuuiclnl  biin  (the  lonl  Cromwell) 
"  Ui  MtUnv\  thf  chief  jnrtloca^  vtd  In  know.  wbrtbiT 
"  a  iiiaa  that  wan  ibithoonlDf  mifrht  he  attamlitl  of 
**  hif(h-4muion  I>t  jiarliament,  uiil  m-vcr  railed  to 
"  hu  anitwfr?"  Tho  jiidfrm  amiwfrcd,  tlijit  "  it  wan  a 
"  dangtToiu  qmitton.  and  that  the  hijirli  miirt  «>f 
**  parliament  ouffbt  to  jpvc  vxamplu  to  infi-rior 
"  courts  for  |)n>n<i<«litijf  orconling  to  jmlire,  and  no 
**  inferior  rnurt  rould  do  tho  liki*,  and  thor  thought 
**  that  tho  high  cimrt  nf  jmrliammt  would  nt'Trr  do 
"  it.  DuL,  U-tnK  bT  the  (-xprpM  riMnmandrorat  of 
**  the  king,  and  prcaed  bj  tho  wid  earl  to  give  m 
"  dirvct  aittwt'r,''  thry  Maid,  that  ■*  if  bo  be  attaiatcd 
**  hj  parliament,  it  could  not  conus  in  qoeitioa  altera 
"  w«nbk  whether  ho  wt>ro  called  or  not  called  to 

**  answer ; and  the  act  of  attainder  being  paaaed 

**  bjr  imrliamrnt,  ilid  t>ind  an  thojr  Traolved."  The 
parly  Rgainftt  whom  thin  wa*  inl4.-ndc<l  wsji  ncvpr 
ealli<d  in  i|iit>«Unii;  hut  the  fint  man  afttn-  tbi<  aoid 
rvei^ntion  that  waa  ao  attointt'd,  and  never  called  to 
Biwver,  wia  the  aUd  earl  of  Eaaex :  wbrrpu|wtn  that 
emmeoot  and  raljiar  opinion  araong«t  onr  histniiana 
gnw,  that  be  died  by  the  wme  law  which  he  himoelf 

90.  But.  grant  thin  lord  Cromwell  bultv  in  thia 
and  Rome  other  lu'lio^5^  in  the  main  he  will  appear  a 
worthy  i^rMin,  amt  a  great  inatnunent  of  (iod'a  glofy 
in  the  refurming  of  religioo.  Mkd  lanarkmble  lor 
many  (lenwinal  emineticiea.  ConnMoly  wbea  meti 
an  (a«  in  a  moment)  moanted  tkon  meaiUMaa  Ift 
much  wealth  ami  hommr.  fin>t  they  foigeC  tbcn- 
aulTco,  and  then  all  their  old  fricndt  and  arqnaint- 


of  Britain, 


ance.  Whereas  on  the  contrary,  here  gratitude  a.  D.  1540. 
grew  with  his  greatness,  and  the  lord  Cromwell  con-  viii. 
ferred  many  a  courtesy  on  the  children  from  whose 
father's  master  Cromwell  had  formerly  received 
favours.  As  he  was  a  good  servant  to  his  master,  so 
was  he  a  good  master  to  his  servants ;  and  foreseeing 
his  own  fall,  (which  he  might  have  foretold  without 
the  spirit  of  prophecy  some  half  a  year  before,)  he 
furnished  his  men,  which  had  no  other  livelihood  to 
subsist  by,  with  leases,  pensions,  and  annuities, 
whereby  after  his  death  they  had  a  comfortable 
maintenance  *". 

""  [The  character  of  Crom- 
well has  generally  been  touched 
with   a   gentler  hand  than  it 
deserves.     That  he  suggested 
to  Henry  VIII.  many  uncon- 
stitutional acts  and  aggressions, 
especially   on    the    clergy,    is 
certain  :  that  he  was  not  a  sin- 
cere servant  to  his  master  is 
also  more  than  doubtful.     He 
began   life   as   a  clerk  in  the 
English  factory   at  Antwerp: 
afterwards  became   a  military 
adventurer,  served  under  the 
duke  of  Bourbon,  and  was  pre- 
sent  at    the   siege   of   Rome. 
Subsequently  he  was  employed 
as  a  commercial  agent  to  a  Ve- 
netian  merchant ;  and  after  this 
anomalous  career  in  Italy,  he 
returned   home   to   study   the 
law.  (See  Ty tier's  Henry  VIII. 
p.   305.)     When   Wolsey  fell 
into  disgrace,  he  attached  him- 
self to   the    court;    and    rose 
rapidly  into  favour,  as  unscru- 
pulous in  his  suggestions  as  he 
was   unscrupulously   used    by 
the   king.    (See  this   History, 
iii.  p.  78.)  He  was  loaded  with 

preferments,  holding  at  the 
same  time  the  offices  of  chan- 
cellor of  the  exchequer^  and 
chief  secretary,  royal  vicege- 
rent, vicar-general,  and  prin- 
cipal commissary ;  by  which 
latter  title  he  was  vested  with 
the  spiritual  authority  which 
belonged  to  the  king,  as  su- 
preme head  of  the  church. 
Few  men  with  such  powers  are 
likely  to  bear  their  Unities 
meekly;  but  Cromwell  had 
ruled  with  an  arrogant  and  un- 
controlled authority:  he  was 
disliked  by  the  nobdity  for  his 
upstart  dignity,  he  had  offended 
the  clergy  by  his  crooked  po- 
licy in  the  debates  respecting 
the  supremacy,  and  he  was  liked 
as  little  by  the  middle  and  lower 
classes  for  the  unscrupulous 
methods  which  he  and  his  un- 
principled agents  had  employed 
in  dissolving  the  monasteries  ; 
and  it  needed  only  the  aliena- 
tion of  the  king's  fiavoor  to 
produce  his  ruin.  I  will  con- 
clude this  note  with  a  sketch 
of  his  character  from  the  pen 

IStt  TV  CktirrA  Hnfory  mnw  v.  ■(«*>      91.  One  M  faithful  to  bU  ncrTants  ratmoC  be  ra** 

'V-iiT^  pectt'd  fnr  an  infitk-l  in  lurt  i»rr>vi«lin;[  for  hh  bmll^, 

iikaw«~  of  bin  own  rliil'ln-n.     It  ws.*  not  lhrr(>ftire  hb  am- 

y^^      bition.  but  |imTiilcnco,  thftt  on  tho  wuni'  <lar  wlicrria 

he  wss  cnvteil  i«ri  of  Ewipx  b<>  ftmnjn.'d  Orpgnry 

kit  na  (wbich  ntberwi«o  hwi   Invd    but  k    Inn]    liir 

oewfaMy)  to  ht<  w-tuallj  iiuulc  boron  Cn)iii<n>ll  v4 

(Mtdwa.     Which  h<t«oitr,  brmuM?  inhermt  in  the 

wn.  WW  not  fotfolUid  on  hb  btbrr'i  UttUDtnrv,  but 

dewModi  St  thf*  day  od  his  poitcritT. 

kmwmiamt     SB.  Wc  wiU  coocludv  hb  rtorr  with  thin  n^nark- 

teb^ii.    able  instancp  of  hb  hatnility:   formrrlr  thrfp  Hnu- 

''  ruhn]  a  notable  bniily  of  tho  Croinwc-tU  at  Taltcr- 

•hall    in    IJiiciiln*hirf%    rapcciallj   rinn.>   air    Italph 

Cromwvll  marrictl  tho  younffcst  nster  uul  cnbeir  nf 

timmiAnm\mnia%tmkm»-  "  Itrtkn.   wbick    jwtklljr   i*. 

dtntiw  (■not  b«  oMrtkMd.  **  rtand   tnrth   and  IrtMrtr  t« 

-  Umiiwiw  Htaral  abailb^,  •*  Ma  Mwrtrr.  kk  on  iWofo. 

"bdAtMJ*    unUoaW.    *  "cM     opwlOM     lN*«      IMM 

-  ^mAmUkaamXti^tdmm^  "  im4«  miw of  abpu* ]  Md 
**  w«akBafta,MatiMiU«MMMt-  "  oooU  mm  trwt   ta  Ifaa  M- 

-  fa^MdanfttaaMMmlUiag  -dkratMlrafUwaMdi  wUdi 
-to  iMii— .  ■  Jiiiiti—  »  U  k  «U  b.  hm  MhMl 
"  le  tW  will  of  U*  Mv«n 

J—    mil  iiilMMhw 

"  la  uruifj  it.  v*  rWm  «r  Ui     "  tb>  RanMli  Am.rA,     It  w. 
"  cJMiMlcr  wkkii  Mimit  of  m    "  pMfB   UiM   b«   wm    b    iW 

'  fwililih  pawOT  i  iMtt  tW  r»>  ••  mkiUt  lun  «  •suBj  *jn^ 

""  li  of «  iinialiiM  wriUr  **  aic»l  tmA  rajaat.  tafUaa 

'    '   '  '*    fttUacT  '*  tlw  mllMwH;  of  Um  la*,  aad 

J  mmiM  ia  ••  ib»  lavtar*."  TjtWt  U««fT 

-1^  vuI.^4iv] 


iif  Uritaxn. 




William,  the  last  lord  Deiiicourt'\  Now  there  a.  d.  1540. 
wanted  not  some  flattering  heralds,  (excellent  viii. 
chemists  in  pedigrees,  to  extract  any  thing  from  any 
thing,)  who  would  have  entitled  this  lord  Cromwell 
to  the  arms  of  that  ancient  family,  extinct  (in  the 
issue  male  thereof)  about  the  end  of  king  Henry  the 
Sixth.  His  answer  unto  them  was,  that  "  he  would 
not  wear  another  man's  coat,  for  fear  the  right 
owner  thereof  should  pluck  it  off  over  his  ears :" 
and  preferred  rather  to  take  a  new  coat,  viz.  Azure, 
or,  a  fess  inter  three  lions  rampant,  or,  a  rose  gules, 
betwixt  two  choughs  proper^  being  somewhat  of  the 
fullest ;  the  epidemical  disease  of  all  arms  given  in 
the  reign  of  Henry  the  Eighth. 

33.  After  the  execution  of  the  lord  Cromwell,  the  Men  of 
parliament  still  sitting,  a  motley  execution  happened ju^^^^ 
in  Smithfield,  three  papists  hanged  by  the  statute  JJJ^^^ 
for  denying  the  king's  supremacy,  and  as  many  pro- 
testants  burnt  at  the  same  time  and  place,  by  virtue 
of  the  six  articles,  djing  with  more  pain,  and  no  less 

Edward  Powell,  Thomas  Abel,  Rich.  Fetherston^. 

^  Camden's  Brit,  in  Lin- 
cohishire,  [p.  407.] 

*  See  Vincent  on  Brooke 
ill  the  earls  of  Essex,  [p.  185.] 

"  [^Burnet's  Ref.  I.  p.  590. 
On  the  30th  of  July,  two  days 
after  Cromwell's  death.  Fox, 
Acts,  &c.  II.  p.  526.  The 
same  writer  says  that  they 
were  not  brought  to  their  an- 
swers, nor  yet  knew  any  cause 
of  their  condemnation  :  and 
this  is  afterwards  asserted  by 
Dr.  Barnes   in    his  speech  to 


the  people  at  his  execution 
(ib.  p.  527.).  It  appears  how- 
ever, from  the  words  of  the 
act,  that  they  were  condemned 
for  perverting  scripture  to  sup- 
port their  heresies.  See  Bur- 
net, Ref.  I.  p.  594.  Strype 
has  given  a  more  complete  ac- 
count of  these  men  and  their 
doctrines.  Memorials,  I. p. 367. 
V  [These  three  persons  are 
mentioned  above  as  having 
written  against  the  divorce. 
See  Book  V.  Cent.  xvi.  §.  17.] 


I!H  TV  CkMTt-h  tUtlary  BOOl  « 

A.1^^****  PrniettamU. 

VIII-  Wf\vtt  BaniN  diirtor  ordirinitj;  Thomu  fiomt 
[or  (lutnnl],  William  Jvn>m*.  bacbt'Km  tif  tlH- 

TIiIn  oium)  mu  br  lhi<  diflt-rpncL'  of  n>li|p»iM  in 
thv  kiii^H  privy  roDiicil,  wliiTcin  tlir  [mpMi  pMtr 
mllnl  for  th(>  cx^TtitifMi  itr  thcot*  pnttnrtaittv,  whilst 
tb(*  pmtnrtAitt  IohIr  in  tbc  muiiril,  (ont  of  polirr  to 
rpftrpw  lh«*  iilbfn'  «>affc>nie#,  or  If  tliat  liulc*),  naX,  of 
cli-riif  to  rvvengo  H,)  rrinl  w  taut,  that  tbv  Urn 
mifrlit  lake  eflbet  on  Uw  papiMv.  And  wbil«t  lunthvr 
md**  WM  ible  to  mtc  tboae  of  tbtir  nwn  opinitini^ 
Ixith  ba<l  |MiwtY  to  dcMrnj  tho«o  of  their  o|>]KMiti? 
putT.  ThfT  wi-w  drafDP*il  nn  bunll««,  roopli-d  tw»> 
and  two,  a  papi«  and  a  prott'stant*.  (cattie  of  dif- 
ferent kindx  jftkoil  to  draw,  or  rather  to  bv  drawn 
liifrcther,)  ifiMtmurh  ■•  a  HwrnanJat  profeawih,  that 
to  the  thrw  papMta  tbia  thdr  oinniimI  natrfaiiifr  waa 
to  tbiin.  ^M  wtortf  gratiwB  me  itdaitraUhu^.  "more 
"  h<«vT  and  intolnmblo  than  death  itaelf:"  but  tht* 
imrti-stant*  t*xprcni>d  no  turb  iliataali'  brn«l,  tKrt 
angry  out  of  prinriplod  of  pride  for  tbo  joiniof  of 
lh4'ir  Itodim  togrther,  bat  grieved  out  oftbt^  grouada 
of  rh&ritT.  ibat  tbrir  aoala  aoon  after  itbonM  ao  Ur 
be  |iart4Hl  uundcr.  A  ctianger.  Btanding  by,  did 
wonder  (aa  well  be  might)  what  ivligkm  the  king 
waa  of.  hill  vword  rutting  on  botli  sitlea,  prototant* 
far  bCTVtii<«,  and  pa|>iittii  for  traitota.  of  whom  in  iJm 
Huno  month'.  LAiirrnci>  Cooke,  prior  of  Uoocaattr. 

■  CMwia  Id  Ktarj  thm  T  8m4««  il»  tcUMNM  Aa(L 
(in.p.i}>-i45   •^165)-       I-    '$•)■ 

■  TWr  aatmm an  — nwim-  *  f  Fas  myt  Im  Angwa.  AMi, 
id  la  Pai.Act^tEcIL  p-  519-      ftc  It-  p-  54a.] 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  195 

and    six  others,  were  sent  the  same  way  for  the  a.  D.  1540. 

^  3a  Henry 

same  onence.  viii. 

34.  But  to  return  to  such  acts  of  the  parliament  a  statute 
as  concern  the  church,  therein  a  statute  was  made,  JJJ^^of 
commanding  every  man  "  fully,  truly,  and  effectually  ^^^^^ 
"  to  divide,  set  out,  yield  or  pay  all  and  singular 
"  tithes  and  offerings,  according  to  the  lawful  cus- 
^'  toms  and  usages  of  the  i)arishes  and  places  where 
"  such  tithes  or  duties  shall  grow,  arise,  come,  or  be 
"  due  a."  And  remedy  is  given  for  ecclesiastic  per- 
sons before  the  ordinary ;  and  for  laymen,  that 
claimed  appropriated  tithes  by  grant  from  the  c«>wi, 
in  the  secular  courts  by  such  actions  as  usually  lay 
possessions  had  been  subject  to.  The  occasion  of 
which  statute  is  intimated  in  the  preamble  thereof, 
"  because  in  few  years  past  many  presumed  more 
''  contemptuously,  and  commonly  than  in  times  past 
"  had  been  seen  or  known  to  substract  and  withdraw 
''  their  lawful  and  accustomed  tithes.  Encouraged 
thereunto  for  that  that  divers  lay  persons  having 
tithes  to  them  and  their  heirs,  had  no  due  remedy 
"  by  order  and  course  of  the  ecclesiastical  laws  to 
"  recover  their  right."  And  no  wonder,  seeing  their 
sovereign  had  set  them  so  large  and  so  late  a  pre- 
cedent in  destroying  of  abbeys,  if  subjects  thought 
that  in  their  distance  and  proportion  they  might  also 
be  bold  to  detain  the  rights  of  the  church,  especially 
because  it  seemed  unreasonable  that  they  should 
receive  wages  who  did  no  work,  and  that  the  hire  of 
the  labourers  in  the  vineyard  should  be  given  to 
lazy  lookers-on.  This  statute,  in  favour  of  lay-im- 
propriators,  was  beneficial  to  the  clergy  to  recover 

•32  Hen,  VIII.  cap.  7. 
O  2 


Thr  CAMnk  HUlary 

A-D- i}4«-th4>ir  itntiUl  tith«-«  at  ominioii  litw.  )M-tiifi  ii|iiallj 
Vltl  Mlvniitnpitl  liv  ttmt  wlucli  wjut  tml  |>ritu-i|KillT  tt>- 
teiiiliHl  fitr  thrill.  tM>nuL<H^-  ut  ibt*  rourtint'iiiv  >if  (Iii-ir 
intt?n-st.  in  cxm'  of  tithes.  A  ■taluir  aUo  iiuuU>.  (lut 
"  it  wmt  Inwful  fut  oil  prnuniii  ti»  rontnirt  niarrta^* 
••  who  vttv  iK>t  |iniliiliitt>(l  Ijt  iitA'%  law^"  For 
allli)iii}r)i  (>nfi:iiri'  tiir  (irvnt  (wlio  liul  md  Ivwi 
U-aniiiijC.  Init  mun'  nicKlcfltv  than  \n*  nueevmuni)  ilid 
rH>t  HolK  fiirditl  tlic  inurump  of  iimwn-jifmtnn*  m 
uiiUwful,  liut  |>ni4)riitiaIlT  dlMuadc  it  a*  utiBttuift; 
yet  Bft«T-|H^<«  pn>bibit«<l  thnt  uiil  <)tlu*r  dritrrM 
rurtliiT  (■(T  thorcbf  ti>  fot  tnfiiicy  Tor  ili-timiHtionL 
WIiAt  a  nuw  tbew  Mnouiite*]  iintn,  itunr  own 
Boditon  rail  oiilr  coiti)mti'.  MN^tiiff  .S>loiiM>n  liimapir 
tent  »hi|>s  but  t'vtry  thini  rear  to  Opliir  fi»r  ffoM': 
wberuu  bis  bitliocw,  by  ^eui\ia^  aurii  larulliif>,  from 
Umw  lodiat  BHute  aiuiiuU  retunw  of  tnfiiuti*  |>n>fit. 
Ancl  thbi  bv  eunc  verr  ooavmiently  to  rompW 
with  king  Ilcniy'i  oocaamni,  vbo  bad  Um  Nnl-(ruits 
ibitvor,  and  pruMntl;  aft«r  imriM  Katharine 
ilnwanl,  counn^mian  to  Amu  Bolern,  bi»  Mx-i>nd 
wifr.  wbirb.  hj  tlio  raiHHi  law.  Fonncrij  wm  fbfw 
biddi'i),  witbnut  a  vpcc^l  dL«|N.>nMiti<in  fint  obuiiMxI. 
AiM^iu*  U-  But  now  to  »t4'|i  out  of  tlu'  jtariiatDitit  into 
^"^"T*  tbe  eonnication,  a  (tlare  mon'  )>n>|>iT  for  our  em- 
ployment, then'  wf  htull  fitnl  Nrrhbiabn|>  (.'ranioer 
UndinfT  iii  bin  Iwrnv  at  IhiiilVwIuuf.  anil  thracp  pm* 
eei^ng  on  foot,  with  tbt-  mm*  nurii-d  bcfutv  bint, 
into  the  choir  of  l*auU;  wbcrc,  at  the  hif^  altar 
biiJioji  lloniHT  olBriatoi)  (if  I  tpoak  (rropvHT)  ■  mam 
of  the  Moly  («bMt,  Ih-.  Kicban)  ilox.  arrbdeaooa  of 

k  31    lint    VIII.  tap.   jM.     BvnMt.  lUf.  1.  jid;*)!).] 


of  Britain, 


Ely,  preached  a  Latin  sermon  on  this  text,  Vos  estis^-^'^i^'^' 
sal  tcrrcp.  Richard  Gwent,  doctor  of  law,  and  arch-  *viii. 
deacon  of  London,  was  chosen  prolocutor.  Tlien 
intimation  was  given,  that  the  king  allowed  them 
liberty  to  treat  of  matters  in  religion,  to  peruse  the 
canons  de  shno?iia  vitanda^  with  other  ecclesiastical 
constitutions ;  to  continue  the  good  ones,  and  make 
new  ones  pro  temporis  eangentia.  In  the  third 
session  on  Friday,  several  bishops  were  assigned  to 
peruse  several  books  of  the  translation  of  the  New 
Testament,  in  order  as  followeth*^: 

^  Transcribed  with  my  own 
hand  out  of  the  Records  of 
Canterbury,  [liishop  Burnet 
thinks  that  Fuller  has  mis- 
taken the  year ;  "  and  that 
*•  which  he  calls  the  convoca- 
**  tion  of  this  year  was  the 
"  convocation  of  the  year  1 542 : 
**  for  he  tells  us  that  their 
**  seventh  session  was  the  loth 
**  of  iVIarch.  (See  p.  201.) 
**  Now  in  this  year  the  con- 
**  vocation  did  not  sit  down 
"  till  the  13th  of  April,  but 
'*  that  year  it  sat  all  March. 
**  So  likewise  he  tells  us  of 
*^  the  bishops  of  Westminster, 
"  Gloucester,  and  Peterbo- 
"  rough  bearing  a  share  in  this 
*•  convocation  :  whereas  these 
**  were  not  consecrated  before 
**  winter,  and  could  not  sit  as 
^*  bishops  in  this  synod.  And 
*'  besides,  Thirlby  sat  at  this 
"  time  in  the  lower  house." 
Ref.  I.  p.  572  =  286. 

The  bishop  is  right,  accord- 
ing to  the  extracts  made  from 
the  registers  by  Dr.  Heylin, 
printed  in  Wilkins,  III.  p.  862, 
if  by  1542  he  means  the  civil 

year.  But  he  is  wrong  in  say- 
ing that  Fuller  has  fixed  the 
seventh  session  to  the  loth  of 
March.  (Seep.  201.)  The  fol- 
lowing is  a  brief  abstract  of 
the  j)roceedings  of  convoca- 
tion :  on  their  first  session, 
Jan.  20,  the  usual  ceremonies 
were  performed.  On  the  se- 
cond, Jan.  27,  the  archbishop 
declared  the  kings  pleasure 
that  the  house  should  correct 
ecclesiastical  abuses,  directing 
their  attention  to  such  of  the 
errors  in  the  English  trans- 
lation  of  the  Bible  as  required 
correction,  &c.  On  the  third. 
Feb.  3,  the  question  was  put 
whether  they  would  retain  the 
present  translation  of  the  Bi. 
ble ;  and  it  was  resolved,  that 
it  could  not  be  retained  with 
its  present  errors,  that  it  should 
be  examined,  and  time  given 
for  exhibiting  the  errors  to  the 
house.  On  the  fourth,  Feb.  10, 
no  business.  On  the  fifth,  Feb. 
13,  the  prolocutor  exhibited 
the  result  of  the  examinations 
of  the  Old  Testiuuent  by  those 
who   had   been   appointed   to 

O  3 


IB  n,  Cknnk  HUUwf, 

ArehbithiipC'rantser;  Mattfatnr. 

Jolin  LiDcuIn*;  Klarli, 

Strphiii  Winchnier';  Luiv. 

ThiMiuu  Eljr* ;  John. 

NicholM  Rocbnicrk  ;   Acta  of  tbe  ApMtk*. 

Ridtinl  Chichritrr  ■ ;  Rouiam. 

John  Sarum'i  I.  am)  II.  rcmmhiam. 

WilEwB  Si.  DavicTai ;  (t*ljilijn«,  EphMiaM.  Philip 

JoliB  Wflfcotef  «> ;  I.  ud  II.  TbnMloaina. 

Bnbctt  St.  Aaph" }  Timathv,  Tiiiu,  I 

Robert  Lbodaff^:  I.  «nd  if.  Vcxtr 

John  HnvfnnlPi  HetitTwt. 

Tboowi  WtJUmiiMUrt ;  Junn,  I.  II.  mhI   III.  John, 

■■■■.■■■.■■*•       ) 

f  lUnebtign- 

MMtHtt  «M  anolUMl  to  m%. 
•niM  lnd>  OU  umI  NewTw 
tunentk.  Oa  tW  liitk.  F)cb. 
i;.  G«nUivr  nmA  the  Ikt 
wkkk  11  iwiBud  by  Puller. 
(.3ft.  0«  tiM  mnmA,  Vth. 
14.  {nU  H>l  • 

hM  rtMH&H - 

«r    IbMM.    Ml    IMdUM    Ik* 

LOTd*«  IVar«.  Hw  Cnid,  Md 
tlw  DtolMM  in  tW  TwW 
loofM.  0«  ihi  d^llh  Umtk 
3.  ii  •«•  4»iiw»toiJ  ite  tW 

I  all 

tka  1M1,  tbtac»  to  ihm  p6  of 
April,  ud  m  M  till  ilw  i<tk 
of  F«k.  neat  jnau',  1543  j  aa 
tU  SIM  alwUtk  WMik.  ha^ 
tba  at— iiralh  iwiiM.  Ika 
wcbbblMn  dKfarad  ilM  !■  m 
tbaW.   I 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain,  199 

Why  Edmund  Bonner,  bishop  of  Loudon,  then  a.  d.  1543. 
and  there  present,  had  no  part  in  this  perusal  al-  '^Viii.'^^ 
lotted  him,  as  I  find  no  reason  rendered  thereof,  so 
I  will  not  interpose  my  own  conjecture. 

36.  In  the  sixth  session  Gardiner  publicly  read  a  Words  in 

1  /.  X       .  1         /»  1  .  11        .  theT«ta- 

cataloime  of  Latm  words  of  his  own  collection  out  ment which 
of  the  Testament,  and  desired  that  for  their  genuine  desired^ 
and  native  meaning,    and   for  the   majesty  of  the"^JJ^ 
matter   in  them  contained,  these  words  might  bef"^*'®*" 

°  the  trans- 

retaiiied  in  their  own  nature  as  much  as  might  be ;  ori»t»on- 
be   very  fitly   englished,  with  the  least  alteration, 
being  in  number  and  order  here  inserted*: 

Ecclesia,  pccnitcntia,  pontifex,  ancilla,  contritus,  ola- 
caiista^,  justitia,  justificare,  idiota,  clementa,  baptizare, 
martyr,  adorare,  dignus,  sandalium,  simplex,  tetn&rdia, 
sacrainentum,  simulachrum,  gloria,  conflictationeA,  eere- 
nionia,  mysterium,  religio,  Spiritus  aanctus,  spiritus, 
inercos,  confiteor  tibi  Pater,  panis  prsepositionis,  com- 
munio,  persoverare,  dilectus,  sapientia,  pietas,  presbyter, 
litcs,  servus,  opera,  sacrificium,  benedictio,  humilis,  humi- 
lita8,  scientia,  gentilis,  synagoga,  ejicere,  misericordia, 
eoniplacui,  increpare,  distribueretur  orbis,  inculpatus,  se- 
nior, conflictationes,  apocalypsis,  satisfactio,  contentio, 
conscientia,  peecatum,  peccator,  idolum,  pnidentia,  pru- 
denter,  parabola,  magnifico,  oriens,  subditus,  didragma, 
hospitalitas,  episcopus,  gratia,  charitas,  tyrannus,  conou- 
piscentia,  cisera,  apostolus,  apostolatus,  cgenus,  stater, 
societas,  zizania,  mysteriu%  Christus,  conversari,  pro- 
fitcor,   impositio  manuum,  idololatria,  Dominus,  sanotus, 

^   Acta    Synod.   Cant.    an.     corrected  in  the  list  given  by 
154T.  p.  48,  49.     Take  fiaults     Wilkins,   Cone.  III.  p.    861, 

and  ull,  as  in  the  original.  without  authority  howev^, 

^'  Though  sensible  of  tau-  the  catalogue  of  them  was  evi- 

tolo-zy,    (otherwise    spelt,)    I  dently  transcribed  from  Fuller. 

durst  not  vary  from  the  ori-  See  also  Strype's  Memorials, 

ginal.  [These  errors  have  been  I.  p.  371.] 

O  4 


7%r  I'kurrk  HUlory 

ru.    innUtur.    ptMclut.    JiinummbilU.    ioiiki 
>,    [inifaiiui^      niciiiiiililii,      virtiiti-*^      il(«iiiiwtii 

36.  Tliv  judidotui  rvader  bath  no  wooiht  |N?ru9vd 
thMc  wonb,  but  pn-wntlr  h«'  Kort*  them  in  two 
nuika :  (int,  •omi<  Tt-w  unLmnsEalsblf.  withnac  k» 
uf  life  or  liiMtn*:  lht>«i*  arf  r(intitiui'<)  in  our  RiijflL^ 
T«»tam(.-nt  cntin-.  it  Ixriiig  wjiiwive*!  Itt'tlt-r  that 
nrinbtof*  Rhmiid  ■•xpniind  tluiiv  wnntn  ia  tWir  wr^ 
maim,  thmn  nltiT  tbi-m  in  th«r  trxU.  Itut  l>L*«Mm 
tbcae,  miwt  iir  tlii>  vontml  ^irt  an>  not  Mt  vni[ibaU<«l 
in  Uwnm^lvp*.  tmt  tlint  tlit'v  ntnt  Iw  n*iKlcrcd  In 
EoglUi.  vritliMit  [Mvjmlire  i»f  imlb.  WhiTL-fon; 
(jardioer'i  dedgn  ploiulT  appmred  in  Mjokling  fur 
tfau  prowrriag  nt  n  nuDj  Latin  wcwda  Ui  oUicutv 
the  •criptun*:  wb«.  Ih»0)rh  wanttnff  \WKvr  U\  ki<rp 
the  lifcht  of  the  won)  Trom  vhinitiff.  nou^it  out  of 
polirj  (o  pat  it  into  a  ilark-lanthom  :  raiitrnrir  to  the 
«>nf)tant  practirv  of  (toal  in  MTijrtun>.  k'Tcllinj;  hi^ 
lianl  i'lprt'wioii*  to  th<-  i-npncity  of  thv  mouKVt. 
For  fon-i^  ti-m»  an*  aJwatM  Itniu^^lit  in,  likf  JaH«|ih. 
wHh  an  inti'rpnrtcr  *.  Kmnianiu-I  <lf>th  not  piuw  with- 
out an  fxpoiitkiii.  God  icitA  u*  l :  nor  Kpbatba 
meafVt  bat  rouiniL-ntiil  on.  6r  tho»  npnt^*:  XkimU*. 
the  popish  litJthop  niultiplMil  tht-  mixtur«>  of  l^tin 
ouae*  in  ibi>  Ti<«tanu'ut.  to  t*.-»ch  thi-  laitT  their 
dbtaiiri';  who  thoiifrh  a<lntittr<[  into  the  outwsnl 
rourt  of  ^-cttnnion  mattfr.  wen-  vet  fk>liam>t)  cntranor 
into  thu  boljr  uf  holit*  of  thca*.-  mTHturiou*  v%* 
imariouk  ivaerveil  onlr  for  ihv  unilen>t«iilinfr  ufthr 
Ugfa-pffiiat  to  plem'  inlu  tht-m.  Mnn.'orcr,  tUa 
taadr  <!ardifier  not  only  tender,  but  fond  to  han^ 

*  (t*a.  xlii  31. 

t  M<ai  1 


CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  201 

these  words  continued  in  kind  without  translation ;  a.d.  1542. 
because  the  profit  of  the  Romish  church  was  deeply  '  viii. 
in  some  of  them  concerned  :  witness  the  word 
penance^  which,  according  to  the  vulgar  sound,  con- 
trary to  the  original  sense  thereof,  was  a  magazine 
of  will-worship,  and  brought  in  much  gain  to  the 
priests,  who  were  desirous  to  keep  that  word,  because 
that  word  kept  them.  I  find  not  what  entertain- 
ment Gardiner's  motion  met  with,  it  seems  so  sus- 
pended in  success,  as  neither  generally  received  nor 

36.  In  a  following  session*,  Cranmer,  archbishop  March  10. 
of  Canterbury,  informed  the  house,  that  "  it  was  the  suSdeA  for 
"  king's  will  and  pleasure,  that  the  translation  both  Jj^Jg^^J®^* 
"  of  the  Old  and  New  Testament  should  be  exa- p"*^**®"- 
"  mined  by  both  universities."     This  met  with  much 
opposition  in  the  house,  all   the  bishops,  Ely  and 

St  David's  excepted,  making  their  protests  to  the 
contrary.  These  affirmed,  "the  universities  were 
much  decayed  of  late,  wherein  all  things  were 
carried  by  young  men,  whose  judgments  were  not 
"  to  be  relied  on,  so  that  the  learning  of  the  land 
"  was  chiefly  in  this  convocation."  But  the  arch- 
bishop said,  "  he  would  stick  close  to  the  will  and 
"  pleasure  of  the  king  his  master,  and  that  the  uni- 
"  versities  should  examine  the  translation."  And 
here  (for  aught  I  can  find  to  the  contrary)  the 
matter  ceased,  and  the  convocation  soon  after  was 

37.  The  cruel  prosecution  of  the  protestants  still  The  %\x 
continued  on  the  six  articles.     And  yet  the  parlia-gomewiiat 
ment  now  somewhat  abated  the  illegal  fury  thereof  :°"^^' 

a  [That  is,  the  ninth.     See  Wilkins,  Cone.  iii.  p.  862.] 



Tht  Chtnk  Hhiary 

A.  A  1(41.  tat  femwrijr  tnj  kclivo  officer  of  tbv  liUfao|w  at  htt 

"viu7  pfewore  mulertnl  all  nnpvcUMl  pentwit.  aod  ftate- 

mUsd  MOie  to  tkmtli.  But  aftcnrmnlii  it  wu  n.<<|uiri>d, 

thnt  "  *ucb  otffxuivn  slioiiltl  fint  Im*  round  fru'lt?  by 

"a  jury  of  twvlvu  mt'ii;"  a   nib  Im  ihu  «bi<cU  of 

their  cruelty,  that  it  «m<«l  tlie  Mw  of  Miiue,  and 

prolongod  the  deaths  uf  otUen^. 

i*M-  *s-        SB.  Now  began  the  last  (MiriionM'nt  in  the  kiqg'a 

*«hNr^icign,  wherein  many   thiufrs   of  roiuwiiworv  wwe 

ifchWi^  enarted:  fiiat,  an  art  a^n«t  iwury.     StvtHHily,  for 

^v"*        tfthra   in    I^mdon*'.     Thirtllv,   for   ui    i-xrhatifrf  of 

Unils  botwixt  the  kinjr'H  tuAJMitT  aitd  Tlxmuut  (.'nui* 

miT.   an*blM»bt>p   of    (_'anti<rbiiry,    llolivrt    llolifati*. 

h  [At  tb*  (uUBf  *<tthia  act 
i>f  lh«  His  Afticln,  ill  1519.  it 
WM  aoMlHi.  Ilwt  ifujr'titouU 
MMk.  pnadi,  or  writ*  fpiaat 
ik  Int  clMn»,  tJwr  iImmU  W 
bm  M  iMndM.  awl    iMr 

CJb  iiiiiiilt  if  aplMi 
odMr  cUawm  tlwjr  JwvU 
b*  fiondnuMd  i«  A0  M  Mom, 
Md  iMr  iM^Md  nonkte 
fcrMiML  For  llw  mmtkia 
of  tW  Ml,  wwMwiwiniw  <nn 
iMM4  u  yihBp  Miotkm. 
I— fcliag  Umm  to  tska  infcr- 
■Mtkn*.  bf  tW  i«i1m  of  two 
fwnom,  M  ta  la^nir*  fay  iIm 
■■tha  of  twain  BMR I  all  ndt 
MciuatisaM  Imiisc  tiM  mom 
vibM  ia  kw.  M  if  iIm  mmUv 

for  amy  offeoe*  «ad«r  dU>  Ml 
«^nr|it  on  tka  I  "     * 


d  b«  ■  fvrdiel  u^twrlrc 
t  fiffi.  VIII.  c.  r4. 
BhI  (■  tlw  fwmi  IS43  h  <n» 
Imwil  MMBWy  b>  iMUfr  tKia 
ad.  owing  Id  tlw  ■■uwhhu 
ftW  iiiiiiirii  ,  to  wliieb  b 
dbnM  eowMlmfaW  bcilttr. 
Il  «na  aennliMt*  MMclad. 
llil  mmt  AooiAa  ain^ii 

bvfot*  indiclHaM.  eurat  by  ■ 
•nmM  frm  CM  «f  ika  MM. 
ciL  36  U«k  VUL  r.  f.  P^ 
tbt  wttboj  of  p>»caiiif  fwi 
lUi  Mt  pwrtoM  lA  i1mb>  •!• 
nwrinw.  tW  mdwaajrooa* 
Mlt  fm,  II.  p.  530.  Saa  aha 
Barwt,  Rrf.  I.  pp.  fsH^*}"' 
66i>3i>-  Foi.  II.  p.  566.  A 
AtrtWr  mudifKatKNi  uf  Uiia  act 
M«ai*  10  tun  bcM  InlM^vd 
In  3$  ll#n.  VIII.  o.l,«UA 
aUowwl  nanona  taaaUair  aao* 
tnrt  to  lU  rrB|tk«  ■mlilfc^iil 
■incv  1 540.  lb*  jrmt  i4  fmlmn 
iJm fUs  AnkJaa,  lofwaMifar 
tbc  woNid  oAnk*  tbr;  w*f«  l» 
bMT  a  ha-l.  Air  tb»  liriiJ  ta 

*  Arv  tiw  priatMl  «atat«  ti 
thi*  faar. 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain,  203 

archbishop  of  York,  and  Edmund  Bonner,  bishop  of  a.d.  1545. 
London ;  which  the  king  annexed  to  the  duchy  of  ^  Vm."^^ 
Lancaster.     Fourthly,  an  act  for  union  of  churches, 
not  exceeding  the  value  of  six  pounds.     Lastly,  that 
doctors  of  the  civil  law,  being  married,  might  exercise 
ecclesiastical  jurisdiction. 

39.  At  this  time  also,  by  the  king's  command.  The  ori. 
were  the  stews  suppressed.     A  line  or  two  I  hope^^.** 
will  not  defile  our  Church-history  in  the  description 

and  detestation  of  such  filthy  persons  and  practices. 
There  stood  a  place  on  the  south  bank  over  against 
London'^  called  the  Stews,  where  live  fishes  were 
formerly  kept,  there  to  be  M^ashed  in  ponds  from 
their  slime  and  muddiness,  to  make  the  more  whole- 
some and  pleasant  food,  which  was  the  original  use 
of  these  Stews,  and  the  proper  meaning  of  the  word®. 
Afterwards  the  place  was  converted  to  a  worse  use, 
but  still  retaining  its  own  name,  from  the  scouring 
of  fish  to  the  defiling  of  men ;  brothel-houses  being 
built  there,  and  publicly  permitted  by  the  state. 
These  were  sixteen  in  number,  known  by  the  several 
signs,  whereof  one  was  the  cardinal's  hat^  and  it  is 
to  be  feared  that  too  many  of  the  clergy  (then  for- 
bidden marriage)  were  too  constant  customers  to  it. 
Such  who  lived  in  these  colleges  of  lust  were  called  • 
single  women,  and  pity  it  was  so  good  a  name  should 
be  put  upon  so  lewd  persons. 

40.  Divers  constitutions  were  made  in  the  eighth  Tbe  r^gu- 
year  of  king  Henry  the  Second  for  the  regulating  of  the  stew?, 
these  houses,  whereof  some  may  inoffensively,  yea, 
profitably  be  inserted. 

(1  [That  is,  in  the  borough     sex,  [p.  31a.     So  ased  in  the 
of  South vvark.]  statutes,  37  Hen.  VIII.  c.  6.] 

«  Camden's  Brit,  in  Middle-         ^  Stow's  Survey,  p.  449. 

804  TU  ChmnJt  Hittanf  mmk  v. 

A.P-i}u  i.  "  No  Nt«'W>lHtl<l('r  obouM  kit-p  nyt-n  hU  rltMm 
'VliT''  •*  "H  On-  holy  <laT».  or  kivj»  anr  in  )iw  )iuum'  oti 
'^"^'^~  "  thow  davx. 

U.  **  No  Mttfrkf  wonun  lo  bt<  kc|»t  »fi*iiiiit  bvr  will, 
•*  if  oat  of  rrmone  of  coiwlmo-  »li.'  wnnld  k«vc 
"  that  lfw<l  lift\ 

Iti.  "  No  utrw-hrililer  to  n.'wirt'  wit  man'i  vrilv,  <»■ 
*•  m\y  woman  of  ri'|i)fi«Hi. 

iv.  "  No  nun  to  Im>  dnwii  or  t-ntinsl  iiit«  wiy  of 
**  tho«c  bouM^  and  ibi*  roniitabli-)*  kihI  l«ilii&  wurv 
**  vsvTf  WM^k  to  w>urb  tbu  mnr.  T\*t^  wore  not  Ui 
"*  M>ll  brtw),  alt',  fl(>«h,  A*b,  wood,  r(«l,  or  uiy 
"  vicliujn*." 

Thb  wu  don<',  partly  hi^mirac   tbry  sboald   not 

M^roM  tbiiM*  tniiti-^.  tNnii);  ibc  livflifaood  of  more 

honrrt   peopU\  uhI   [xutly  U-st  vinipU*  rlia)iiut>o,  id 

■M'kiny    f<»r  mu-b   m*cvMarii-«,  nboiild   bo   invt'igled 

into  fiin.     Surb   woti]«.<n  living  and  drlnff  in  tbrir 

iinfiil  lift*  wfiv  I'xrluded  Chriadin  burial,  uid  bad  a 

plot  of  ffrctuiid  far  fron  the  puMi  rburcb  a{>{»uiiiU^ 

for  tlxtn,  ralli-<l.  The  ahifrle  woman'*  cburrhyard. 

TiMiBif»      41.  Tbi'M'  raiitiittts  and  rotuititutiuns  could   mrt 

WtfMM  make  thi-m.  who  orr  t«d  in  thc*niM-)Tr«,  to  be  kwnL 

^il^^  thouffb   hnply  kM*|rifi^   lome  who    ««ce  ha<l    from 

*•**    *  hpiflfr  wofw- ;  mich  %  tolenttkm  of  ifai  hriofr  nttrriy 

anlawful.     For  though  netniml  powMM  Biay  tiy  an 

ho  w  (joalified  and  eorrerlvd  to  main*  thvm  not  only 

tkot  tioxiouB,  but  in  flomt*  rawM  (a*  wttely  opflivd) 

mrdiol,  Tct  morml  pofawtm,  I  mt-an,  thlnf^  niuftil  of 

lbi'niM'lvt«  ran  nt-viT  tn-  mi  imbTiHl  njid  n^ilalt<(l, 

Inil  tliat  rtill  tb*-y  will  rrmaiii  |<cmit-toiu  ami  uu- 

■  [Thaw  iLiiHifliii—  ■»  pnatcd  at  (naOvr  kaglli  w  Amt** 


of  Britain. 


lawful;  the  only  way  to  order  and  amend,  being  toA.D.  1545. 
remove  and  extirpate  them.  ^  viu7 

42.  Yet  there  wanted  not  those  (better  idle  than  Argument 
so  employed)  who  endeavoured  with  arguments  toj^*"^"'" 
maintain,   some   (so    shameless)    the   necessity,  but'^^*- 
more  the  conveniency,  of  such  brothel-houses.     No 
wonder  if  wanton  wits  pleaded  for  wanton  women. 
Whoredom  (like  the  whores)  was  painted  over  with 
politic  reasons  for  the  pennission  thereof,  which  may 
easily  be  washed  away  if  the  following  parallel  be 
but  seriously  penised. 

I.  IMairs  infirniitv  herein, 
since  his  natural  corruption,  is 
grown  so  general,  it  is  needful 
to  connive  at  such  houses,  as 
a  kind  of  remedy  to  prevent 
worse  incontinency  with  mar- 
ried women,  the  whole  land 
being  the  cleaner  for  the  pub- 
lic sinks  or  sewers  of  the 

2.  As  Moses  permitted  di- 
vorcement*^ to  the  Jews,  stews 
may  be  connived  at  on  the 
same  account,  for  the  hardness 
of  men's  hearts. 

1.  It  is  absurd  to  say,  and 
belibelleth  Divine  Providence, 
that  any  thing  is  really  need- 
ful that  is  not  lawful.  Such 
pretended  necessity,  created 
by  bad  men,  must  be  anni- 
hilated by  good  laws.  Let 
marriage  run  in  its  proper 
channel,  being  permitted  to 
all  persons,  and  then  no  need 
of  such  noisome  sinks,  which 
may  well  be  dammed  up.  The 
malady  cannot  be  accounted  a 
remedy :  for  whilst  matrimony 
is  appointed  and  blessed  by 
God  to  cool  the  heat  of  lust, 
whoredom  doth  double  the 
drought  thereof. 

2.  Christians  ought  not  so 
much  to  listen  to  Moses  his 
permission,  as  to  Christ  his 
reprehension  thereof.  Besides, 
some  faults  had  a  cover  for 
them  in  the  twilight  of  the 
law,  which  have  none  in  the 
sunshine  of  the  gospel. 

h  Mark  x.  5. 


Tkt  CimtA  Uiattrp 

A.IlL<5«i.      J.  Stiwigr  wonni  wtn  no  i*  <  -  -       -   

'Vhl^  ■*"">'"  '■  I*^'  >*'*''  vmdm  tfcMM^fw  IM  tka    nnHHi; 

mdB  paUidr  kiHwa  plMdad  mmUi  of  tW  J<«Ui  «». 

I                           iMCmUivSaknMal.     Tk«M  w—WMllh.  bat    aot  lo   lU 

wA  lawn  bjr  iIh  Min  o(  m 

4.  Hujr  grart  fimUiai  wm         4.  Wlwr*  kwlou  ha**  pn- 
wImm     ■Hvt4  MM  bnu*.  Umj  W«« 

frsM  RHvrfifiu  4m1  MM  MMbtr     iUM.««BmKaDtia««fldiM 

tlM  MM  wHIi  tmmmttAtj  af     hdmI  aaf  mm*  tiMraoT.     N« 

dulilien.  an  many  cbiUnn  fas  iMHont' 

■1)   vrik   tu   BMB.   wUdt   an 

UtMinpfrxn  Ood. 

5.  Baali  Mrwa  an  CmUm.         5.  Lm  Um  pansMHrt  «kan 

aUa  b  lhw<yi  natkni;  yaa,     lalaran  wWm.  wWck,  aa  a 

ia  Rdow  llMlf,  knack  af  pop«y  «aa  mmv 

rf  pop«y  «aa  MMT  kfc     .^J 

■a  to  p  bafar*  Cm^H^H 
w  ibaH  b  thah-   «r.  I 

kialbr  Ulopibafar* 

ta  Ulinr  tlMn  b  thair   oar. 

6.  Tha  mtffnmia%  mt  atowa  6.  TUa  wJaabMa  tntfc  fa 

WmU   aot   niaka   otan    mv*  la^y  graMad.  Pmkaaea  ikara 

AtKt»,   \mt   man  «kaa :   not  any  dow  ba  ■»  RofUA  folk 

RM**  Wncacvly  hawaat.  bnt  •■-  aJallvnm.   bat  tta^MoA  «m 

cntly  wBotMi.     la  all  popO'  tbaa 

liaaat  wttka  (JMala 

Tboa  rhwtitjr,  hv  tbt*  rountcDuirc  of  autboritjr, 
Kot  at  ImI  a  Snal  conqnnt  iif  wmnloancaa.  Inilivd  fur- 
mttij,  in  tbt*  one  wd  IwcnUetlt  j«v  of  Hearj  Uw 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  907 

Seventhly,  for  a  time  the  stews  were  closed  up;  butA.D.i546« 

aft  H^B«>v 

afterwards  opened  again,  though  reduced  firom  six-  viii. 
teen  to  twelve ;  but  now,  by  the  king^s  command- 
ment,  this  regiment  of  sinners  was  totally  and  finally 
routed,  the  king^s  pleasure  herein  proclaimed  by 
sound  of  trumpet,  and  their  houses  peopled  with 
other  inhabitants  of  honest  conversation. 

48.  We  lately  mentioned  the  exchanire  of  laadPraiatw 


betwixt  the  king  and  the  two  archbishops.  On  which  hy  pomp, 
account  be  it  remembered,  though  I  find  not  the 
exact  year,  Otford  in  Kent  was  given  the  king, 
whereof  thus  our  great  antiquary :  *^  William  War- 
''  ham,  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  built  Otford  for 
*'  himself  and  his  successors,  so  sumptuously,  that, 
'^  for  to  avoid  envy,  Cranmer,  who  next  succeeded 
^^  him,  was  constrained  to  exchange  it  with  king 
'^  Henry  the  Eighth  ^^  Could  the  clergy  have  found 
out  the  mean  betvrixt  baseness  and  braveiy,  too 
sordid  and  too  sumptuous,  they  might  have  fixed 
themselves  therein  with  the  more  security;  whilst 
their  palaces,  built  so  big  as  to  reoeive,  and  so 
beautiful  as  to  invite  the  king  and  his  court,  made 
(especially  if  lying  near  London)  covetousness  to 
long  after  them.  And,  although  some  competent 
consideration  was  given  in  exchange,  yet  politic  pre* 
lates  disliked  such  commutations,  as  which  guaged 
the  root  of  episcopal  lands  from  their  first  property 
and  ancient  foundation. 

44.  The  last  person  of  quality  which  suflfoied  The  cU- 


k  Rob.  Fabian  in  his  Cliro-  the  only  mancxr  whidi  for  as* 

nicle,  anno  1506.  [qootad  bj  eolar  pdiqr   (akal)   Cnuimer 

Stow,  ib.]  reaigMd  to  Um    Idu.      See 

1  Camden  in  hia  Brit,  in  Str^'a  Cranmer^  p.  035.] 
Kent,  [p.  23  a.     This  was  not 


TAr  OmrA  Hit/on, 

A.ii.<j4f>.inartvn]om  in  thb»  kinjr>  rviffn  wu  Atiiio  ATMoagh. 
■"  vili'^  rt/'"'  Kynif".  Sin-  »«.*  W(»nJu[ifull¥  cxtnotoU  the 
tUu;Hil<'r  "f  «ir  William  AyH.*im;;h.  of  Kclwir  in  1 
mliwliin*.  of  tht-'  «f^'  of  twi*utv-fiTt-  irow; 
wit,  lii:«ut}r,  U*amii){f,  ukI  n>)i^<)ii.  |imniivd 
murli  (<iitt«*ni  nu  tbu  i)iut.-n'H  ndv  of  the  rourt,  i 
n*  iiiiicli  tuitriHl  from  (he  po|ii*li  |K-rMfuti[i|r  biKbofM. 
Mut  tlir  JcMiit"  ruiitlcnitM  htT  for  loavini;  hor  bua- 
band  at  home,  uh)  '*  giuMiiijr  to  jpwpi'l.  btmI  xmaip  it 
**  m  cxiurt."  alirnj^i  <m\i»cnimig  brnclf,  not  bj  ber 
niarriitl,  but  nuu<]fu  iturniuiic:  ihi>  ratber,  hccmiwc^ 
U-inj;  often  oXAniiiivd  wliAt  niuwn  Aw  rotild  ffive  of 
fiwuakinfT  ber  bibthnml.  sbi-  n-fiiM-*]  to  AniiiKt>r  to  uy, 
nre  in  ifat*  kin^  al'iiic.  Monti-r  Kns  tumelb  oATUio 
vbole  mmttor  to  Jobii  Uuk*.  luid.  I  bavinff  bia  mami- 
leript  in  my  band,  thongfat  tit  to  jiuKit  this  bia  fol- 
lowing acooant  tbertof,  tboagb  not  knowing  wfaeUwr 
the  Mine  wilt  give  tbe  rnuler  mtis&rtton". 
BarfiB  4d,  A  matrb  M*aM  made,  hy  tlir  [tuwrr  nf  tbdr 
WhM-  potvot*,  brtnixt  .\fr.  Kyiiir  bf*  MHi  in  ].iihv>Uufaii>r, 
^^  and  «r  William  Ar»co«j(h  lii*  i'I«U»t  •laujihtvr,  who 
rhaiMHt)  to  die  bfforo  tbe  rotn|tli>ti»)t  tbeiv«ir.  8ir 
William,  loth  to  loau  u  rirb  an  \«Ar,  and  bavii^ 
|«]r«d  put  of  ber  portion,  for  larn>'«  nakc  mmprUed 
lUa  Amw,  hb  aevond  daajililtT,  m  ra|i|il5  bor  nrter^t 
place,  and  to  marry  him  affaittM  ht>r  own  will  and 

•  R«f  I 

'iiwa.  OftWatha 
inl  wM  BnnCM  M  wlvvu^ 
N  tba  bad  of  Wmm.  b  >f». 
■mW.  1^.  «mI  Uw  otkar 
M  Um  naw  i^Mor  n  jMnavy. 
1547.  Tlw  trnXj-tftk  !«■• 
,  htrlT  HMT-  |r*pli  in  lb«  mt  ii  ■!■»>  • 
■•  trrcd  la  HwllMiM  br  tW  mW  vi 
"iUmUk  ma'i  apUdan.  InmIi. 
•  wHk  tha  (MdalkB  iif  Jaha     bw.) 

«■.  Ac-  1U>  491. 

•  [TUi  i*  vvidrad^  BO  oili«r 

■■  •  MA.  eopT  «~ 

"KwttbMIMI    of 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  209 

consent;  notwithstanding,  the  marriage  once  pa8tyA.i>.i546. 
she  demeaned  herself  like  a  Christian  wife,  and  bare  ^  vm7 
him   two   children  P.     In   process   of  time,   by   oft  ' 

reading  of  the  sacred  Bible,  she  clearly  fell  from  all 
papistry,  to  a  perfect  belief  in  Jesus  Christ.  Where- 
upon, her  husband  was  so  offended,  that  (by  sug- 
gestion of  the  priests)  he  violently  drove  her  out  of 
his  house.  And  she  on  this  occasion  sought  from 
the  law  a  divorce ;  and,  because  of  his  cruel  usage, 
would  not  return  unto  him  again,  thinking  herself 
free  from  that  uncomely  kind  of  coacted  marriage, 
by  the  doctrine  of  St.  Paul,  But  if  the  unbelieving 
depart^  let  him  depart.  A  brother  or  sifter  is  not 
binder  bondage  in  such  cases :  but  God  hath  called  us 
to  peace ^.  This  is  the  effect  of  what  our  author 
speaketh  in  moe  words.  Now  whether  this  rule 
laid  down  by  St.  Paul  betwixt  Christian  and  heathen 
be  also  commensurate  betwixt  protestant  and  papist, 
is  not  my  work  to  decide.  Perchance  she  would 
only  answer  to  the  king  for  her  behaviour  towards 
lier  husband,  as  hoping  for  some  tenderness  from  his 
highness,  because  of  some  general  conformity  in  the 
first  part  of  her  case  with  the  king's :  as  who  for  by- 
respects  was  first  married  to,  then  divorced  from  his 
brother's  wife. 

46.  Her  several  examinations  are  largely  penned  She  is  fim 
by  herself,  extant  in  Mr.  Fox,  where  the  reader  may  then  immt, 
find  them.     But  be  it  remembered,  that,  whereas 
lieresy  only  was  charged  upon  her,  without  the  least 
suspicion  of  treason,  yet  was  she  racked  to  detect 

P  Bale's  Manuscript,  p.  91,  fol.  andStrype'8Mein.I.p.387, 

92.    [See  Bale's  Latter  Exam,  and  Life  of  Cranmer,  206,  for 

of  A.  Ayscough,  fol.   15.  ed.  some  remarks  on  Bale's  wwk.] 
1547.    Burnet*8  Ref.  I.  p.  341.         ^  1  Cor.  vii.  15. 



Tkt  eiUrr*  tftriMy 

A-&*nfcw>  OMit  ladiM  of  her  opiaioii,  b;  tlw  kti 
^toT  Wriodwriey.  the  then,  md  lb  Hubert  Bteh,Uicp«»l> 
lord  chaaodlor'.  Bnt  whether  it  ww  noble  in  the«» 
lofdlb  or  kgal  in  Uu«e  lawjrvn,  or  mmrk-atioui  In 
theie  ehiiMeUfin,  to  nek  one  alreedjr  coDdemnetl  to 
deeth,  bdongelh  to  otben  to  detendne.  Thrir 
antHj  tEEtocted  no  dkeovef?  from  her,  irtkoee  «ai^ 
■taoey  DOW  node  reoompenie  lor  har  fotmer  inim^ 
tie*.  irU  be  trae  whet  !■  dmqfoi  opoo  becAat 
be&m  AiB  bod  twice  eubKiibed  the  reel  preeeoee  is 
the  ■KancDt  of  the  eltoi^  but  eeoloMly  died  et  kit 
fai  the  euneet  dtniol  thenoC  beinf  enoagst  thoeo 
who.  eeeofdhn  to  the  fveoept  in  die  pnpbt-t,  flori 
/M  tkt  Lord  m  du  Jint*.  Ucr  Mifif-riiif  in  Smith- 
Aeld  wu  moit  toleKinlj  pvrfarm<Nl.  wbfrr  (hrev  men, 
Nlcholm  Belenian,  pcie«t  of  .Shropihin>,  John  Loo> 
eeUi.  pinthanen  of  the  hoDMhold  of  Idng  Henry  the 
Eighth,  end  John  AdiBN^  ■  poor  toUor  of  Loadon, 
were  ell  bomt  together*.  Thiee  ooai4e  of  gnelHlee 
Meeting  together  in  four  penoo^  ctuST  "^  l*^* 
■Mle  end  fenale,  gentle  end  simptc^  mode  the  Ibel 
of  the  Mme  Bfv. 
■«p>»  47.  John  Bele  n^ittm  this  Anne  Ayeeo^gli 
'"'^'anioogit  the  niunbcf-  of  his  English  Icemcd  wiHeit*. 
for  bur  eieminetiuoa,  lettvn,  and  poenu,  wrote  with 
her  own  huid*;  tbou^  theJeenHwjeen  hia  br  hie 
pnioK,  M  if  no  worfci,  nvo  thoee  of  the 

'Pai.lI.(7B.  [OMoTthew  tW  kin.  naMcdaff  I 
wte  mim*  hw  Mi  LadT  iiiiiriji  mJm  Cra 
Vmmjtwtmmhmkmdmimt^    atm.  fawJlw.  ami  a 

m  ak  th»  AUn  Indi  of 
UTafiw  Amu  Hmrf  VIU.] 

■  1^  axlv.  1 5. 

•  [Bm  lU  WiMn  Hmm  llw 
BMnril  ia  Londoe  to  MvaCHT 
htn,  m4  to  iIm  cMUMd  wink 


roL  I.  p.  M  •^1 

>  ^I>riMMlfalP■n.ll.^s7^■] 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  211 

became  her  sex.     I  have  seen  a  manuscript  of  herA.D.1546. 
verses,  (afterwards  printed  at  Marpurg  in  Germany,)    vm. 
and  must  confess  I  better  approve  her  charity  in  the 
four  last,  than  her  poetry  in  all  the  rest^: 

Yet,  Lord,  I  thee  desire, 

For  that  they  do  to  me, 
Let  them  not  taste  the  hire 

Of  their  iniquity. 

However,  those  that  have  drunk  deeper  than  she  of 
Helicon  would  be  loth  to  pledge  her  in  the  bitter 
cup  of  martyrdom.  So  I  take  my  leave  of  her 

48.  Now  began  the  troubles  of  queen  Catherine  The  king 
Parr,  whom  the  king  married  some  two  years  since.  KaSmne 
For  he,  either  being  or  believing  himself  wronged  by  ^*"* 
his  last  wife,  whom  he  married  for  a  maid,  resolved 

now  to  take  a  widow  to  wife,  who  had  given  proof 
of  her  chastity  and  loyalty  to  her  former  husband ; 
and  thereupon  married  this  Catherine,  the  daughter 
of  sir  Thomas  Parr,  of  Kendal,  the  relict  of  John 
Ne\ill,  lord  Latimer;  one  of  great  piety,  beauty, 
and  discretion.  Next  to  the  Bible,  she  studied  the 
king's  disposition,  observing  him  to  her  utmost.  And 
need  she  had  of  a  nimble  soul,  to  attend  at  all  times 
on  his  humour,  whose  fury  had  now  got  the  addition 
of  frowardness  thereunto.  She  was  rather  nurse 
than  wife  unto  him,  who  was  more  decayed  by  sick- 
ness and  intemperance  than  old  age. 

49.  Yet  sometimes  she  would  presume  to  dis- The  oontpi. 
course  with  the  king  about  points  of  religion,  de-^|^«  " 
fending    the    protestant   tenets    by   scripture    and"^™***®^" 

^  [These  are  likewise  print-     "  tion,   &c"  fol.  63,  printed 
ed  in  Dale's  "  Latter  Examina-     at  Marpurg  in  1547.] 


Sl<  TV  ClarrrA  Ifutary  wwi  v. 

A.ifcitrf.iiMou;  and  KMiietlttes  mtdd  bold  up  tbe  Idiig  th; 
'vm7  doM  hard  at  it.  Thb  dlipleaaed  bia.  who  loved 
\etmtnem  and  libertf ,  in  bb  dotbca*  argUDoat^  a 
•etkm;  and  «■■  qineUy  obaerved  by  G 
othan^  who  wnv  tbo  qneca  s  raniiiea>  Isai 
takinjr  advantage  of  an  tmhapjiv  jaorture  of  1 
Gardiner  ilrpv  up  articlra  ajfainM  her,  and  bai 
tbem  wbacribwl  with  the  king'*  »wn  hand,  t 
■Mnw  bcT  to  the  Tower ;  whither  bad  iho  been  ■ 
roAyM  Mifia  ntrorMum,  without  doubt  ibc  had  j 
lowed  the  way  of  hli  former  wito*  in  that  place. 
>r9^  SO.  But  Dirinv  ProTidftiec  ordeiHh  all  tbioga  to 
SriLwi  fiUI  out  for  the  good  of  (iod'a  childnni.  Chaueellor 
Wriotbealejr  pot  the  paper  of  thnaw  articles  (prcdmn 
j«vela !)  bi  DO  wono  cabinet  than  his  own  boaoini. 
flcDco  it  CMualljr  feU  out,  wa«  taki-n  op  I17  one  of 
the  quora'i  acnrmnta,  and  bnragbt  to  her  gtaee^  wfao^ 
on  ber  ^knew  and  tubniMon  to  the  king,  obtained 
bia  paidoo.  ngned  and  Bcalutl  unto  her  witb  ntanjr 
kiaNi  and  enbnoea.  Ai  for  eiirh  her  coemlea, 
who  came  at  the  prvaent  to  attach  ber.  (intending, 
br  virttH'  »(  the  king's  warrant,  to  scimI  ber  the 
•hortwt  waj  to  her  long  botnc,)  thi'T  weiv  wnt  back 
with  what  BUida  wene  nunhliog  than  a  flea  in  tbo 
car.  ewo  tbe  tatnrta  and  tbrnit»  uf  the  ennged 
king  againat  tbam*. 
rwnmtM,  SI.  And  jci  Panoiia  t4*lb  us*,  that,  "notwitb- 
1^0  **  staiidixig.  the  king  puiposcd  to  bare  >>umcd  her,  if 
**  Ih*  bad  Ured."     I  know  not  wbciKe  be  derived 

r[~KaUb«rr<witlwbeMn  —JwiBW^hrtiiiwiifaMssWi.] 

-orcwoftiwalynnyaMB-  ■  [Fox.  IV II.  514.) 

•'  takm."  mn  Vm,  tUtftn.  ■   la  bii    Ki— JMrisa    ml 

11.  jB],)  who  k.  I  hAtn.  dw  P«'a  "  UMljn.-   !■    Jmmt, 

«0)i  nttlHtliy  fo  tUs  naMKk  c.  le.  ^.453. 


of  Britain, 


this  liis  strange  intelligence,  and  therefore,  justly  a.  d.  1546. 
suspect  the  truth  hereof;  the  rather,  because  I  find  ^  viS7 
her  in  great  grace  with  the  king,  as  appeareth  by  the 
good  language  and  great  legacy  he  gave  her  in  his 
will,  which  here  we  thought  fit  to  transcribe,  both 
for  the  rarity  thereof,  and  because  containing  many 
passages  which  may  reflect  much  light  upon  our 
Church  History''. 

^  [By  a  letter  from  Mait- 
land  to  secretary  sir  William 
Cecil,  (printed  by  Burnet  in 
vol.  I. of  Collection  of  Records, 
p.  405=267.)  it  appears  that 
this  will  was  never  signed  by 
the  king,  and  consequently 
was  never  a  legal  document: 
and  that  '*  in  the  time  of  his 
"  sickness  being  divers  times 
"  pressed  to  put  his  hand  to 
**  the  will  written,  he  refused 
"to  do  it."  Yet  notwith- 
standing  this  objection,  and  the 
observations  of  various  writers, 
there  is  a  curious  entry  in  the 
last  monthly  lists  of  instru- 
ments, in  this  reign,  ''  to  the 
"  number  of  fourscore  and  six, 
**  which  the  king's  majesty 
•*  caused  me,  William  Clare,  to 
"  stamp  with  his  highness'  se- 
"  cret  stamp  at  divers  times  and 
"  places  in  this  moneth  of  Ja- 
"  nuary,  an.  38.  Hen.  VIII." 
At  the  eighty-fifth  number 
is  the  following :  *'  Your  ma- 
*'  jesty's  last  will  and  testa- 
'*  ment,  bearing  date  at  West- 
"  minster  the  30th  day  of  De- 
'*  cember  last  past,  written  in 
"  a    book    of    paper,    signed 

'*  above  in  the  beginning,  and 
"  beneath    in    the    end,    and 
*'  sealed  with  the  signet  in  the 
"  presence  of  the  earl  of  Hert- 
*'  ford,  Mr.  Secretary  Pagett, 
"  Mr.  Denny,  and  Mr.  Her- 
*'  bert,  and  also   in  the  pre- 
'*  sence  of  certain  other  per- 
"  sons,  whose  names  are  sub- 
"  scribed  with  their  own  hands 
*'  as  witnesses   to  the   same ; 
"  which  testament   your   ma- 
"  jesty  delivered  then  in  our 
'*  sights  with  your  own  hand 
"  to  the  said  earl  of  Hertford, 
"  as  your  own  deed,  last  will 
"  anJ  testament,  revoking  and 
*'  annulling    all     other     your 
'*  highness'   former  wills  and 
"  testaments."     State  Papers, 
vol.  I.  p.  897.]     This  entry  is 
also   of  great  importance,  in 
another  point,  as  tending  to 
exculpate   Somerset  from  the 
charge  which  Mr.  Tytler  seems 
to  have  brought  against  him  of 
possessing  himself  of  the  will 
illegally.   (Original  Letters  for 
Reign  of  Edward  VI.  I.  19.) 
The  king  having  delivered  the 
will  with  his  own  hands  into 
Somerset's  keeping.] 


TktC/kureA  Hitton/ 


A.IX  iM*.      In  the  name  of  God,  and  (if  the  gbiriout  end  I 
yiU^  VirgitM  our  Ladj-  Sunt  >Un«.  lod  all  ibc  Koljr  c 

—of  Heavm.    We  IIcnrTt  W  th*  gncv  of  Gij,  Kmg  of 

EnitUiid.  Fnuev,  and  IrvUod.  dcrrod«r  of  the  failh,  and 
on  rarth  immcdiatrlv  tindrr  Giitl  ihr  •upmnc  bead  of  ifaa 
Church  tif  Kngland  and  Ireland.  *.4  that  nonnm;  Uw  OKblb; 
cdhng  to  our  mnnnbcance  ihc  fjvaX  gifu  and  iMBcdtaaf 
Almightir  Uod  giTcn  unto  u*  in  lltt*  Irantjrinrj  life,  w 
give  unto  him  our  nwat  humble  and  lowlit  thankk.  acknow* 
Uflgin^t  iKtrarlfn  iDiuflycjmi  m  rucriv  pan<-  lu  dnrruE  or 
ren>ii|)rD«:v  thv  mme  ;  but  fvarc  that  «tc  harr  tiot  wonhlia 
racTti»rd  ih«  Munc.  And  cixHMWing  funhtrmcve  wilh 
nunrlun  thai  >rT  be  as  ■•  al]  mankind  ntonall.  and  bcvtw 
in  Vfxaam,  briietinft  itrvcrthrlna  aod  hopiOK  that  every 
rbntiao  crvaturc  \ii\n$i  henr  in  ihif  laanjXarj  and 
wwHclwd  world  under  Gwl,  and  dvtn|[  in  atcdfaat  and 
prKvct  faith,  iitdraviiuring  and  vMTnunf[  himtelf  to  ex»> 
cute  in  lii*  lifetitnr  (if  Fm-  hav«  lewure)  luch  jguoA  deeda 
and  charjruble  iturku  a*  ^riplurv  cmitnandeih,  and  h 
mair  he  to  the  bdnour  and  pleasure  <if  Gtal.  t*  (vdained  bj 
rhhat'i  paMfam  to  be  HRvd  and  to  aliainc  eternal  life,  of 
whu-h  nunher  w*  verlli*  truit  bv  hi*  grvcr  to  be  one : 
And  thai  nwrie  creature,  the  more  high  Iw  it  in  cMMa^ 
honour,  rule,  and  authtwitir  in  this  worM,  tbe  nam  be  k 
bound  la  lour,  vrue,  ami  ihankc  Gnd,  and  lb«  Bwn  £& 
feHfia  lo  cndmniur  bimadfr  to  doe  good  and  cbafiubb 
worlica,  lo  llie  Uud,  l»on<>ur,  and  pnne  of  AInightie  Gad 
■nd  tbe  pmfil  uf  hii  «nule :  We  aim  oiling  lo  our  nmew 
fannce  the  digtutic,  itale,  hooour,  rule,  and  govemaunm^ 
that  Alinigfatie  God  hath  promoted  i»  unto  io  ihi*  «i«U, 
and  thai  neytber  wee  nur  anjr  other  mortall  ctvaturc  bwHll^ 
cd)  the  iIbw,  nor  pUee,  when  nor  where  it  thall  | 
Alaigblie  Gud  Is  oUc  bin  out  uf  tbia  tfWMla 
WiIGh  ibnvCm  wtA  awdi^  bjr  God^  grMs,  b 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  215 

passage  out  of  this  world,  to  dispose,  give,  ordaine,  our  last  A.  D.  1546. 
mind  [and]  will,  and  to  lament  in  that  sort  as  we  trust  shall  ^  yin.^ 

be  acceptable  to  Almightie  God,  our  onlie  Saviour  JesUs 

Christ,  and  all  the  holie  companie  of  Heaven,  and  the  due 
satisfaction  of  God^s  brethren  in  earth,  now  being  of  wholle 
and  perfect  minde,  adhering  wholly  to  the  right  faith  of 
Christ  and  his  doctrine,  renouncing  and  abhorring  alsoe 
our  olde  and  detestable  life,  and  being  in  perfecte  minde 
and  will  by  his  grace  never  to  returne  to  the  same  nor 
such  like,  and  minding  by  God'^s  grace  never  to  vane 
therefrom,  as  long  as  any  remembrance,  breath,  or  inward 
knowledge  doth  or  maie  remaine  within  this  mortal  bodie, 
most  humblie  and  hartelie  doe  commend  and  bequeath  our 
soule  to  Almightie  God,  who  in  persona  of  the  Sonne 
redemed  the  same  with  his  most  pretious  bodie  and  blood 
in  time  of  his  passion,  and,  for  our  better  remembrance 
thereof,  hath  lefte  heere  with  us  in  his  church  militant  the 
consecration  and  administration  of  his  pretious  bodie  and 
blood,  to  our  no  litle  consolation  and  comforte,  if  we  as 
thankfuUie  accept  the  same  as  he  lovinglie  and  unde- 
seruedly  on  our  behalf  hath  ordained  it  for  our  only 
bencfitte  and  not  for  his:  Also,  we  doe  instantlie  desire 
and  require  the  blessed  Virgine  Marie  his  mother,  with  all 
the  holy  companie  of  Heaven,  continually  to  pray  for  us 
and  with  us  while  we  live  in  this  world,  and  in  time  of 
passing  out  of  the  same,  that  we  maie  the  sooner  obtayne 
eternall  life  after  our  departure  out  of  this  transitory  life, 
which  we  doe  both  hope  and  claime  by  Chrisf  s  passion  and 
word.  And  as  for  my  bodie,  which  when  the  soule  is 
departed  shall  then  remaine  but  as  a  dead  carcase,  and  see 
returne  to  the  vild  matter  that  it  was  made  of,  were  it  not 
for  the  crown  and  dignitie  which  God  hath  called  us  unto, 
and  that  we  would  not  be  an  infringer  of  worldly  policies 
and  customes  when  they  be  not  contrarie  to  God's  lawes, 
we  would  be  content  to  have  it  buryed  in  any  place  accus- 
tomed for  Christian  folks  were  it  never  soe  vild,  for  it  is 
but  ashes,  and  to  ashes  it  shall  returne  againe ;  neverthe- 
less, because  we  would  be  loath  in  the  reputation  of  the 

P  4 


riu  Chttrtk  UMvry 

A-D^vt|«t> people  to  doe  iniury  la  iha  difpMtc  whtch  wi  an  mu 
VltT'  WDrtfab  callrd  UDto,  wr  w  oootrai,  and  aUii  by  ihna 

" pwgnu,  otir    I.ut    ^Vill    md   TvvtanirRt,  dor   wtH   nai 

urdatne,  ihat  our  bodic  be  burird  and  enUfml  to  the  qtawm 
nt  uur  Collrftc  uf  WiiHor,  midway  bdween  ll>e  balb  and 
the  hig4i  ■lur ;  and  iberc  to  be  made  and  ■«,  aa  aoun 
as  oxiVLtiicnthe  ittaip  br  dtimia  afUr  our  deWMar,  by  our 
nuruton,  ai  our  omU  am)  chaf|[ca  (if  it  be  am  donne  bj 
iM  in  our  lifrttinr),  an  hooounible  Umbe  for  our  boon  to 
K*i  ill,  ohidi  i«  well  onvanl  and  almost  made  iberfu** 
alfvady.  with  a  fair  grate  about  it,  in  which  wc  will  alaoa 
tlw  booca  o(  our  true  and  laving  wife  QiHcnt  Jane  br  pot 
aUoe,  and  that  there  be  pfwided,  onLuned,  made,  and 
•cttr.  at  ibe  cusu  and  chaises  of  us,  or  hj  our  niralnrs 
(if  it  be  Hot  doooe  in  our  Ufetinw),  ■  coaveajrenl  auher, 
hananUit  prrpand  and  aparelled  with  all  iwaoner  of 
tbin^  nquiMlc  and  BtueMfie  for  daiUr  raaau  there  la  ba 
aaid  perpotually  aa  Im^  •■  the  world  diall  indure:  Abo* 
wr  will  the  tombcs  and  aullan  of  Kin^  llrary  the  Sitth. 
and  alnc  of  Xing  Edward  tbc  Founh,  our  grtal  unfcia 
and  gnodtathrr,  br  made  more  prinrt^ir.  in  the  mmm 
placaa  where  ihric  now  br,  at  our  char);rs.  And  aJwa  w« 
will  and  •prtially  denrc  and  mfuire  that  hIktt  and  whcn- 
MtrytT  it  kball  jilcatr  Gnd  to  call  lu  out  of  this  Iranwinry 
world  to  hit  infjriiite  nwRie  and  gnor,  be  it  hrywiJ  Uiir 
aea*  or  in  any  other  plan  withoot  the  Bwlnw  of  England, 
or  within  the  Mtne,  thai  otir  etenitoiv,  soe  none  as  am- 
vrnirmiltc  thriv  nukie,  ihall  cause  all  drrine  srrvier  aecus> 
tooicd  fnr  drsil  fulkes  ii>  be  rdebratod  for  ns  in  the  nmt 
propper  plarv  where  it  ihsll  fortune  ui  lo  depart  out  of 
ibis  iramytorie  bfr ;  and  over  that  we  will,  that  whenan- 
rrer  and  wbrrewKver  il  ihall  pknie  God  lo  call  in  oul  of 
this  innsyiory  life,  to  hu  infinite  arrcie  and  gncw,  be  it 
wiiliin  ihb  n^nw  or  oithiiut,  that  our  eaaculors,  in  aa 
goodlie,  brWfe,  and  cnavenyent  haste  aa  Umm  cmi  or  naia 
order,  prvpnrr,  or  auM  our  bodie  to  he  rvnMved,  can. 
vetfld,  or  brought  into  the  mad  colkdge  of  Winsor.  and 
iba  stntiw  of  Placafao  and  Dvigv,  with  a  saramo  and  maaa. 

CENT.  xvf.  of  Britain,  217 

on  the  morrowe,  at  our  costs  and  charges,  dcvoutlie  to  be  A.  D.  1546. 
donne,  observed,  and  kepte  solemnlie,  there  to  be  buryed  and  ^  vilL^ 
enterred  in  the  place  appointed  for  our  said  tomb  to  be  '■ 

made  for  the  same  intent,  and  all  this  to  be  donne  in  as 
devout  wise  as  it  can  or  maie  be  donne.  And  we  will  and 
charge  our  executors,  that  thaie  dispose  and  give  in  alms 
to  the  most  poore  and  needie  people  that  maie  be  found, 
(common  beggars  as  much  as  may  be  avoided),  in  as  short 
space  as  possible  theie  may  after  our  departure  out  of  this 
transitorie  life,  1000  marks  of  lawful  monee  of  England, 
parte  in  the  same  place  and  thereabouts  where  it  shall 
please  God  to  call  us  to  his  mercie,  partly  in  the  way,  and 
parte  in  the  same  place  of  our  burial,  after  their  discretions. 
And  to  move  the  poor  people  that  shall  have  our  almes  to 
praic  heartilie  unto  God  for  the  remission  of  our  offences 
and  the  welth  of  our  soule,  also  we  will,  with  as  convenient 
s})ecd  as  maie  be  donne  after  our  departure  out  of  this 
worlds  if  it  be  not  donne  in  our  life  time,  that  the  Deane 
and  Channons  of  our  free  chappell  of  Saint  George,  within 
our  castle  of  Winsor,  shall  have  manors,  lands,  tenements, 
and  spiritual  promotions,  to  the  yearlie  value  of  600/.  over 
all  charges,  made  sure  to  them  and  their  successours  for 
ever,  uppon  theise  conditions  hereafter  ensuing.  And,  for 
the  due  accomplyshment  and  performance  of  all  other 
things  conteyned  with  the  same,  in  the  form  of  an  inden- 
ture, signed  with  our  own  hand,  shall  be  passed,  by  waie 
of  covenants  for  that  purpose,  between  the  said  Deanne 
and  Channons,  and  our  executors  (if  it  pass  not  between 
us  and  the  said  Deane  and  Channons  in  our  life),  that  is 
to  say,  the  said  Deane  and  Channons  and  their  successors 
for  ever,  shall  finde  two  priests  to  saie  masses  at  the  said 
aultcr,  to  be  made  where  we  have  appointed  our  tombe 
to  be  made  and  stand,  and  also  after  our  decease  keepe 
yearlie  foure  sollemne  obits  for  us  within  the  said  CoUedge 
of  Winsor,  and  at  eurie  of  the  said  obits  to  cause  a  solemn 
sermon  to  be  made,  and  also  at  every  of  the  said  obits  to 
give  to  poore  people  an  alms  of  10/.;  and  also  to  give 
forever  yearlie  for  ever  to  13  poore  men,  which  shall  be 


7U  Cimtk  Uittorp*c.c»lleil  Pootv  Knigbu,  lo  c««ris of  tham  ttd.  by  dne:  md 
'*y^^  oDco  in  tbr  vnirv,  jrcarii*  Ibr  war,  a  loa|[  go^o*  "f  «!>•• 

doth,  vtth  like  Uuur  nppoa  lh«  brM  inbrathctrd,  «iili  ■ 

MM  nd  criHK  at  Ssliit  O«orgi  within  ttw  Ganrr,  w^  a 
—nth  uf  ral  doth ;  and  la  mtA  a  ooe  0/  the  13  Paoas 
Knigfau  ai  ahall  bt  appoinud  gonmor  and  head  at  Uwa 
3/.  6f.  Bdl.  fiNWcr  yvarif,  over  and  ahrm  dw  wd  iid^ 
bjr  the  date  1  And  aha  to  eauw  evcne  Sondaw  in  th«  jrran 
fiv  ercT  a  •maoa  to  be  made  «l  Wimor  afumnd,  ae  ia 
the  Mid  indcoUm  aad  ravmanu  thai  be  murv  fullir  and 
partkokfTia  npreMcd ;  willinj;.  charging  and  mjutriag 
our  aaoae  Priooa  Edwan).  all  our  rxecutan  and  cenib- 
mUo**  vfaicb  •hal  be  aamed  beraiftcr,  and  alJ  our  biina 
and  ■ucBHww  vbich  (hall  be  kingm  of  Hm  raalae,  ai  thaa 
viU  aoaweai*  befcni  Ataightie  Ovd  ai  the  dnadTuD  dnt 
of  judgnacot,  that  tbeia  aad  avtiia  of  them  doe  m  iha 
aid  indroturr  and  aauranwat  to  be  aitde  between  tit  aad 
the  Hid  Dcaae  and  Channont,  or  belwtaa  tbrai  and  omt 
t,  and  all  thing!  thcrrin,  maie  be  duly  put  is 
I,  ubwmJ.  and  krpi  fi>r  ever  perprtuaUir.  aceord- 
iqf  to  thia  our  Ian  will  and  tcstan>eni.  And  a*  eoocnwaif 
the  Older  and  ifiipMittaa  at  the  imperall  crownc  of  theaa 
n0inn  at  Ei^tand  aad  Ireland,  with  our  title  nt  Fnan, 
and    all    dignitiea,    biHiaun,    prvcmiaracra,    prmguivca, 

of  tin 

1  and  aln  hr  a  ftoD  and  pl«ae  giRr,  (fitpiMiion, 
dedaralkm,  haiitaiiait,  and  appuinimrnt.  with 
our  daugblarv  Mearj  and  tllitabrili  duU 
iBe  have,  hoUt  and  tojay,  the  Mid  ioiperiail  avvaa 

cf  Imm  and  heina  of  the  wvetaD  bodiM  of  m  and  our  aid 
Man*  PriBM  Edward,  bwftUbe  begotten,  and  hia  heirat 
■ad  afaaa  lor  a  ftdl  giAa^  diepnniien.  aMiupBuiit.  dcvlara. 
I  whtm,  and  ot  «hai 

CKKT.  XVI.  o/Britain.  «19 

of  the  Mvcrall  bodies  of  us  and  of  our  said  sonne  Prince  A.  D.  1546. 
Edwtird,  and  of  our  s^d  daughters  Meary  and  Elizabeth,  ^  vui^ 

lawfulUc   begotten,  we  by  those   presents  doe  make  and 

declare  our  lest  will  and  testament  concerning  the  said 
iin|>erialt  crowne.  and  all  other  the  premisses,  in  manner 
and  forme  following :  that  is  to  sue,  we  will  by  these 
presents,  that,  immediatelie  after  our  departure  out  of  this 
present  life,  our  said  sonne  Prince  Edward  shall  have  and 
enjoie  the  said  imperiall  crowne  and  realm  of  England  and 
Irelund,  our  title  of  France,  with  all  digniies.  honours, 
prceminencies,  prerogatives,  authorities  and  jurisdictions, 
lands  and  possessions  to  the  same  annexed  or  belonging  to 
bim  and  his  heires  of  his  bodie  lawfullie  begotten ;  and, 
for  default  of  such  issue  of  our  said  sonne  Prince  Edward's 
bodie  lawfullie  begotten,  we  will  the  said  imperiall  crowne, 
and  all  other  the  premisses,  after  our  two  deceases,  shall 
whoUie  remaine  and  come  to  the  heires  of  our  body  law- 
fullie begotten  of  the  body  of  our  entiretie  beloved  wife 
Queene  Kathenne  that  now  is,  or  of  any  other  our  lawfuU 
wife  that  we  shall  hereafter  marie ;  and  for  lackc  of  such 
isKiuc  and  heires,  we  will  also,  that,  after  our  decease,  and 
furdefauttof  heires  of  the  several  bodies  of  us  and  of  our  said 
Bonne  Prince  Edward  lawfullie  begotten,  the  said  imperiall 
crowne,  and  all  other  the  premisses,  shall  whollic  remaine 
and  come  lo  our  said  daughter  Mary  and  the  heires  of  her 
bodie  lawfully  begotten,  upon  condition  thai  our  said 
daughter  Afary,  after  our  decease,  shall  not  mary,  nor  take 
any  personc  to  her  husband,  without  the  asent  and  consent 
of  the  Prcvic  Counsellors  and  others  appointed  by  us  to 
our  dearest  sonne  Prince  Edward  aforesaid  to  be  of  coud- 
saile,  or  of  the  most  parte  of  them,  or  the  most  part  of  such 
of  them  as  shal  be  then  aUve,  thereunto  had  before  the 
said  marriage,  in  wryting,  sealed  with  their  seales;  all  which 
condilyons,  we  declare,  liraiL,  appointe,  and  will,  by  theee 
presents,  shal  be  knit  and  invested  to  the  said  estate  of  our 
daughter  Mary  in  the  said  imperiall  crowne,  and  all  oilier 
the  premisses ;  and  if  it  fortune  thai  our  said  daughter  doe 
die  without  issue  of  her  bodic  lawfullie  begotten,  wc  will 

«SeO  Tlu  Ckmrck  Himr^  mxhi  v. 

A.D.if4&ltuit.  ftficr  our  drccit,  and  for  Ciulie  of  imuc  of  llw  «*e- 
''vVn^  "■"  '^""^  uf  UB,  of  our  aiil  KDnc  rnno:  F^wuA.  Uw- 

fuHic  tM^tttrD,  wkI  of  our  ilaiif^titrr   Mmry.   the  uid  im. 

p-ryall  cntwiw,  umI  all  tuittr  the  prraium,  ihdl  wbolKe 
rvmaine  ■nd  nime  to  our  iflHl  daufchirr  Kliiabrth,  wid  le 
tl»e  hrim  of  her  bodic  U»fuU»c  brj^iro.  apfmn  c 
thu  our  Mid  dau^htrr  EI'imImhIi,  after  our  dcvcaw 
Dot  inany.  nor  take  any  prrtonne  tn  her  ImtlMod  < 
ihr  aivent  and  cononl  of  the  I'mic  t'ounarllorv,  and 
othrrt  ■ppoinicd  by  us  to  Ik  of  counullc  with  iwr  Hwl 
dcami  MMinc  I'rincv  Kdward,  or  of  the  dmmi  parte  of  Midi 
of  tbrm  a*  *hall  be  thro  alyve,  themtnio,  before  tlic  Mid 
nmrymfic,  had  in  wryiii^  W led  vith  their  M«lca ;  wbicb 
coodilHHi.  "G  drcbuv,  but.  appamit,  aod  <rill,  by  thew 
praaralit  ilial  br  tn  iba  Hid  ralair  uf  cMir  uid  daofbttr 
Klii^xth  in  iltc  Mid  imprrysll  crowoe,  and  ulbcT  tb* 
pwwiMci,  knii  ■ntl  in«4-stvtl.  And  if  it  •hati  happra  tfaal 
our  Mid  daughlrr  Eliubrth  do  <l>e  without  twue  ot  bcr 
bodie  lawfuIlK  bef(oiien,  we  will,  thai,  after  our  dtUMC, 
and  for  defaulle  of  tMiie  of  ihe  trvrrall  bodiei  of  u*  aad  of 
our  Mid  luane  I'riooe  Kdirmrd,  and  of  our  Mid  daughWca 
Mary  and  EJixabrth,  ibe  nid  inipenaU  aatnm  and  odmr 
the  pnimiMea.  after  our  deeoue,  ihall  whoUia  mnaina  ami 
oona  to  the  heirrs  of  the  bodie  of  the  Ijufio  PranoM  our 
BOMB,  ddnt  daughlrr  to  our  late  usier  the  Fmicfa  Qor— >, 
tawfuffia  bvKMtrn.  And  for  defaultc  of  mhJi  ivua  of  tba 
bodte  of  Iha  Mid  Ladie  Frawx-*,  wr  wiU  thai  tha  mU 
inpBryall  crowiw  and  other  the  premiMca,  after  our  di^ 
nmae,  and  for  faulu  of  iMoe  of  ihe  aevaral  bodin  of  ii% 
and  of  uur  Mid  wnne  Prince  Rdwaid,  and  of  our  mU 
dauf^iera  Mary  and  KItulirth,  and  of  tba  Ldtfia  Pnaen, 
lawfulbe  befuticn.  thall  whuUie  refnaioa  and  ONiic  to  iW 
beifTa  of  the  body  of  the  Lwly  ElMOor  oar  aaaoa,  NCaad 
daaghtar  In  oar  mU  lata  ■ator  the  Prnwh  Quaena,  kv- 
ftdfia  hagottao.  And  if  it  bappea  tha  Mid  Eleanor  to  S» 
wkboat  IMM  of  bcr  hudie  lawfuIEc  befcoilen.  we  will,  that 
afker  mr  JwaaM,  and  fur  drfaultr  of  iMiie  of  the  K-vrrall 
hnlica  vl  m,  ami  of  tMr  Mid  aonne  PruKv  Edwanl.  aad  *4 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britmn.  ,  SSI 

our  8ud  daughters  Mary  and  Elizabeth,  and  of  the  said  A.  IX 1546. 
Ladie  Frances  and  Ladie  Eleanor,  lawfullie  begotten,  the  ^  vil?^ 

said  imperiall  crowne  and  other  the  premisses  shall  whollie ~ 

remaine  and  come  to  the  next  rightfuU  hdrs.  Alsoe  we 
will,  that,  if  our  said  daughter  Mary  doe  marrie  without 
the  consent  and  agreement  of  the  Previe  Counsellors,  and 
others  appointed  by  us  to  be  of  counsell  to  our  said  sonne 
Prince  Edward,  or  the  most  of  them,  or  the  most  parte  <^ 
such  of  them  as  shal  be  then  alive,  thereunto,  before  sud 
marriage,  had  in  wryting,  sealed  with  their  seales,  as  is 
aforesaid,  that  then  and  from  thenceforth,  for  lacke  of 
heires  of  the  severall  bodies  of  us  and  of  our  said  sonne 
Prince  Edward  lawfullie  begotten,  the  sud  imperiall 
crowne,  and  other  the  premisses,  shall  wholly  remaine  be 
and  come  to  our  said  daughter  Elizabeth,  to  the  heires  <^ 
her  bodie  lawfully  begotten,  in  such  manner  and  forme  as 
though  our  said  daughter  Meary  were  then  dead  without 
any  issue  of  the  bodie  of  our  said  daughter  Mary  lawfvlly 
begotten,  any  thing  conteyned  in  this  our  will,  or  in  any 
acte  of  parlement  or  statut  to  the  contrary,  notwithstanding. 
And  in  case  that  our  said  daughter  the  Lady  Mary  doe  . 
keepe  and  performe  the  said  conditions,  expressed^  de- 
clared,  and  limitted  to  her  estate  in  the  said  imperiall 
crowne,  and  other  the  premisses,  by  this  our  last  will 
declared;  and  that  our  said  daughter  Elizabeth  for  her 
parte  doe  not  keepe  and  performe  the  said  condition  de- 
clared and  limitted  by  this  our  last  will  to  the  estate  of  the 
said  Ladie  Elizabeth  in  the  said  imperiall  crowne  of  theise 
realmes  of  England  and  Ireland,  and  other  the  premisses; 
wc  will,  that  then  and  from  thenceforth,  after  our  decease, 
and  for  lacke  of  heires  of  the  several  bodies  of  us  and  of 
our  said  sonne  Prince  Edward,  and  of  our  said  daughter 
Mary,  lawfullie  begotten,  the  smd  imperiall  crowne,  and 
other  the  premisses,  shall  whollie  remaine  and  come  to  the 
next  heires  of  the  bodie  of  the  said  Ladie  Frances  lawfully 
begotten,  in  such  manner  and  forme  as  though  the  said 
Ladie  Elizabeth  were  then  dead,  without  any  heires  of  her 
bodie  lawfullie  begotten,  any  thing  conteyned  in  this  will, 

TV  Ckurtk  Uhion, 

A.llttMldr  inHT*clear  Hatute  lo  ihr  contrary,  notttiihttcMfifllf  J 


over,  for  Uckv  ut  Uhic  uf  tlw  Mid  L^ic 

-Prsaen  hwfnilie  bcgntim,  ta  1m-  and  oonununl  to  t*teb 
penocu  in  like  rvnuimlvn  nnd  nUm  «»  U  lirfofv  tniitlBd 
and  dccUtwI.  And  mv  bctog  iwiw  at  thit  lyior,  UuBkca  ba 
In  (toll,  (if  pcrfi-nc  iminorri  doc  conititutc  and  onUa* 
tbeae  pcnooagH  Aillowing  our  rxcruinn.  and  pcrfnmcn  t£ 
thb  our  last  will  and  tcstammt ;  willing  commanding  aad 
praying  then,  to  take  uppon  tiirm  tlw  occupatiao  and 
pcrfbrauUKv  of  tlir  Mmc  a*  executor* ;  that  U  to  MM,  Um 
Archbithtip  uf  Canterbury,  the  Lord  WiToilicatir.  Cha*- 
cc4W  uf  l^gland ;  thv  Lord  St.  John,  Grvat  Masurr  «f 
our  Houk;  the  Erie  at  Ilenfonl,  Gmat  Cbambniai  of 
EnglaBd ;  the  htwd  Ruarll.  Lord  Vnrna  SMle}  iW 
ViacouM  Liilr,  High  AdratraJI  of  Engbnd ;  tk«  Boliap  «C 
Durcame,  TonMall;  Sit  Anthona  Browne,  Knight,  llMlar 
of  our  How;  Sir  Edward  Montague,  Kaigfat,  Omtm 
Judge  or  the  Commoa  Plnn ;  Juaticc  Bromk^ ;  Sir  ttd- 
ward  NtirU),  Knight,  ('haDcvllor  ot  the  AugBwataiiaaa  | 
Sir  William  Paget,  Knight,  our  Chirfe  Scoviaria;  Sk 
Aoihany  Dmny,  Sir  WiU'ian)  llerhen,  Koigbta,  Ckitf 
Qentlnnro  at  our  Prrric  Chatnbn-;  Sir  Edward  WoUoa, 
Knight,  and  Mr.  Doctor  Wollon  hit  bntbrr ;  all  Utern 
«v  will  lo  be  our  executora,  and  counadkwv  at  the  Prrvie 
Comuell  with  our  nid  aonnc  Princw  Edward,  in  all  wmUm* 
both  aneenriag  hia  private  a&irea  and  puUiqua  aftim 
ot  the  naim.  willing  and  charging  ibcm,  am)  i 
them,  ai  ihcia  mtiM  aixl  ihaU  anawere  ai  the  d 
mnit.  Irulte  and  fulhc  lo  mo  thn  my  la«  will  p 
all  thinga.  with  ai  mndi  ^ir«de  and  diKgeix*  a 
and  that  none  of  then  pnanina  to  meddle  with  any  of  our 
Iretuure,  or  to  doe  aoj  lluag  appninird  by  our  «id  will 
alone,  union  the  moM  parte  at  the  whoUe  number  vt  tbrir«iton  doc  cooieat.  and  by  wryting  agree  lo  the 
■■te.  And  we  will  that  our  Mid  esecuiorv,  or  tke  moM 
part*  at  tbtm,  may  Uwfullk  doe  what  theie  UiaU  (luak 
amwoyuM  far  the  cwcntiun  </  thw  iwr  will,  without  bniag 
UmibM  by  nur  mid  minr,  or  any  ulbrr,  far  the  mmmi 

cBXT.  XVI,  of  Britain.  S8S 

willing  further,  by  this  our  last  will  aiid  testament,  that  A.  D.  i  .(46. 
Sir  Edmund  Pcckham,  our  trustie  servant,  and  yet  Coferer  "'  viu!'^ 

of  our  House,  shall   be  Tresurer,   and   have  the  receptc 

and  laying  out  of  all  such  treasure  and  monye  as  shall  be 
defrayed  by  our  executors  for  the  pcrforaiance  of  this  our 
lost  wilt ;  straighttic  charing  and  commanding  the  said 
Sir  Edmund,  that  he  paie  no  great  some  of  moncye  but  he 
have  first  the  handes  of  our  said  executors,  or  of  the  most 
part  of  them,  for  his  discharge  touching  the  same;  charg- 
ing him  further,  uppon  his  allegiance,  to  make  a  true 
ac£ounte  of  all  such  somes  as  shall  be  delivered  to  bis 
hands  for  this  purpose.  And,  since  we  have  now  named 
and  constituted  our  executors,  we  will  and  charge  them, 
that,  first  and  above  all  things,  as  they  will  answere  before 
God,  and  as  we  put  our  singular  trust  and  confidence  in 
them,  that  theic  cause  all  our  due  debts  that  can  reasun- 
ablic  be  showed  and  proved  before  them,  to  be  trutie  con- 
tented and  paide  as  soonc  as  they  convenyentlic  canne  or 
maie  after  our  decease,  without  longer  delay  ;  and  that 
they  doe  execute  these  points  first,  that  is  to  saie,  the 
payment  of  our  debts,  with  redrese  of  injuries,  if  any  sudi 
can  be  duly  proved,  though  to  us  they  be  unknown,  before 
any  otlier  part  of  this  our  will  and  testament,  our  buryell 
funercll  and  exequies  excepted.  Furthermore,  we  will  that 
ail  such  grants  and  gtiifts  as  we  have  made,  given,  or  pro- 
mised to  any,  which  be  not  yet  perfected,  under  our  sign 
or  any  our  seals  as  (heie  ought  to  be,  and  all  such  recom- 
penses for  exchanges,  sales,  or  any  other  thing  or  things  as 
ought  to  have  been  made  by  us,  and  be  not  yet  accom- 
plished, shall  be  perfected  in  everie  pointe  towards  all 
manner  of  men,  for  discharge  of  our  conscyeiice;  charging 
our  executors,  and  all  the  rest  of  our  counsellors,  to  see 
the  same  donne,  performed,  fynished,  and  accomplished,  in 
everie  pointe,  forescdng  that  the  said  guifts,  grants,  pro- 
Diises,  and  recompenses,  shall  appeare  to  our  executors,  or 
the  most  parte  of  them,  to  have  been  granted,  made, 
accortled,  or  promised  by  us  in  any  manner  of  wise.  Fur- 
ther, according  to  the  lawes  of  Almighty  God,  and  for  the 

A  0.iytb.(mtiietiy  love  *h>ch  wc  benv  la  mtr  toaat  l*rinw  KJward. 
''Viii.'^  ^"^  <"  ihwour  rcMknc,  wc  dpcUn  him,  wxonlinft  to  jurtie*^ 

n}ui(ir,  And  oxMCjrvtKr,  to  be  nur  Uwfull   hrirr,  and  doc 

give  and  bcquMlh  in  him  tba  KKCr^fNi  </  our  rvalna  at 
Ewglwwl  and  Iratand,  with  our  uU«  of  Frmee,  and  all  our 
doninacM,  both  on  itii*  nde  iht  anw  and  bvjond,  a  eon- 
najwat  portion  for  our  will  and  liaUwntot  to  be  rtwrtaJ. 
Alaih  w«  (ivr  unto  him  all  our  fdate,  Mirffc  of  hoaaihalj, 
artillery,  urdnancr,  tauaj-tiom,  iliipa,  cabin,  and  aU  ollwr 
tiling*  and  inplomrau  to  then  twloagitig:  And  mwij 
aJw,  and  }ewvh,  Mvia|t  audi  portioaB  ai  ihaU  mtMt  ihw 
our  U*t  will  and  teMamrtU ;  duffinft  and  naaiaaailwg 
him,  ua  painr  of  our  cunt  (twiog  h«  hath  ao  lon^  a 
father  of  u«,  and  ihal  tMir  cbrifc  labtur  and  Mudchr  la  tUa 
world  is  to  rUaUith  him  in  tbo  tmptriall  crowne  of  thlt 
nalmc  after  our  dcoaar,  in  (uch  aortr  at  mav  br  [iliawng 
to  God,  and  to  the  wraith  of  thii  mlmr,  and  to  hit  own* 
bcNWur  and  qujrri),  that  he  be  ruled  and  ordeivd,  both  ■■ 
hia  narriafrr,  and  alto  in  onlning  of  the  aiGum  of  tba 
raalme,  aa  wdl  outward  a*  inward ;  and  akoe  in  all  hk  own 
private  affiurc*,  and  in  fti^ing  of  oBcM  of  charge  bjr  tba 
adriar  and  couoarll  oT  our  rimfat  mltrvlr  bdond  Mn«a<l 
lurm,  ih«  Archhikhop  of  Canterlmrjr ;  the  Lwd  WriuUwJj, 
Chanodlour  of  Eoglond ;  the  Lord  St.  Joba.  Gnat  MaMr 
of  our  Home;  iHv  Lord  RuMaD,  IaitA  Priria  SmIi  At 
Earl  of  Hertfordt  GraM  Chambcflaio  of  Ei^laad  i  iIh 
Vtaeount  LU^  High  AdaHrall  of  Engtaad :  the  Vmkap 
Tooatall  of  Dumme;  Sir  Aathno;  Brownr,  Kni^ 
MaMar  of  onr  Ham :  Sir  William  Pafnt,  our  Chiaf 
Sorrvtarr;  Sir  AntboBj  DronT;  Sir  William  llrrhcrt; 
JuMkv  M(xii«f[up,  and  Bnaufeyt  Sir  F^wanj  Wutoa; 
Mr.  Doctor  Wotion,  and  Sir  Edward  North;  wliom  w« 
otdaine,  nanw,  and  a|>puintr.  and  \tj  ihne  prcarnU,  ngoad 
with  our  liand,  doe  make  and  ctmttiiutA  our  Prrrie  Cuunwll 
with  fMr  «aid  Hmne,  and  will  that  ittcir  hare  the  govime. 
mvBt  of  our  Moa  d(«re  Mmne  I'nncc  Fdoan),  and  of  all 
our  rraInK*.  doninyona,  and  Hibjins  and  all  the  affairra 
publiquc  and  privMr,  untill  he  ihdl  have  aoiMnplulicd  iba 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  225 

1 8th  ycare  of  his  age.  And  for  because  the  varietie,  and  A.  D.  1546. 
number  of  things,  affaires,  and  matters,  are  and  may  be  '^  vill.*^ 
such  as,  we  not  knowing  the  certaintie  of  them  before,  can- 
not  convenyentlie  prescribe  a  certaine  order  or  rule  unto 
our  said  counsellors  for  theire  behaviour  and  proceedings 
in  this  charge,  which  wee  have  now,  and  do  appoint  unto 
them,  about  our  said  sonne,  during  the  time  of  his  mi- 
norytie  aforesaid ;  we  therefore,  for  the  special  trust  and 
confidence  which  we  have  in  them,  will,  and  by  these  pre- 
sents doe  give  and  grant  full  power  and  authorytie  unto 
our  said  counsellors,  that  they  all,  or  the  more  parte  of 
them,  being  assembled  in  counsell  together,  or  if  any  of 
them  fortune  to  die,  the  more  parte  of  them  which  shall  be  for 
the  time  living,  being  assembled  in  counsell  togeather,  shall 
and  maie  make,  devise,  and  ordaine,  what  things  soever 
theie,  or  the  most  parte  of  them,  as  aforesaid,  shall,  during 
the  minorytie  of  our  said  sonne,  thinke  meete,  necessarie  or 
convenyent,  for  the  benefit,  honour,  and  suretie,  or  the 
weale,  proffit,  and  comodite  of  our  said  sonne,  his 
realmes,  domynions,  or  subjects,  or  the  discharge  of  our 
conscience,  and  the  same  things  devised,  made,  or  ordained 
by  them,  or  the  more  parte  of  them  as  aforesaid,  shall  and 
maie  lawfullie  doe^  execute,  and  accomplishe,  or  cause  to 
be  done,  executed,  and  accomplished,  by  their  discretions, 
or  the  discretions  of  the  more  parte  of  them  aforesaid,  in  as 
large  and  ample  manner  as  if  we  had  or  did  express  unto 
them,  by  a  more  spetiall  commissyon  under  our  great  scale 
of  England,  every  particular  cause  that  maie  chaunce  or 
occurre  during  the  time  of  our  Sonne's  minoritie,  and  the 
self-same  manner  of  proceeding  which  theie  shall  for  the 
same  time  thinke  meete  to  use  and  followe;  willing  and 
charging  our  said  sonne,  and  all  others  which  shall  here- 
after be  counsellors  to  our  said  sonne,  that  they  never 
charge,  molest,  trouble,  or  disquiet  our  aforesaid  coun- 
sellors, nor  any  of  them,  for  the  devising  or  doing,  nor  any 
other  person  for  the  doing  of  that  theie  shall  devise,  or  the 
more  parte  of  them  devise  or  doe,  assembled  as  is  aforesaid. 
And  we   doe  charge  expreslie  the  same  our  entirelie  be- 


am  The  CJkmnh  Hittory 

A.0ii|4Llat«d  oouiMcllor»  waA  eXMruttm,  ttuu  ihejr  ihall  ukc  fl 
l^^llJI^  ibciR  the  rukc  and  (-h«rf{c  uf  our  mkI  mmiw  wkI  haira,  t 
— ^^  all  hi»  ctiu*r«  and  affaires,  ami  of  the  whiilr  raalmr.  Aatofi  ] 
nncriheln*  all  things  ai  umlrr  him  and  in  hb  name,  until 
twr  Mid  man!  and  tivirv  Rhall  Ik-  balo«ed  in  marriaga  bgr    , 
their  adviMT,  and  ihnl  ibc  i8th  ycarr  be  rxptrvd;  viHiag   i 
and  dctjrnng  furtbrnnorc  our  aid  tnutia  ooumrilon,  aad  I 
tbto  all  uor  trutlia  ami  awured  wmnta,  and  thinUiK  all 
iMbcr  our  kmng  nifajacU,  to  aid  and  aMia  our  fjuniid  ' 
CDunaaHon  m  tha  cxacutiuD  of  the  pranban  during  Uw   | 
albtvMid  line;  not  doubting  but  lliej  will  in  all  ihi 
dcate  loe  trulia  and  uiir^tljr  ai  tboc  iball  haw  omm 
think  ihcm  vi-Il  chuKO  fcir  tlic  charga  oaaiyiicd  untii  thfo, 
•trai^tlK  charf^nft  our  nid  oounwllots  and  cxccuton,  and 
in  GtKt'a  nan»c  «c  mhiirt  ihaia,  that,  far  the  vngnkr  i 
■{wtlall  coufTilcoce  which  »a  hat«  and  aver  bad  of  thi 
lu  Imvv  a  due  and  dilij^t  tjr,  perftcte  scale,  lovc^  ■ 
afTerticm  lu  Um'  huoour,  ■urelie,  calate,  and  dignitit^if 
■aid  wonc,  and  the  good  cttatc  and  praaperilie  of  tT' 
nalm  i  and  that,  all  dvlaics  art  aparta,  tbcjr  vtU  ■ 
awjite  our  nud  oMmcllan  and  executors  to  tbe  | 
■nca  of  this  our  p«*arat  tntamcnt  and  laal  will  in  i 
parte,  as  they  will  answer  bofurv  God  at  tbe  day  of  Ji 
nwM,  turn  vnurit  Jmiiitmrt  rirof  rf  morttMU.     And  I 
thennofv,  tar  the  ipeciall  iru«t  and  nmfjrdmcc  i 
have  in  tha  Earica  of  Anmdle  and  Kmcx  thai  now  b%  I 
Sir  Thooiaa  Cheny,  Knight.  Thmunr  of  our  HotMefaoU  |  1 
Sir  John  Gtigt,  Kntgfat,  ComptroUrr  of  our  Ilouadwld  t  I 
Sir  Anthony  Wingfield,  Knight,  our  Vic»Chamb>rbiaa ;  I 
Sir   William    Peter,   Kmgbt,  one  of  our   two    . 
Scerrtanca ;  Sir  RicWd  Rich,  Knight ;  Sir  John  1 
Knight ;  Sir  Halpbe  Sadkr.  Knight ;  Sir  Thonaa  £ 
Knight  1  Sir  RidMnl  Soiilbwdl,  Sir  Edmnd  ] 
Knighu;   they,  and  aearia  of  Umnb,  riMll 
fur  tbe  aMlii^  and  anaitiiig  of  the  bmaa 
and  our  eMculurs,  when  theie  or  «ay  of  ibcm  i 
called  by  our  aid  esemlota,  or  the  Bort  parte  of  I 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  StVI 

Item^  We  bequeath  to  our  daughters  Mary  and  Eliza-  A.  D.  1546. 
beth'^s  maryages,  theie  being  marryed  to  any  outward  Po-  ^  viiL^ 

tentate  by  the  advise  of  our  said  counsellors  (if  we  bestowe 

them  not  in  our  lifetime)  10,000/.  in  monnye,  plate,  Jewells, 
and  household  stufie,  for  each  of  them,  or  a  larger  sum,  as 
to  the  discretion  of  our  executors,  or  the  more  parte  of 
them,  shall  be  thought  convenyent;  willing  them  on  my 
blessinge  to  be  ordered,  as  well  in  marriage  as  in  all  other 
lawfull  things,  by  the  advise  of  our  said  counsellors ;  and, 
in  case  they  will  not,  then  the  som  to  be  mynished  at  the 
counsellors  discretion. 

Further,  our  will  is,  that  from  the  first  houer  of  our 
death  untill  such  tyme  as  the  said  counsellors  can  provyde 
cyther  of  them  or  both  some  honourable  marriages,  theie 
shall  have  each  of  them  3000/.  uUra  reprisas  to  live  on ; 
willing  and  charging  the  said  counsellors  to  lymit  and 
appointe  to  either  of  them  such  sage  officers  and  mynisters 
for  ordering  thereof  as  it  maie  be  imployed,  both  to  our 
honour  and  theirs.  And  for  the  great  love,  obedyence, 
chastnes  of  life,  and  wisdome,  being  in  our  forenamed  wife 
and  queenc,  we  bequeath  unto  hir,  for  hir  propper  use, 
and  as  it  shall  please  hir  to  order  it,  3000/.  in  plate, 
Jewells,  and  stuff  of  household,  besides  such  apparel!  as  it 
shall  please  her  to  take  of  such  as  she  hath  already :  and 
further,  we  give  unto  her  1000/.  in  monnye,  with  the 
injoying  of  her  dowrie  and  jointure,  according  to  our 
grante  by  acte  of  parliament.  Furthermore,  for  the  kind- 
ness and  good  service  that  our  said  executors  have  shewed 
unto  us,  wc  give  and  bequeath  unto  each  of  them  such 
soms  of  monnye,  or  the  value  of  the  same,  as  hereafter 
ensueth  :  First,  to  the  Archbishop  of  Canterbury  500 
markes;  to  the  Lord  Wryotheslie  500/.;  to  the  Lord  St. 
John  500/.;  to  the  Lord  Russell  500/.;  to  the  Erie  of 
Hertford  500/.;  to  the  Viscount  Lisle  500/.;  to  the  Bishop 
of  Duresmc  300/.;  to  Sir  Anthony  Browne  300/.;  to  Sir 
William  Paget  300/.;  to  Sir  Anthony  Dennye  300/.;  to 
Sir  William  Herbert  300/.;  to  Justice  Mountague  300/.; 
to  Justice  Bromley  300/.;   to  Sir  Edward  North  300/.;  to 


Tht  Churrh  Ihtlutx, 

A.&is»».Sir  Eilward  Wrtlon  300/-;    in  Mr  \\KXar  Wotlon  300I.: 
''viu''  "'*'  '""•■  '*"■  M*^""   '"**  ""^  f«»our  Uwl  we  han-  lo  our 

tnwtle  nnimvllors,  and  mhcr  «»iir  •rr*«DU  WrwifttT  follow* 

ing,  «rc  p««  and  lic<|Uc«ih  unlu  ihcm  mkIi  kmbims  of 
nomfj,  or  the  value  iht-raof.  m  h  tottad  uppon  tbvir  hcaiWt 
Pint,  lo  Uw  Eric  of  K«wi  loo/.i  i»  Sir  ThooiM  CIliMy 
30o/.t  la  Um  Lord  Herbert  jooL;  to  Sir  Juhn  Gmge  aooL% 
to  Sir  ThonuH  Seymour  looi.;  to  John  Gale*  sooJLi  w 
Sir  Thoou  Umcw,  Knight,  loo/.;  to  Hir  Th^mu  S|Mk* 
100  ■larii*!  to  Sir  Phillip  Hubbie  loo  markn:  to  Sir 
TboBMs  Pwtoa  100  rorrkv*  i  lo  Sir  Mauritv  Ildrklia  lio 
mcrkM:  to  Sir  Halpb  Sadlrr  100/.;  10  Sir  Thoaiu  CtrAn 
aoo/.;  to  Sir  Pvtn  Mvwtu  loo  mrrinj  tu  Edwuil  Brf> 
liofituun  300  nnica;  to  Thooiu  Audlie  300  mrrlutt  to 
Edmund  Harmra  100  mcrkn;  loJohn  l*«ine  looawrlH*; 
to  llatry  Nevill  100/.;  to  Wtlliun  SyobartK  loof.:  lo 
RicJunl  Cooke  too/.;  to  John  Otbumr  ioo/.[  lo  David 
Vioccot  locJ-i  t(i  Jonm  RuOirth,  Kveper  ti  our  Ilouw 
herv,  100  Bwrfcn ;  to  Richard  Cicvll,  VoiNan  of  nut  Bi)1m% 
100  merlin;  to  Thuoua  Sti!rah«ilfl,  Grome  of  nur  Hobo^ 
too  iDvrkn;  to  Johit  Rowland,  Pagv  d(  oiir  Robea,  jo/.: 
lu  ibc  Erie  of  AroBdle,  Lord  Chambrriynr,  aoc^.:  m  Sir 
ADibcmy  WnffieU,  Vice-ChuibeHyar,  aoo/.;  lo  Sir  Ed- 
mund Pfdiham  aoo/.;  to  Sir  Richard  Rich  loo/.;  lo  Sir 
John  Ilakrr  ]oo/. ;  Ui  Sir  Richard  SoulhwH)  loo/,  t  to 
Mr.  IX^tor  Owen  100/.  i  to  Mr  IXoctor  Wtndf  loo/L; 
10    Mr.   Doctur   Crainrv    loo/.;     lo    TbiMiia*    Abnp    100 

merhm  to  Pauickr 100  mrrin;    to  —  AjrWu  too 

Mlcrlica;  to  timrjr  E<w«sl  100  mrrin ;  to  Rirhan)  Frrrm 
100  bnHv;  III —  HuIUmI  100  nwrkM:  lo  the  (our 
OvotlMiMfi  Uabm  at  our  Chamber  (being  dm\y  waitert) 
aooL  m  all.  And  »r  will  almv  thai  our  ancutnrm,  or  iha 
■Don  puw  of  tbcaa,  ihall  giv*  ordcn  tar  ihv  paymint  of 
mtek  lugaeym  aa  the;  ihan  thnhr  mrvlr  lo  auch  our  mdi* 

trgan  by  thn  our  (xvaeni  tgiameoi.     Timaiiy,  thi*  |i 
wrjiliiiy  IB  paper  wr  onlainr  and  maka  ow  laH  viD  and 
larfameat ;  and  will  ihr  mam  be  wfulaJ  and  tafcan  to  all 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  229 

intents  and  purposes  for  our  good,  strong,  available,  most  a.  D.  1546. 
pcrfecte  and  last  will  and  testament;  and  doe  declare  all  ^^Jlf^ 

other  wills  and  testaments  made  at  any  time  by  us  to  be 

voide  and  of  none  effect. 

In  witness  whereof  we  have  signed  it  with  our  hand,  in 
our  [)alace  of  Westminster,  the  30th  deac  of  December,  in 
the  yeare  of  our  Lord  God  1546,  after  the  computation  of 
the  Church  of  England,  and  of  our  raigne  the  38th  yeare, 
being  present,  and  called  to  be  witnesses,  the  persons  which 
have  wrytten  their  names  hereunder. 


John  Gate.    William  Saintbabbe.  Robert  Hewicke. 

William  Clerke. 

Richard  Cooke Patrick.     Edward  Harman. 

George  Owen. 
Henry  Nevill.     David  Vincent.      Thomas  Wendy, 

51.  This  the  king's  will  was  drawn  up  some  two  when  thia 
years  since,  before  he  went  to  Boulogne,  as  is  inti-^adT"* 
mated  in  a  passage,  "  Be  it  beyond  the  sea,"  &c., 
which  now  was  only  fairly  written  over  again,  with- 
out any  alteration,  save  that  Stephen  Gardiner  was 
expunged  from  being  one  of  his  executors*.  It 
seems,  that  formerly,  finding  none  substituted  in 
Gardiner's  room,  he  appointed  seventeen  executors, 
that  so  a  decisive  vote  might  avoid  equality  of  voices. 
And  although,  in  this  will,  provision  is  made  for 
"  multitude  of  masses  to  be  said  for  his  soul,"  yet 
one^  pretending  to  extraordinary  intelligence  herein, 
would  persuade  us,  that  king  Henry  intended  in  his 

a  [Burnet's  Reformat.  I.  p.     ditary  Right,  &c.  App.  VIII.] 
349.  ed.  fol.   See  also  the  copy         ^  Fox,  in  his  Acts  and  Mo- 
of  this  will  in  Bedford's  Here-     numents,  II.  p.  647. 

Q  3 

2M0  Tht  Cfmrth  Uutvry 

A.a  ifAbltcr  dsjni  in  thornugfa  a  reformation.  a«  Dott 
VIII.     left  ooe  nuMi  in  the  land,  if  ik-oth  hiut  not  p 

rg«^  ffS.  Amongit  hii  MrranU  in  onlinanr  altfttdnnce, 
tail.  to  whom  l^ianea  wvro  be()UCAlhcd.  Iticban)  CvciL 
tlKTt'  named  "  yeoman  of  the  robe*,"  ms  tbc  btber 
to  Wiltiniii  (V-ril.  uftiTworda  baroa  of  Buiffalvjr,  and 
loni  tn-ajiurer  of  Kofflaad.  Tbomai  St«nibi4d. 
**  gTuoni  of  the  rubes."  and  aftermnlf  of  the  bed- 
chamber («  kiiiff  K*)wanl  VI.*,  wac  one  of  them  who 
tnutslated  tbe  I'tnlnu  into  Knf^lah  metre,  being  tlusB 
■cooontcd  an  exrellont  jtoet ;  though  he  who  wars 
bajn  in  tbote  dart  descrretb  not  itt  in  our  age. 
Now.  Mwing  by  the  ruli**  of  jtutice,  and  the  king^i 
own  appointment,  hi*  debu  were  to  be  paid  befim 
bis  IcftsricM ;  and  aetnng  many  of  bin  pcnotial  dtdita 
remained  uuaitiafied  till  the  days  of  queen  RItiabKllt 
probably  moat  of  thne  l^;aeieii  were  nerer  paid, 
«q>oeially  to  inTerior  penons:  ai  if  it  were  hoDoor 
enougli  for  thtnu  to  have  nc4i  pum  liequcatbod  unto 
though  tterer  beatowed  npoa  them. 
Mmumbii  53.  Whereafi  nunition  in  thi«  will  of  "a  mooumont 
■haUivbj*'  well  imwanU  am)  almnrt  nuwle."  it  if  the  mmo 
iHniT^  wbirh  ninliiml  WoW-y  bnilt  for  king  llenrr,  and 
not  for  liim*cir.  ta  \»  rommonir  nfMirted.  Wbiiw- 
fore,  whetvan  tberv  gneth  a  talc,  that  king  llmjy, 
one  day  finding  the  canliuU  with  the  workmen 
making  hii  moatmwat.  dwHild  ny  nnto  him.  "Tumble 
~  youncir  in  thii  tomb  whibtt  ytm  an>  alire;  for. 
**  when  dead,  you  ahall  never  lie  tborein  ;~  it  n  a 
merv  Brtion.  tlie  rmnlinal  originally  intending  tbe 
«inv  for  the  king,  a*  ap|imieth  bjr  tbe  ancient  in- 

■  Ab  intiaw  nbifalo  "  Bdbvh  CiM.  p.  ji%. 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  281 

scription    thereupon^    wherein    king    Henry    wa8A-^»546. 
styled  "lord''  (not  king)  "of  Ireland,"  without  addi-  ^  viS^ 
tion    of  "supreme  head  of   the   church,"  plainly 
shewing  the  same  was  of  ancient  date  in  the  days  of 
the  cardinal. 

54.  Whereas  the  lady  Mary  and  Elizabeth,  their  why  hit 
marriages  are  so  severely  conditioned,  that,  if  made  at  liberty 
without  consent  of  the  council,  they  were  to  forfeit  Jjjj^^ 
their  right  to  the  crown ;  men  interpret  it  as  pro- 
vided  in  terrorem^  and  not  otherwise.     Yet  this 
clause  was  it  which  afterwards  put  so  plausible  a 
pretence  on  Wyat  his  rebellion ;  which,  though  made 

of  rotten  cloth,  had  notwithstanding  a  good  colour 
thereon.  Now,  whereas  the  king^s  neices  (the 
daughters  to  Mary  his  younger  sister)  were  not 
clogged  in  this  his  will  with  such  restrictions  con- 
cerning their  marriages,  the  plain  reason  was, 
because  both  of  them  were  already  married  before 
this  will  was  made:  Frances,  the  elder,  to  Henry 
Gray,  marquess  Dorset,  afterward  duke  of  Suffolk ; 
and  Eleanor,  the  younger,  to  Henry  Clifford,  earl  of 

55.  The  portion  of   but  ten   thousand  pounds  Ten  dm- 
apiece  left  to  his  two  daughters,  was  not  much  the  porcioii 
unproportionable  to  the  value  of  money,  as  it  went  Jji,''^ 
in  that  age,  though  a  sum  small  for  such  an  use  in 

our  days.  And  I  have  heard,  that  queen  Elizabeth, 
being  informed  that  Dr.  Pilkington,  bishop  of 
Durham,  had  given  ten  thousand  pounds  in  marriage 
with  his  daughter ;  and,  being  offended  that  a  pre- 
late's daughter  should  equal  a  princess  in  portion, 
took  away  one  thousand  pounds  a  year  from  that 

d  Godwin,  in  Henry  VIII.  p.  aoo.  [^155.  ed.  1653.] 



The  Chunk  HiiUin/ 

■  bMrnprir.  uw]  nuripn^tl  it  fnr  the  Ix>ttcr  munta 
of  the  ffnmMm  tif  B<-rwirk. 

56.  V'cnr  nim-h  of  hi«  uwii  arliitmrinvw  ^PP*^ 
^ thb  will  of  kitiff  llvnnr.  (•titsilinj*  the  rntwn  kcm 

to  his  ovrit  fanrj,  ngniiut  all  rifflit  aiit)  n-owm. 
firrt,   hiiw  unjiut  «ba  it.  tlut  hii   fpm«h>  iame  i 
quivii  K>thariii«.*  Pnrr,  hi§  Uwt   wife,   (luul  be 
nnj,)  nhmilcl  itihi-rit  thi<  (-n>wti  ttcfnn*  Marr  luid  I 
nhi'lh.  h»  olilont  finiijrhtoni  hj  bis  fnnnor  witm! 
Mnrj  oinl   ElJzalifth  wi-n>  n»t  his  Inv-ful   cliiMn 
how  canit'  tlivy  by  uiy  rijiffat  tu  the  <Townf  If  I 
Inwltil  rhildtvii.  why  wns  thi*ir  birthriffbt  mod  t 
niority  not  obMTYiHl  in  rocct^sinn  f  Wrll  it  wu  I 
them  thai  Hi'tinr  HtxMy,  hi«  natnnl  noii,  (but  i 
of  supemattirnl  auil  vxtmonlinafr  friilownienti^)  i 
dnul:  olhrrwiw*  (aotnt'  misfHTt)  hod  he  nirvjvod  li 
VA^nxA  th«>  Sixth,  wi*  mif;lit  pmsoitly  havo  I 
of  a  Iciiiff  llmry  Uh'  Niiittt.  so  jpemt  ww  bla  I 
■AKtion,  and  to  unlimited  bis   power  to 

57.  Hut  thv  Knnd  injunr  in   this   his  i 
Is,  that  ht*  (juito  j«sM*th  uTtT  the  childnii  of  ] 
purt.  his  ddcst  sisUT,  raarricHl  into  HootUnd,  i 
all  ber  insuc.  tkot  so  much  as  making  the  loHl  I 
tioG  tbemit 

M.  GmU  indeed,  wbiti  tbto  will  waa  int  i 
waa  thf  antipathy  wtiirh.  for  U»e  pieai 
Um  against  thi>  Scotrh,  with  wbon  Ukeo  Iw  i 
aetoal  war;  tfaitufih  at  other  times,  whiA  in  | 
humour,  vrry  ruuruwus  to  Us  kindrvd  of  that  rx- 
tracti'Hi.  Kor,  most  snru  it  ii^  that  when  ftlai^orvt 
Duagtas,  bis  •btcr's  dangfater,  vaa  married  to  Mau 
tbew,  carl  of  Leuiux,  fav  publicly  prolvaaed,  that.  **  in 
**  eaao  Us  own  iamo  blkd,  h«  thcmM  be  tight  gla 

CENT.  XVI.  of  Britain.  23S 

"  some  of  her  body  should  succeed  to  the  crown  f  as  a.d.  1546. 
it  came  to  pass®.  ^  viiil7 

59.  Of  the  eleven  witnesses,  whose  names  are  sub-  Legacees 
scribed  to  his  will,  the  nine  first  are  also  legatees  J^7i^nSb! 
therein,  and,  therefore,  (because  reputed  parties,)  not 
sufficient  witnesses,  had  it  been  the  will  of  a  private 
person.     But  the  testaments  of  princes  move  in  a 
higher  sphere  than  to  take  notice  of  such  punctilios ; 

and,  foreigners  being  unfit  to  be  admitted  to  such 
privacies,  domestical  servants  were  preferred,  as  the 
properest  wtnesses,  to  attest  an  instrument  of  their 
lord  and  master. 

60.  It  is  but  just  with  God,  that  he  who  had  tooLitdeofhis 
much  of  his  will  done,  when  living,  should  have  the  J^roS^' 
less,  when  dead,  of  his  testament  performed.     The 
ensuing   reformation   swept   away  the   masses  and 
chantry-priests  founded  to  pray  for  his  soul.     The 
tombs  of  Henry  the  Sixth  and  Edward  the  Fourth 

(the  one  the  last  of  Lancaster,  the  other  the  first 
of  York,  the  titles  of  both  which  houses  met  in 
this  Henry,)  remain  at  this  day  in  statu  quo  priuSj 
without  any  amendment.  Where,  by  the  way,  seeing 
in  this  will  king  Henry  the  Sixth  is  styled  his  uncle, 
I  cannot  make  out  the  relation  in  the  common  sense 
of  the  word,  except  any  will  say,  that  kings'  uncles 
(as  their  cousins)  are  oft  taken  in  a  large  and  favour- 
able accoption.  But  the  main  wherein  his  will  missed 
the  intent  is,  in  that  the  Scotch  line,  neglected  and 
omitted  by  him,  (ordinary  heirs  are  made  in  heaven, 
heirs  to  crowns  in  the  heaven  of  heavens,)  came  in 
their  due  time  to  the  throne,  their  undoubted  right 
thereunto  recognized  by  act  of  parliament. 

c  Henry  lord  Darnley.  her  sod,  fiather  to  king  James. 

S34  anU  CAmnA  Hklmy  smn  v. 

A.D.  •}««      61.  AA«r  t2w  nuking  of  this  hii  will,  he  mnived 

viii.'^  %   fall   uoitth,  falling    ininuHliatt'lj  nick,     lie   had 

aii«tMMa,M»fiMeorpM,  ■    body   and    half,   very  abdominoai 

'^t^^  *^  unwieldy  with  hi ;  and  it  wai  d««th  to  him  Ui 

^  *"*^  be  dieted,  lo  great  hia  appetite ;  and  death  to  him 

not  to  be  dieted,  ao  great  bis  rorpuk'uej.     But  now 

all  hifl  hnmonn  repaired  to  one  ptarp,  and  tettleil 

tbumwlrea  in  an  old  lore  b  bis  tbifi;b.  whiob  quit^klj 

grew  to  be  greatly  inilanicd.     Here  flame  met  with 

firu,  the  anguish  of  Xhe  ware  with  an  hot  and  la»- 

patient  temper ;  *o  that,  during  hb  aiekDeM.  few  of 

hb  aemnta  dunrt  app roorh  bta  preienoe.     Hi*  fkf- 

rfaiaii%  giving  him  oTer,  de«n>«l  some,  who  tondcmd 

the  good  of  bis  scml,  to  admonish  him  of  bla  iwtete. 

Bat  mcb,  wfao  could  fly  with  good  tidinga,  wodU 

not  halt  te  him  with  ill  news.     Besidea,  kldy  a  Inr 

wia  made^  that  none  should  i^eak  any  thli^  of  Cte 

Ung't  death.     Which  act,  thoogb  only  intenM  to 

rvtraoeh  the  pfodicUons  and  mode  pfoplwdaa  of 

■oothsayen^  yeC  now  all  the  ooortien.  glail  of  M 

legal  a  oorert  for  their  oowanUoe.  alleged  it.  to 

ciruw  thenuplve*  to   inform  the  king  of  his  a{>- 

proaching  end.     At  but  nr  Anthony  Denny  went 

boldly  unto  him,  and  plainly  iir(|aaint«d  bim  of  hia 

dying   omdition :    whi-n.-u}K)n    orebbisbop   CraDMar 

was,  by  tbt>  king  his  ck'sin',  snit  for,  Xo  give  bim  tonw 

gfaosUy  oounsel  and  comfort. 

P''fcf*.        6S.  Bnt  befbro  Cnuuner,  then  being  at  Croydoai. 

br  if-rf>.  could  eome  to  bim.  be  was  altogetlMr  speechlcM^ 

*"'  '      but  BDt  iwctoi    The  uefaWihop  cutfaoctt>d  him  te 

pfawe  all  hia  traat  In  God*s  nwretca  thorough  Chriat. 

and  bcsougbt  him.  that,  if  bo  oouM  not  in  words,  be 

Would  by  H>nH>  wgii  or  othft  t«'»tifT  thi»  bta  hope; 

who  then  wringvd  tbu  arrbbl«liop'N  band  as  bard  as 

fKKT,  XVI.  tif  Britain.  9SS 

he   could,  and  shortly  after  expired,   having   livedA.D.is46- 

l8  Henry 

fifty  five  years  and  seven  months,  and  thereof  viii. 
reigned  thirty  seven  years,  nine  months,  and  six  Jan.  18. 

63.  As  for  the  report  of  Sanders,  that  king  Henry,  i.ying 
perceiving  the  pangs  of  approaching  death,  called  for 

a  great  bowl  of  white  wine,  and,  drinking  it  ofl^ 
should  say  to  the  company,  "  We  have  lost  all ;" — it 
ia  enough  to  say,  It  is  a  report  of  Sanders.  As  loud 
a  lie  is  it  what  he  afBnneth,  that  the  last  words 
heard  from  his  mouth  were,  "  The  monks !  the 
"  monks!"  and  so  gave  up  the  ghost.  This  may  go 
hand  in  hand  with  what  another  catholic^  relates, — 
that  a  black  dog  (he  might  as  truly  have  said  a  blue 
one)  licked  up  his  blood,  whilst  the  stench  of  his 
corpse  could  be  charmed  with  no  embalming; 
though,  indeed,  there  was  no  other  noisomeness  than 
what  necessarily  attendeth  on  any  dead  body  of 
equal  corpulency. 

64.  Vices  most  commonly  charged  on  his  memory  iiii  vum 
are  :  nrst,  covetottsness.   Me  was  an  emment  mstance 

to  verily  the  observation,  omnis  prodigm  est  avarus ; 
vast  his  profusiveness,  (coming  a  fork  after  a  rake,) 
not  only  spending  the  great  treasure  left  him  by  his 
father,  but  also  vast  wealth  beside,  and  yet  ever  in 
want,  and  rapacious  to  supply  the  same.  Secondly, 
cruelty ;  being  scarce  ever  observed  to  pardon  any 
noble  person  whom  he  condemned  to  death.  I  find 
but  two  black  swans  in  all  the  current  of  his  reign 
that  tasted  of  his  fevour  herein.  And,  therefore, 
when  Arthur  lord  Lisle,  imprisoned,  and  daily  ex- 
pecting death  in  the  Tower,  was  unexpectedly  set 

f  Kiclmra  Hall  in  his  MS.  Life  of  bishop  Fisher. 

S30  Thr  (kurrA  JlUtary 

A,tt.tf4/^fnt>,  Lf  ifutaiitiT'  died  of  Ridden  y>v';  m>  UmI  I 
'viii^  M-enifl  kiiiff  IU*i»7*i  pity  proved  iw  mortal  u  him 
crui'ltj-.  Thinik,  tponiommat ;  wfaioh  cmiinot  bo  tnt- 
cnoLtl.  Hut  tbuw  fbullB  wcru  (if  Dot  awr)  enn 
pouoi)  with  bii  virttius,  of  t-alour,  bouatr,  ^ 
leftmii^  Mid  love  ur  IttinuMl  mvn,  Mnrco  otte  d^ 
wouiog  A  mltrc  all  hia  davii. 
WI7  u«  65.  "Hic  monument  mcntinoutl  In  bU 
11.WW1  **  almoftt  audit,"  tnu  nercr  all  immIu,  but  lofl  i 
jm.'*'  fret;  whori-fif  many  rrawmii  am  nntdervd. 
imputv  it  to  the  very  waat  of  workmon,  t 
finUIi  it,  arcordiug  to  Uw  axartoeM  where  with  it 
WA8  bfpin :  a  conoeit,  in  my  mind.  littlo  bettor  tham 
fcaitdalum  tecmti,  and  very  domjnitory  tn  the  art  and 
inj;i-nuitT  of  onr  tge.  Otb«rs  more  tnily  aarribe  it  to 
iba  cuatlilMM  tbcrooC  wliicti  dcterrud  b»  luuc— ow 
ftwaSIlMlhvofH^  Indeed,  kbtg  Henry  the  Seva^ 
b  ereethift  hli  own  monimient  in  hie  chtpol  at 
Wc«tmin»t4?r,  did  ihertin  Ht  a  pattern  of  d(«)Wr  for 
all  p(Mtoritv  to  imitate.  And  y«t  Sander*  tells  its'. 
that  4|uc<en  Mary  had  a  great  mind  to  make  ap  hi* 
tofuK  but  duntt  Dot,  for  fear  a  ratholir  ■Sould  wem 
to  rouutetianoc  the  memory  of  odo  drinj;  in  ojivn 
■ebfann  with  the  rhurrb  of  Itomt>.  A»  for  hts  im|ier> 
feet  moDument,  it  wait  Iiehehl  like  the  Imutbu  fl^ 
tlve,  bvarin^  no  fruit,  and  runibering  the  j 
(I  m«an  the  chapel  wbt^rvin  It  Mood;)  and  t 
it  wan,  nnce  the?*'  civil  wan,  took  down  1 
by  «drr  of  |4irltameat. 
^m4m  66.  In  the  rvign  of  qneen  Mary  it  wmn  n?|K>rtvd. 
pm».      that  canlinal  Pole  (whim  ipleeo  generally  vi-ntvd 

■  0«dwi«  ii  HMfy  Vtll., 

fclfcii.  p.  1131  =  154.] 

>  D»  HdtiM 


of  Britain. 


itself  against  dead  men's  bodies)  had  a  design,  with  a.  d.  1546. 
the  principal  clergy  of  England,  to  take  up  and  bum  ^  viil^ 
the  body  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth.  This  plot  is  said 
to  be  discovered  by  Dr.  Weston,  dean  of  Westminster''. 
But  because  Weston  was  justly  obnoxious  for  his 
scandalous  living,  (for  which  at  that  time  he  stood 
committed  to  the  Tower,)  and  bare  a  personal 
grudge  to  the  cardinal,  his  report  was  the  less 
credited,  as  proceeding  from  revenge  and  desire  to 
procure  his  own  enlargement. 

67.  Indeed,  when  a  vault,  seven  years  since,  was  The  bonM 
pierced  in  the  midst  of  the  quire  at  Windsor,  therein  Hen^ 
to  inter  the  corpse  of  king  Charles,  they  lighted  on*****^* 
two  coffins  therein.     Now  (though  no  memory  alive 
could    reach    the    same,    yet)    constant    tradition, 
seconded  Mith  a  coincidency  of  all  signs  and  circimi- 
stances^  concluded  these  coffins  to  contain  the  bones 
of  king  Henry  VIII.,  and  his  dear  queen  Jane  Sey- 
mour.    And  yet  the  bigness  of  the  coffin  (though 
very  great)  did  not  altogether  answer  that  giant-like 
proj)ortion  which  posterity  hath  fancied  of  him". 

^  Fox's  Acts  and  Monu- 
ments, p.  2102. 

'  See  more  hereof  at  the 
burial  of  king  Charles  I.,  [in 
the  hitter  pages  of  this  His- 

"  [The  opinion  which  is  ge- 
nerally entertained  of  the  un- 
wieldly  size  and  corpulency  of 

this  king,  and  to  which  Fuller 
has  before  referred,  is  directly 
contradicted  by  Grafton,  a  very 
credible  and  respectable  au- 
thority. According  to  this 
writer,  the  king  was  of  per- 
sonage '*  tall  and  mighty,  not 
"  gross,  but  in  a  comely  pro- 
"  portion."  p.  1282.] 













■AVING  formerly  proved  at  large'', 
that  it  is  lawful  for  any,  and  expedient 
for  me,  to  have  infant  patrons  for  my 
books,  let  me  give  an  account  why 
tliis  parcel  of  my  history  was  set  apart  for  your 
honour,  not  being  cast  by  chance,  but  led  by  choice 
to  this  my  dedication. 

=>  [\\')lliaiti  Jameii,  heir   to  more   noble    or    loyal    family 

Jiini^s,  third   earl    of  North-  could  not  have  been  selected 

iinipton,  and  onlv  son  by  hU  to  whom  our  author  could  have 

lirst   iiifc,    Isiilietla,    daughter  paid  a  more  deserved  compli- 

and  coheir  of  Richard  Sack.  ment.  The  young  lord's  grand- 

\i\\e,  earl  uf  Dorset.     This  in-  father,  Spencer,  was  an  especial 

fiint    patron    of    Fuller    died  favourite  and  a  constant  com- 

vuung,  at  what  nge  I  have  not  panioD  to  king  Charles,  both 

lit-en  able  to  ascertain,  but  pro-  before  and  after  his  accession 

bubly  ijuite  in  his  infancv.     A  to  the  crown.     "  Two  things," 



Pint,  1  rosolvod  with  mjHelf  to  Mloet  i 
l«troa  for  this  my  Iluftonr  uf  AbbeT*,  vliaie  i 

^1  UayA,  ••  be  WDuU  1mt«  of  Um  j^tmat,  tmd  w  klBa^ 

~"  ||ladawhli;i.i:liuNik<  hlii  tfca  hamit  wf  tW  M^y 

Ua  lUrvcl  •■•  refmcd    all    qaaflct,    ^rfal^ 

"cMtar,  b«iiH|  not  oolj  cUcf  "  He  would  nol  owe  Ui  KfrM 

"MitlaBW  of   Ui«    Hcary  '•  Uum  wtwksd  forMuith* 

••VIII.-*  bea-ckuBbvr.bat  Uw  ■  <rwti.'    (Sm  Lknrd't  Mcm. 

'•  iKini  nuui  b  lui  bvoor.  hail  155,  ud  ■  aobb  Aiwrtw  aff 

•  not  a  ilK«-btd»M  of  Mmy  U*  lw  lard  C 

"  laiid,(MlkanwwMiMliiaU  boo.  111.  p.  459.)    JumwIW 

"  Ui  mdMt  MtHml  ««ato,)  cUnt  of  tlw  Ibu  •«■,  (An* 

"  thaacb,"  wnh  nj  antiwr.  of  wbcM  wen  thu  dav  cIm^ 

.  Mra  ing  b  tW  laU  witfc  Mr  C 

1.  Id.  tWr,)  aaeaaaJing  to  Ua  ttal» 

•*  aloMina.  &e.     H*  cmild  not  and  go—wad,  aaal  a  iTWwpaf 

**  andnra  jaatii^  wftfc  rali^ao,  in  tlw  nbab  la  dan*  Ika  4mI 

"  Uim  baing  ao  paopla,  of  bodjr  of  Ua  (adiar.  a  ta^Mal 

**  wharaligiaawanr.MlMd  wfcM  ibn  rafoaad ;  m  ««•• 

"Mrioaa   and   gnmt  Uwo^ita  dat,  brnMUun  tana  tba  laat 

••  of  Uuir  Namra  ;     aur  an  Mian  bto  fUl.      H«  aha 

*■  oatli,  oa  aajr  aienit  jodidal  a%aa&ad  UaMclf  bf  kk  fetm. 

"  and  Kibonn  owafaaa,  often  twrj  in  dcfaooa  of  tfca  raval 

**  lyrii^    tku    of    prlaM  eatiw,  wtpttUij  bi  ilw  raoaf 

"  llaar^r.   '  tfcat  be   kttmw   an  of  Banbuiy  caalla,  wWn  W 

"  |a<Be  or  *ala«,  to  b*  woa  or  bad  loft  bJa  bravo  bnilMr.  tit 

"loBi.tbaiwaawartliaaaatb."'  WJliaai  Coaapia*.  h  Ua  llf«< 

TUa  eucUeal  aoUoana.  after  taaaal.    A  eoUbr  whaaa  afaly 

m^tmhoMj  wm   Mafaablid.    aad    wlaw 

ad  oifacUlV  bravm  ma  aMal  to  bit  ola^. 

ibadTUwar,  Ha  difaiidail Am  ^da a^hiat 

■kad  or  da.  «U  tbe  iioww  wbieb  iba  aaa^ 

par-  oaald  briaf  agalael  hiai.  aa- 

1  Mat  podag    Ua   aartaa    irbif 

Ma  UloM  Iba  Wd  of  battle  danger  «ia  tbo  ymitM.  mA 

ta  tba  Moiaenc  aad   tat*  «f  — -'-'-'-'-g  tbe  brtocb  wbaa 

rietoryi  whba  bodyof  1100  aU  WI  aravad  Uol    "Aafaaa 
"of    aarriaaf     ear*    1Jot< 
gthal  Jr  WaObm 

Md  MlUallr.  aad  eefwcUlr 
brhkeaadaeibilbad    ' 
b  arbUi  ba  nbiairad 

tm  aind  dngaaaa 
I  wmmnj  oa  Betb 

wba  M««  ibas  triplad  Ua  « 

b«a.     A  boMr  vkMT.    b«l  "  bad.  •«  gtwi  Ua  rfgj 

dartr  piiiiliaiail.  by  tU  Bfc  »  aar  lor  a  waafc  af  tba 

of  tU*    gallaat    omb,    wba^  "  ■•  aawaariad  Ua  diSL., 

cbaigbg  atlbabaadofU*  -Ibalbahad    vn^J^l 

trmna.  waa  tbraan  fton  Ua  •■  tinea  aewr  4n.  die  hII 

ban  atb  III iiaaiB  -a  "       *     ^^ 



cestor  was  not  only  of  credit  and  repute  in  the 
reign,  but  also  of  favour  and  esteem  in  the  affection 
of  king  Henry  the  Eighth. 

Secondly,  he  should  be  such  (if  possible  to  be 
found)  who  had  no  partage  at  all  in  abbey  lands  at 
their  dissolution,  that  so  his  judgment  might  be 
unbiassed  in  the  reading  hereof. 

Both  my  requisites  have  happily  met  in  your 
honour,  whose  direct  ancestor,  sir  William  Compton, 
was  not  only  chief  gentleman  of  the  bed-chamber  to 
the  aforesaid  king,  but  also  (as  a  noble  pen*^  writing 
his  life  informeth  us)  the  third  man  in  his  favour  in 
the  beginning  of  his  reign  ;  yet  had  he  not  a  shoe- 

**  so  eminent  his  piety  ;  that 
'*  he  acted  all  things  by  com- 
"  mon  council  and  consent, 
'^  such  his  wariness  and  pru- 
*'  dence."  (Memoirs, p. 355.)  An 
undaunted  loyalist  and  a  good 
churchman,  honoured  by  the 
pitiful  spite  of  Cromwell,  who 
nicknamed  him  '*  the  sober 
'*  young  man,  and  the  godly 
**  cavalier/'  When  sir  Wil- 
liam could  no  longer  serve  the 
father  he  transferred  his  alle- 
giance to  the  son,  being  a  main 
instrument  in  the  restoration 
which  happily  he  lived  to  see 
accomplished,  dying  in  1663. 
Equal  to  their  brother  in  loy- 
alty were  sir  Charles  and  Spen- 
cer Compton,  the  former  sur- 
prising Breston  castle  with  only 
six  men,  the  other  serving  his 
king  and  his  country  with  an  un- 
blemished character ;  of  whom 
it  was  said^  "nemo  unquam  vel 

"  mussitavit  male."  Last  of  all 
was  Dr.  Henry  Compton,  the 
munificent  bishop  of  London, 
under  whom  St.  Paul's  cathe- 
dral was  begun  and  finished. 
Never  in  any  family  was  the 
adage  more  truly  fulfilled, 
*'  fortis  creantur  fortibus  et 
"  bonis :"  —  grandfather  and 
father  and  sons,  all  preeminent 
in  loyalty,  all  unblemished  in 
reputation.  As  in  their  veins 
ran  the  blood  of  the  greatest 
nobility  in  England,  so  they 
equalled  the  nobleness  of  their 
blood  by  the  nobleness  of  their 
behaviour.  And  though  their 
extraction  was  high,  reaching 
even  to  the  very  highest,  yet 
was  it  the  lowest  quality  about 

^  In  several  dedicatory  epi- 
stles in  my  Pisgah  Sight. 

<^  The  lord  Herbert  in  his 
history  of  Henry  VIII.,  p.  8. 

R  2 


btcbet  of  abbey  laiKl.  tli( 
bunxl  bitii  nve  bin  nwii 



D^   noUiinir 
ftb«tim'itct' ;  a 
paternal  i-nlaW,  fu 



DM  what  sinoo  bj  acrcaiina  (if  matcbm  hatli 
Ulilo  it. 

Thwi  aro  toq  tbo  pcmto  doaigiMi)  for  my  | 
ami  I  Wliovi-  Tory  fi-w  (if  ant)  in  KtifilaiMl  c 
thvir  batiiln  in  the  aame  baain.  to  liavo  no  Mmw 
land*  Btickinx  to  their  finf^ets ;  and  tliiu  Itoing  fivraC 
fnim  bfinj;  a  inirtj,  in  duo  time  jron  will  bo  flttci*  la 
U'  8  jud)rr>.  to  )«.iH  un)«rtial  aenteooe  on  what  i$ 
wri(t«*u  oci  thin  Kubjt'Ct. 

And  mtw  let  me  make  ynnr  lonl«hi|)  nniU'  a  litlltv 
an)uainliu]t  you  witb  a  paooge  in  thi-  li-gi'nd  uf 
Nlrhola*  a  |>opiiih  BBint :  the;  re|iort  of  liim'.  thai 
wlicn  an  infant  banpinfr  on  hi*  inotbiT*«  Imast, 
lie  fiwtt^M  \\''ediitiNlaf-s  and  Fri<)ay».  and  could  mrt  Wt 
»TgtyA  to  nirk  morr  than  nnco  a  day'. 

But,  fpii»\  my  loni.  In.-  not  t*i  ceifmoniwiu.  ur 
ratlii-r  MijicniiitJout,  to  imitate  bii>  eianjple :  wraa 
hot  younx'lf  until  ym  Iw  wfnntil,  and  Irt  all  dan  be 
allkt>  tn  your  honour.  I  dan-  aMiin-  you,  no  tiArk 
of  MUK-tily  the  1*>M  for  a  drop  of  milk  tbc  more. 
A  ffno<l  nwr  ii  no  hindemnre  to  n  prvrkraa  Jcwri, 
and  a  healthful  boity  no  aljaMimioit  t»  a  boly  MmL 

And    when  your   turd«lup  ahall   arrive  at  riper 

*  Ub.  pMdnL  IB  life  8.  Cmmmi.  ■  pvwa  «f  gm 
NkM-M.  S5.  alMiaMMi  aUiw  Uai -tU 

•  [IiM  BMlfei  lU  «M  -Hl.Nkhgla>arawdM«k.- 

^»ifel*th»nrfe.«irWilBH»  Wn    lri.|fc3S4-T 


years,  consult  your  own  extraction,  as  the  best 
remembrancer  of  worthy  behaviour.  In  whose  veins 
there  is  the  confluence  of  so  many  rivulets,  that 
a  mean  herald,  by  the  guidance  thereof  upwards, 
may  be  led  to  the  fountains  of  the  most  of  the 
English  nobility  ^ 

All  I  will  add  is  this,  as  you  give  three  helmets 
for  your  arms,  may  you  be  careful  to  take  the 
fourth,  even  the  helmet  of  salvation^;  an  helmet 
which  here  is  worn  close,  whilst  soldiers  in  the 
church  militant  we  see  but  in  part^  but  hereafter 
shall  be  borne  (like  the  helmet  of  princes)  with  the 
beaver  open  in  the  church  triumphant,  whe7i  we 
shall  see  as  we  are  seen.     The  desire  of, 

Your  honour's  most  engaged  beadsman, 


f  [See  the   pedigree  of  this     ton8hire,I.p.344.  ed.Whalley.] 
rainily  in   Bridge's  Northamp-         ^  Eph.  vi.  17. 

K  :> 

9W  Thr  Hutwrjf  i^dUteyi 

tintt  orij^nal  of  inonk<i  in  tho  world,  to  calM  In^T 
fto*^tr,  liorauM-  lirinji  aliiiiL'  ItT  tbvnui.'lvt'i. 
TMriHHu  2.  llc-rt*  tlifv  in  ttu'  •k-M'tlii  Iio|nm1  to  find  mrks 
^m1>i>  mid  Ktftrks,  Tt'tt.  bra^tn  llu>mM>lv(*»  inorv  kJiiil  thui 
"'''^'"■' men  luul  \tci;n  lo  them  :  wluit  would  hide  and  h*«l, 
rover  atid  keep  wuin,  mttpiI  tliutn  fur  ck>4bt«.  Dot 
placiug(ii<t  Uieir  «iicn«w>r»  in  nft^T-Agt'*)  uiv  ludtDnw 
in  llieir  linlHt,  foldwl  u|)  in  Ibr  affeirUtl 
tbcnxif.  vVa  Utt  tlit>tr  fuu<l,  the  praM  wu 
rluth,  tbc  gniund  tht-ir  tabic,  herb*  and  i 
dift,  wild  (hiiu  and  bcrriua  t)u*ir  daintiw.  bm 
thoir  Mun>,  fbvir  nailn  tbinr  kniToi,  tbeir  bniidv  tlu^ir 
cupa,  ihf  HL'Xt  well  tbfir  wine  ctdbir;  but  what 
Ibuir  bill  of  faiv  wai)t4-d  ill  cli»vr  it  lud  in  gnre ; 
th4>ir  lif<>  bcin;^'  routtautly  Mjifnt  in  prnTer.  n-wlfnjt. 
muMnjr.  and  Rurh  liki-  pii>i»  tinploymwiU.  Tbt-y 
luntod  wilitarinuM  itM'lf  iut^  Micivty,  and  rl««fiii^ 
tbciiwelvct  asunder  by  tbc  divine  art  of  nioiilatloii, 
did  tnakc  of  ont\  two,  or  mntv,  opjHMin^,  anHwcriuy, 
modrratinfi  in  thirir  own  bo»onim  and  Ihi^v  in  ibrni- 
M-dvM  with  Tarifly  of  bvnn-nlr  rwri-alitm".  Il 
would  do  imc  pfxHl,  oven  but  to  tbink  of  tbdr  jpywi- 
ntiH,  and  at  tin'  ndxiund  atMl  M.<ennd  band  to  nicdl- 
tati'  on  tb4>ir  nMHlitation*.  Kur  if  t*vt-r  {Mivrnr  wa« 
1*1  bi<  ••nvit'd,  it  wa*  Imtiv  AikI  I  B{>|N>al  to  the 
iiiuilentt'  mc-n  of  Ihwn*  timv%  wbrlbfr  in  (he  hcij^t 
oftlk-w  wuftil  wari  iIh-v  liavi'  mft  xoim-tinHii  wtabed 
(not  out  of  |iaMtoiiBli-  diHlvmiN-r.  but  wrioua  rvroU 
let-tiou  of  tbemwiTrk)  Mime  melt  private  plan*  tv 
rvtim  unto,  wberr,  out  pf  tbo  noist*  of  tbin  rbunonHtu 
World,  iber  mijiiil  Imvu  ri'iNMed  tbenmdii'a,  ami 
KiTeil  (mmI  with  tm>re  ()»!«•(. 

3.  TIm**!'  niouk*  wfn^  nf  two  Mtrti^  eilber  Mirh 
^■ft   IIimI    fmm    actual,    or    from    imtnfnunt    p<*rw«>ii- 

ROOK  VI.  in  England.  249 

tion*.  For  when  a  danger  is  not  created  by  auty,  orobe- 
timorous  fancy,  but  rationally  represented  as  pro-  '^"^' 
bable,  in  such  a  case  the  principles  of  prudence,  not 
out  of  cowardice,  but  caution,  warrant  men  to  pro- 
vide for  their  safety.  Neither  of  these  bound  them- 
selves with  a  wilful  vow  to  observe  poverty,  but 
poverty  rather  vowed  to  observe  them,  waiting  con- 
stantly upon  them.  Neither  did  they  vow  chastity, 
though  keeping  it  better  than  such  as  vowed  it  in 
after-ages.  As  for  the  vow  of  obedience,  it  was 
both  needless  and  impossible  in  their  condition, 
having  none  beneath  or  above  them,  living  alone, 
and  their  whole  convent,  as  one  may  say,  consisting 
of  a  single  person ;  and  as  they  entered  on  this 
course  of  life  rather  by  impulsion  than  election,  so 
when  peace  was  restored  they  returned  to  their 
former  homes  in  cities  and  towns,  resuming  their 
callings,  which  they  had  not  left  off,  but  for  a  time 
laid  aside.  The  first  British  monks  that  we  meet 
M  ith  in  this  kind  were  immediately  after  the  mar- 
tyrdom of  St.  Alban ;  for  then,  saith  Gildas,  Qui 
supcrfuermit  sylvis  ac  desertiSj  abditisque  speluncis  se 
occnltnvcrunt^ ;  "  such  as  survived  hid  themselves  in 
''  woods  and  deserts,  and  secret  dens  of  the  earth." 
As  long  after  on  the  like  occasion,  when  the  pagan 
Saxons  and  Danes  invaded  this  island,  many  religious 
persons  retired  themselves  to  solitary  lives. 


After  these  succeeded  a  second  sort  of  monks  silver 

niotik&  8UC- 

a    Soe    Polyilore    Virgil  tie     ca]  vi.  annutat.  332. 
Iiivonlione  reniin,  [vii.  i.]uiid         *»  [Ilistoria  Gildae,  ch.  viii.] 
Sixtus  SeiK'iisis,  [in  Bibliothe- 

T^'^  Itating  ■  •olitarr  life,  wbun  no  raible  need  tanmi 

<iiiiimiii  Uhso  Uieminto,  u  noidier  feeling  nor  fearing  nqr 

qtporent  penmmtion ;  yet  ttuno  eomnderuig  tlie  iA> 

eooMtanrj  of  human  nmtten,  that  thoofh  tbej  hmi 

imMporitj  for  the  prevent,  it  might  dooo  he  chm^ii. 

into  a  contrarr  cmdition,  if  cither  the  i 

doaTonrs  of  th<>  de%i[  took  rfli*ct.  or  niiifnl  ( 

were   rcwnnleil  aconliii;;  tn    their   desertit  I 

cboae  a  lone  liff,  also  prompted  perrhancc  tberaorio 

hf  their  own  mrlanrholy  disposiition. 

fiMAid  S.  Aftcrwnnlii   it    waa  rmmtcd   oonTCoieat,  that 

tbriM^to    wath  who  bitlHTtn  dwelt  dewikte  in  ifatirti.  «aU 

{^0       tered  aminder,  olmtild  ho  gmtbend  tofteCber  to  Uv* 

J*?""*"    undi*r  one  nxif,   limiiwe   thHr  ctmipany  would  be 

ohi'orful  in  livalth,  and  noiniful  in  HokneM,  one  to 

anotliiT.     lleniM*  thciiv  two  wnnln,  thuii^i  cuntm; 

to  wmiid.  Rfniify  the  Mine:  A/omulrniim^,  a  plac« 

oontaininjr  men  lirin^  nion^  ;    {VmnAi'mi,   u   ji\mns 

containing  men    liTing  m  eommom,      For   (h<ni|rti 

tbejr  wwB  Mqueatemd  Atm  the  rett  of  the  world, 

yat  tbej  •ifjojred    mntnal   aoeietjr  amongRt  thw^ 

mhrca.     Awl  again,  though  at  aolesnn  timea  tihay 

tbuM  wlw  tini  m  Militafy  life. 

•  [TW  «<vd  MaMffcii  b  tb*    CoJn  lUgwWaM,  an.  i .  wL. 
"    ■'  .661. 

IV  ttrm  tlKn6m  «feU 

tvlnun,  Hch  m  tW  trawltf,    mwttr.  wko  HvW  aloM  la  lb 

vMllotlMWvhalivp4iacMB<     iiili     1 ii.   11  I H^^M. 

tkal  k.  UriMF  uA«r  iW  —a 
'  bat  mat  OHoc  bi  «in^^^l 

lW»  «M  K  tkM  dM,  mIW  did.ilwf 

■iMiT  nf  imi  IV  lltfTv  wbi  la-  «r  avnikr.  ami  dnfcB.  lijiwhil 

UbM  t«N>M.MMl  tin4  uddrt  tir  «>calar  } 
tm  [Mftimlar  nilr      llnlstriN, 

BOOK  vj.  in  England,  251 

joined  in  their  public  devotions  and  refections, 
yet  no  doubt  they  observed  hours  by  them- 
selves in  their  private  orisons  :  of  these,  some 
were  gardeners  like  Adam,  husbandmen  like  Noah, 
caught  fish  with  Peter,  made  tents  with  Paul,  as 
every  man  was  either  advised  by  his  inclhiation,  or 
directed  by  his  dexterity,  and  no  calling  was  counted 
base  that  was  found  beneficial.  Much  were  they 
delighted  with  making  of  hives,  as  the  emblem  of  a 
convent  for  order  and  industry,  wherein  the  bees, 
under  a  master  their  abbot,  have  several  cells,  and 
live  and  labour  in  a  regular  discipline.  In  a  word, 
they  had  hard  hands  and  tender  hearts,  sustaining 
themselves  by  their  labour,  and  relieving  others 
by  their  charity,  as  formerly  hath  been  observed  in 
the  monks  of  Bangor. 

3.  Take  a  taste  of  their  austerity  who  lived  atThediid- 
Vall   Rosine,  since   called   Menevia  in  Pembroke- ^*,^- 
shiro,  under  the  method  of  S.  David ^.     They  wereH"^  .^ 
raised  with  the  crowing  of  the  cock  from  their  beds, 
and  then  betook  themselves  to  their  prayers,  and 
spent  the  rest  of  the  day  in  their  several  callings ; 
when  their  task  was  done  they  again  bestowed  them- 
selves in  prayers,  meditations,  reading  and  writing : 
and  at  night,  when  the  heavens  were  full  of  stars, 
they  first   began   to   feed,  having   their  temperate 
repast  to  satisfy  hunger  on  bread,  water,  and  herbs. 
Then  the  third  time  they  went  to  their  prayers,  and 
so  to  bed,  till  the  circulation  of  their  daily  employ- 
ment  returned   in   the   morning.     A   spectacle   of 
virtue  and  continence,  who,  although  they  received 

^  Hiirpsfiekl,  Hist.  Eccl.  Angl.  p.  40. 

tai  Tkei 

nothing,  or  anv  thitif(  n<rT  anwHIhi^  of  othen,  y«C 
wvrt*  Mt  for  froin  irniittiij;  rKTvtnarir*,  that  lir  their 
paiiiK  thp^  |iniviil(il  <iiiiiti>n&nrt*  for  imtiiT  |>onr  ptvplts 
tirphans  wiilnwn,  uiil  Htran^fi-pt. 
?•"«■  4.  IIiTf,  as  Wf  ratiiiot  iMit  hijrlily  <^>mn)i>nct  tli«> 
■woiKw  jnti'prity  of  llifir  iM-art*  bfrcin.  so  wr  niuirt  wltlwl 
HI.  ^iK'ninon,  (hat  what  in  tli<.*ni  wiu  iiiti-ntiniiaJIv  f(nad 
|ipiv4^kI  ocH-Bfi'Muillv  *^>vil,  hatching  *>u)>ervtitiuii  tinilrr 
the  wannth  of  thoir  d«T(»tiori.  For  (hoiijrh  cvm 
tbi**!-  a«  TL't  won*  free  from  human  ontinaiK-ift  ami 
ruwN,  y(>t  will-wnr*hi|t  rn>pt  in  in>cnnbh<  in  thi'  DrXt 
apt',  (tartw  an-  i-ailtT  «i*ii  jrrown  thiiii  (rro*i»p.t  anil 
trmr  and  vidoiwnc**  mmc  in  hy  (Ii-yn-*^  TTie 
monk*  oftennu^lit  havinfc  mifllrfeorr  luna'tl  laiy, 
tli(>n  ^>ttin|>  wmlth  waxrtl  wuntiin.  an<l  at  last. 
t'lhlnwvil  with  mi)M-riluitT.  lK-«-aDU>  notorioit-lr  wickml. 
as  hvrcmfttY  aball  afi[M!ar.  Tliu\  an  I'linv  n-jxirlrlh 
of  the  ga^o  stone,  that  M^i  a-fire  it  bunk'th  more 
fiiTn^ljr  if  watt-r  tic  caat  on,  hut  y  ('Xlin^iahn)  if  oil 
tiu  pourif)  thrreupon,  m>  Ibu  n-al  of  monnMie  mm 
WW  itiflan»<d   the   inon;  with    tht-    hitter  water  of 

■flBcCloo,  wiiilft  in   profttwritr   tt il   '>f    ]»lcntT 

flDmdMMl  their  pteCjr.  Hn  ill  a  Mt'wanI  io  hiiiiiaii 
cnrmplinn  of  oiitwarti  ha|>)iini>wi,  nfti-m-r  u^jni*  It  to 
the  rrcf'jvi'r'a  hurt  than  th<-  iiivrr't  |H"n. 



^  Thm  waM  <i»e  main  fault  in  all  KnfH<*h  abhcin^ 

J|*^that  till'  huilihTT>  <liH  not  ilin  <hv|i  ■•n<m^i  to  Ut  tht> 

^^^   Ibunilatioii.    >■    imtutMhH    on    tbv    fimndifnl    awl 

mouMtTinjT  Uittom  of  «ipct«ttli4m      For  cvptt  aio- 

tiaolfrr  wa»  nmcrivtsl  a  ma^acior  of  im-rii  huih  fnr 


in  England. 


the  founder,  \m  ancestors,  and  posterity.  And 
although  all  these  dotations  did  carry  the  title  of 
pure  alms,  yet  seriously  considered,  they  will  be 
found  nither  forced  than  free,  as  extorted  from  men 
with  the  fear  of  purgatory,  one  flash  of  which  fire 
believed  is  able  to  melt  a  miser  into  charity ;  yea, 
which  is  worse,  many  of  their  foundations  had  their 
mortar  tempered  with  innocent  blood,  for  which  we 
may  conceive  afterwards  they  sped  never  a  whit  the 
better.     To  give  some  instances  of  many. 

2.  Wolpher,  king  of  the  Mercians,  having  mur- PeterUo- 
dered    Wolphald   and   Rufine,   his   own    sons,  withb^^^nj. 
cruel   and    barbarous  immanity,  because  they   had^^^^j. 
devoted  themselves  unto  Christ  and  embraced  his 
religion,    afterwards    turning  Christian    himself,   to 

wash  away  the  stuin  of  his  impiety  built  that  famous 
abbey,  since  known  by  the  name  of  Peterborough  ^. 

3.  King  Athelstane  drowned  his  brother  Ed^^in,  Mjddieton 
having  put  him   into  a  little  wherry  or  cock-boat  thj^me 
without  any  tackling  or  furniture  thereunto,  (to  the  *^*^**"^°' 
end  he  might  impute  his  wickedness  to  the  waves,) 

and  afterwards,  as  a  satisfaction  to  ap[)ease  his  ghosts 
built  the  fair  abbey  of  Middleton  in  Dorsetshire*. 

^  Camden's  Brit,  in  North- 
amptonshire, [p.  379.  See 
note  in  vol.  I.  p.  215.] 

^  Idem  in  Dorsetshire,  [p.  1 56. 
This  was  by  no  means  univer- 
sally the  case,  much  rather  the 
exception  than  the  rule.  Mo- 
nasteries had  long  been  built 
in  England  before  kings  or 
princes  raised  them  as  a  kind 
of  satisfaction  or  atonement. 
The  first  foundation  of  this 
kind  (omitting  Bangor)  was 
the  monastery  of  St.  Peter  and 

St.  Paul  at  Canterbury,  built 
by  St.  Augustine  at  the  di* 
rection  and  expense  of  king 
.^delbert  in  597,  (Canterbury 
being  at  that  time  the  metro* 
polls,)  solely  for  missionary 
purposes,  as  the  chronicler 
quoted  in  the  Monasticon  de- 
scribes it :  *'  ut  ibi  praedica. 
''  rent,  baptizarent,  et  quos-. 
"  cumque  possint  ad  fidem 
"  Jesu  Christi  vocarent."  (Mo- 
nasticon, I.  p.  18.  Bede,  £.  H. 
'•  P-  33*)  Near  the  same  time. 

i  TV  Hutorjt  tfAUtpt  sows  *i. 

^^"^^B  4.  To  join  to  Uiom  two  bniuiM  of  mrmki  ooe  af 
muu.  (ndi  todetj  hoUi  not  been  nracoepufali^ 
jEUHth,  Boooful  wife  to  kin;  Edfv,  tuiving  cootifwd 
the  death  of  Kdwutl  hor  fon-in-Iaw,  king  of  Fug; 
land,  munlorM  him  by  a  cunijianjr  of  hadutcfs  md 
villuiiit  nt  bi-r  ap|Mtmtmcnt  at  Corfe  omUo  in  Ddl^ 
Meuhirf,  (to  jiavf  tbu  vny  fur  thu  luocMaioD  of  hm 
•on  Etbolilretl  to  the  miwn,)  aftcrwanli  balk 
lUtely  nounery  of  Ambnabury,  witb  Mmw 
rriigions  hoiues'. 
_  5.  It  b  confeMcd,  that  wilful  murder  may  be 

■t^^*  donod  in  Cbriat,  and  Uioy  whu  dunv  it  are  goBtf 
C^  (a*  Ducb  a»  lin  in  their  {xiwvr)  of  a  wunt<  mal- 
munkr  in  th<-'ir  uiicbantabk>  opiniuii;  yot  thll  WB 
My.  thai  alt  the  chauntinjcv  nt  thi*  monk*  and  onna 
in  their  ronvvnU  cuuld  iH>t  drvnii  the  noiMi  of  iuw- 
fwnt  bt<K>d.  And  if  tbttM*  roundcrv  of  abbvyi  thoi^i 
that  their  murdur  could  bu  cx|iiati<d  by  railing  MKb 
beautiAil  building  Ihoir  moat  poUidied  awrU*  lad 
eoatly  carred  t>iec«a  were  in  tlio  eiprwlup  of  tikm 
propbet,  bot  dwMng  otwr  tAeir  rf—<H»  n'ju  Mlft 
imltmpertJ  mortar*.     Bat  though  abbey*  long  dna* 

^%  Wiiliiliiil      •     -• 

L  p.  56.):  tkt  ant  la  IUI7 
UmJ  in  6$5.  (ll«]rMr.  App. 
|k  41.)     AaJ    ia    ' 

,»  -f    |«rdi 

uooK  VI.  /■/(  EngUnid.  255 

have  boen  demolished,  wc  leave  tlieir  founders  to 
stand  or  fall  to  their  own  Maker,  when  his  all-seeing 
eye  hath  discerned  betwixt  the  errors  of  their  Judg- 
meut  and  integrity  of  their  afTections,  endeavouring 
that  which  they  conceived  was  to  the  glory  of  God. 
and  advance  of  true  religion. 


So  much  of  the  superstition  of  the  founders,  come 
we  now  to  their  superstition,  and  other  notorious  montuJi 
sins,  who  lived  in  these  foundations.     But  lirst  we  EingUnd. 
will  premise  their  several  orders.  Herein  we  pretend 
not  to  any  critical  skill ;  for  though  every  minister 
of  Ciod's  word  (whereof  I  am    the   meanest)  is  a 

next  miller  God,  we  greatly 
owe  wIiHtevcr  is  great  and 
good.  Men's  errors  we  wTite 
in  IrBBs.  their  benefits  in  dust ; 
and  so  it  has  been  with  them. 
The  good  which  they  hare 
dune  bus  been  forgotten  ;  the 
evils  which  tliey  did,  (or,  which 
in  the  world's  eye  is  much  the 
some,  avaricious  spoilers  have 
persuaded  the  world  that  they 
did,)  are  still  held  up  to  scorn, 
and  to  ubiise  them  has  become 
part  of  our  religion.  And  yet, 
to  use  the  words  of  Dr. 
Marsham  :  "  Monachatus  olim 
"  fuit  maxima  para  gentia  ee- 
'■  clesiasticffi,  el  parieles  cieno- 
"  bialcs  diu  sanctitatis  et  nie- 
"  lioris  literaturie  fuerunt  se- 
"  pes.  Ex  illo  seminario  pro- 
"  dieriint  ingentia  ilia  Cliri- 
"  stiani  orbia  lumina  Beda, 
"  Alcuinus,  AVillebrorduB,  Bo- 
"  nifacius  al'ii  ob  doctrinom 
"  et  propagatam  fidem  impense 
"  colendi."     Marsham,    Upatrv- 

\aiOK,  p.  30.] 

>>  [For  this  account  of  the 
sevprnl  religious  orders  Fuller 
is  objetly  indebted  to  Weever*! 
Funeral  Monuments,  p.  117, 
sq.  {  may  obEerve  in  passing. 
that  the  Scots  and  Britons,  of 
whom  there  is  mention  made 
in  various  passages  of  Bede'a 
Ecclesiastical  History,  were 
probably  of  the  Egyptian  or- 
der, and  followed  the  Egyptian 
rule.  Those  who  were  intro- 
duced by  St.  Augustine  were 
Benedictines,  {nlgri  monachi, 
so  called  from  the  darkness  of 
their  dress,  the  British  wearing 
while,)  and  followed  the  rule 
of  S.  Benedict,  of  the  Western, 
OS  the  British  were  of  the  East- 
ern order.  And  hence  the  dis- 
putes respecting  the  tonsure 
and  the  observance  of  Easter, 
on  which  I  hnve  made  some 
remarks  iu  the  first  volume  of 
this  history.] 


Tht  mnat^  <!fJUtyM 

«f>iritiiBl  h<*nil<1.  t*i  drrivi-  and  ilHiiw  tlic  [K*>lifcrr«« 
and  f^i-rii-alitftii'n  uf  nnt  institution  «)iiHi  Itntli  iu 
itri^iial  In  (i^k)'*  Won),  yet  they  an*  tiut  tN>uad  (not 
to  aay  it  h  k  k<anHfl  ifpioranc**)  to  be  nkillM  hi  tbe 
iltNlurtlotiH,  <li«iMinii«,  niid  nuh-HivJMiiiiN  <rf  them 
oplcrs  whirti  liovc  no  friuiicbliiMi  in  tin*  «rri|»turr. 
Vt-n,  hear  wKnt  Mattlivw  Panx.  beiuf;  m  monk  of 
S.  Allinii'h,  with,  TVrf  Jum  a/fftantrrinl  ttHimrM  im 
AHyiia,  at  nrdinum  coHftuiu  ridrrrimr  iHordimatrnK 
It  U  powible  tlien  for  my  be*t  dili;reii(.'e  to  poiitndt 
Ml  eiTor  mkI  iniprojiricty  iti  riTkoitinff  tlunn  op. 
Kur  what  wnmW  !«  it  if  one  ht-  Imt  in  t  woofl.  to 
wliirb  Ihuir  nutncmiu  dHcr*  may  well  Iw  tvKiabM, 
thoti;:h  in  oil  tbU  w<mm)  then*  ai^iionn  noC  nn<'  plwii 
of  OndV  plantin^f,  vt  nxw  of  their  own  abhoU  iimmi 
TvmAHcabty  did  obcturvoJ.  In  n  word.  whi>n  ibe 
/rtiy  ofE^^  tf'W  ON/  </  ike  htHVX*.  mt  »f  ike  nU 
(ogu,  ami  out  nftke  firidM,  tkty  galhntd  tkfm  toyelktr 
npuH  krafu,  ffrM  And  j^tv  tu  U«vi*  in  likv  manner 
r<oafuH>dly  In  sfaovcl  up  tbew  wrniin,  now  dead  in 

9.  Vinu  ftme  forth  the  Beni^lictiae».  <>r  Made 
monk*,  no  railed  fimm  B.  BeiiMlirl.  or  Bcni<  aa 
Italian,  fint  fittbcr  and  roundi>r  of  that  nrdiv ';  Ao- 
futine  the  tntmk  flm  bnm^it  thrm  otit  into  En|F> 

'   Mattk    ruu.    an.    Dum  tMtkui   ww   uttwpibfJ  (•  ito 

I  ijr   P   <m  B*ltU>k  »ni>U  t^nm*  ^kltf 

i    Kob    Ukiuri/i.  ablut  ••T  (ma  tU rab  «#  Si.  WwilhU 
Wrlluw.      [Vv  Wlmr.  f.  ii  6 

^  KMod.  Wii.  1 3,  1 4-  loM  ia  ■••  «m«  ain 

<  [U  tlN  fwr  514     Th«  Thb  niW  Im  Wm  f 

f«bitf8(.BMMNliaMMttif«  H*yMi  in    W  Af] 

to  kkvc  bsMi  lattttdMiwd  wb>  KmIhiv,  fL  1 , 

&HbMJ  by  at  IhuMtoB.  <B  tW  bm  >■  ki*  ApoUnlM.  1 

■.     ••"•     *     'riB^5.  Un.Amt|>.77.   Am  liar 

■I  OOBiti  tl^«ai«a*.  |i  13.] 

I  EngUiitd. 


land,  and  these  black  birds  first  nested  in  Canter- 
bury, whence  they  have  flown  info  all  the  parts  of 
the  kingdom.  For  aa  one  rightly  observeth"',  all 
the  abbeys  in  England  before  the  time  of  king 
William  the  Conqueror  (and  some  whiles  after)  were 
filled  with  this  order.  Yea,  all  the  abbeys  in  Eng- 
land of  the  first  magnitude  which  had  imrliamentary 
barons  (abate  only  the  prior  of  the  hospitallers  of 
S.  John's  in  London)  were  of  this  order ;  and  though 
the  Augustinians  were  their  seniors  in  Eurojie,  they 
were  their  juniors  in  England.  Now  as  mercers, 
when  their  old  stuffs  begin  to  tire  in  sale,  refresh 
them  with  new  names  to  make  them  more  vendible, 
so  when  the  Benedictines  waxed  stale  in  the  world, 
the  same  order  waa  set  forth  in  a  new  edition,  cor- 
rected and  amended  under  the  names :  first  of 

Clcniacs:  these  were  Benedictines  sifted  through 
a  finer  search,  with  some  additional  invented  and 
imposed  upon  them  by  Odo,  abbot  of  Cluny  in 
Burgundy,  who  lived  anno  Domini  913.  But  these 
Cluniacs  appeared  not  in  England  till  after  the 
Nornmn  conquest,  and  had  their  richest  convents  at 
Barnstable  in  Devonshire,  Pontefract  and  Meaux  in 
Yorkshire,  &c." 

■"  Clem.  Reyner  De  Anli<i. 
OnliniB  S,  Benedict,  [p.  i8. 
Though  tomewhat  deficient  in 
judgment,  this  i«  an  excellent 
work.  The  real  author,  whose 
name  was  David,  (which  he 
afterward  changed  to  Augus- 
tine.) Baker,  had  access  to  sir 
Robert  Cotton's  library,  and 
to  the  various  depositories  of 
records  relating  to  the  order  of 
the  Benedictines  both  in  Eng- 
land and  iibroad.    A  large  coU 

PULLER,  VOL.  Itl, 

lection  of  liis  papers,  and  tran- 
scrijits  of  charters  nnd  chro- 
nicW.  which  he  bad  ciillected 
for  the  history  of  his  order, 
(generally  supposed  tu  have 
been  lost,)  are  still  preserved  in 
Jestis  College,  Oxford.  He  was 
the  last  of  his  order  in  Enf[- 
land.  See  an  account  of  his  life 
in  Wood's  Athens.  I.  p.  t  ] 

"  [Their  origin  in  Europe 
is  d3t«d  as  far  Imck  as  the  year 
890    by    an    nncient    French 

1tS8  Tht  I/utary  t^Abbe^t  »*w«  vi. 

9.  ClirrEaaANS,  m  ralloil  fmiu  onv  Ititbort",  Vmofi 
in  ('bti-'rriant,  in  BufhuikIt  af'>ivMii<l;  \w  tin-  «t>r<ond 
time  n'iinnl  i\w  <ln>MV  IVnetlu-titii-^,  ami  \Valt«r 
Eiipco  HntL  (^MaliiifJictl  tbcir  l>rotbi<rlinntl  in  KiifcUmL 
»t  Kivmilx  in  Ynrkobiiv ;  Ijostdut  whirb  tfat*T  hail 
mniiy  other  pUiMuit  nud  I'li'ntirtil  ttiibiutitm<t,  at 
WnnlMU  and  Wirbiini  in  liedronMiln'.  HitrkUiid 
ani)  FnnI  in  Ih-voiifibin',  Biiijtiii  in  I>>»i«ot(ibin-,  &r. 
Tlie  Ilcmanlin*'  intinkB  iri-iv  of  a  Toungpr  tmuair,  nr 
undcrbnuicli  of  ihu  Ci«t**rriaiii»f. 

difmidrr,  aoolKl  ui  Dogdalv, 
p.  Ai  ■  ;  UM.  •ccurdtii{t  to  tW 
mmr  %viht»,  Uwir  Am  Mm* 
WM  Hrwin.  ta  mAtamk  WilKan, 
dukr  of  AqaiUiiMS  wtlh  llie 
(MBMBI  irf  ChwiM  lb*  NtmpW, 
malol  CImbt  in  Uutnnilr. 
Il»  WH  MwuMed  lij  IMm,  wIm> 
IM  ta  937.  TMr  HMHt  tncini 
fcudMiMi  (accdnUnit  b>  Dm- 

dilc)  WM  M  W«Bl«fc  ta  tftfl^ 

■Urr,  tHtm  tlMn  had  beea  a 
■■MiM  to  wUeh  MObcfSR. 
ata«  oT  WotahMa,  Ui«  oT 
H«Nta.  mmM  iMr  daj^  Bttt 
tha  plaea  kavtag  bacome  da< 
wrtad.  Ragar,  aarl  of  Mont' 
gamttrj,  pra  k  to  a  emnpHty 
of  Claatac  bhmiIu.  1.  p.  6ij. 
Am  abo  B»j»fr.  ApoatoL  B*- 
MdkttaOTvn.  App.  p.  58. 
Aooordinii  to  Uiii  anthor.  Um 
nnniaa  wwn  fnt  tamdoead 
Intu  tliia  ( 

Ihil  Itaii  riiliiiiiMa(riH— ■  J 
ta  tlw  Uiucvae  of  CUIum,  was 

■alTT  ta   1077  by 

at  walk*  tha  On. 
^narar.  Aa  ikuf  fnUiHrad  tha 
rata  ml  fk.  BaaMMt  lo  dntta- 
gmUk  %km»  tram  tba  Baavdta. 
lin^  propirrlr  ta  «alltd.  tbvj 
wm  (tjlMl  Mooadu  aigri  ra- 

-  [Abtail  -f  MfOrMw.     At 

BMiidti  waa  efliFcted  ta  logB. 
See  DticdAlr.  1.  p.  fx;j.  Thav 
•K  edW  br  Ita*  tumm  nlO^ 
MTvantB  (^  t^nrfa  atiiFW— 
ria),  or  Gfvy  frtan,  ffon  Ikair 

P  [AMordtair  ta  tba  aaiMk 
of  PalarboRM^  qaotad  by 
Dugitata.  (Moaaalkoft,  I.  pi. 
703.).  tba  Ctatamana  tmm 
«var  tato  BnghiMt  ta  iitS. 
■nd  w*ra  aenird  ai  WbvvIot 
bf  WniiaB  OVhri.  bfabop  ar 
Wiiiifciitir.  SaaataaAaHln 
\VamktmHaitaaa.ils8|  aatl 
Um)  foandaiian  cfaaitoi  ta  Dag* 
d>Ja,  ib.  p.  717.  Tb*  MM*  la 
■talad  b7  RaTBar,  p  160,  wba^ 
ha«nrt«r.  oaataa  a  jwaaiff  ftaai 
Prtar  ol  NoK  atuAalS^  ito 
tauvdaeliaa  af  tbia  ordv  M 
Wall*  Smm  a  gialliBM  ^ 
■obta  btaai  aad  pinil  toSto- 
pbMi  Manli^  IW  Maad  mi 
adrtMT  i/  Rabm  da  Uttamaa. 
Ila  inA  bttOl  Iba  ■iiMilaj  aT 
Kirkban  ta  loi  fat  tbta  ■». 
da ;  aad  r*c«»*tag  fnaa  ika 
ntabntad  St.  ItanMd  MtanI 
hntbrM  fmn  ITaimnli,  aba 

t  E<iglamt 


3.  Of  Gkandmont,  whicb  observed  S.Benet'n  nile, 
were  Itrought  into  England  anno  1233,  and  wen- 
principally  fixed  at  Abberbury  in  Shropshirei. 

The  femily  of  these  Benedietines,  t.nkon  at  large, 
vrixh  their  children  and  grandchildren,  of  iinder- 
orders  springing  from  them,  were  so  numerous  and 
so  richly  endowed,  that  in  their  revenues  they  did 
match  all  the  other  orders  in  England,  especially  if 
the  foundations  of  Benedictine  nuns  lie  joined  in  the 
same  reckoning;  I  doubt  not  but  since,  these  Bene- 
dictines have  had  their  crudities  deconcocted,  and 
have  been  dmwn  out  into  more  slender  threads  of 
subdivisions.  For  commonly  once  in  a  hundred 
years  starts  up  some  pragmatical  person  in  an  order, 
who  out  of  novelty  alters  their  old  rules,  (there  is  as 
much  variety  and  vanity  in  monks'  cowls  as  in 
courtiers'  cloaks,)  and  out  of  his  fancy  adds  some 
observances  thereunto.  To  cr}'  quits  with  whom, 
after  the  same  distance  of  time,  ariseth  another,  and 
under  some  new  name  reformeth  his  refonnation, 
and  then  his  late  new  (now  old)  onler  is  looked  on 
as  an  almanac  out  of  date,  wanting  the  perfection  of 
new  and  necessary  alterations. 

3.  A  scandal  hath   lately  been   raised',  much  in  scandainm 

came  into  England  in  I)  12, 
he  built  for  them,  in  1131. 
near  the  rivtr  Rye,  the  mo- 
nastery aftefn-ards  namt-Ml  Rie- 
vaiilx.  See  also  Dugdale,  ib. 
p.  717.  Weever.  p.  136.] 

fl  [This  onlcr  was  fotindeil  liy 
Stephen  of  Auve^ne ;  who  died 
in  tne  year  1 1 14,  at  the  age  of 
eighty,  after  a  life  spent  iu  the 
most  rigid  abstinence,  and  self- 
inflicted  cruelties.  After  hid 
ilenth   hiH  disciples  retnnveil  to 

Grammont,  where  Henrj'  I.  of 
England  built  them  a  coUe^ 
ill  1114,  which  was  endowed 
by  his  son  Henry  II.  Itivias. 
p.  1 70,  VoT  the  fbundution  of 
Abberbury,  see  Dugdale.  I.  p. 


■■  [By  Antonius  Gallunius,  a 
priest  of  the  congr^ation  of 
the  oratory,  iu  his  Ajiolwio 
ad  versus  Constantinum  Belo' 
tum.    published   at    Rome    in 


didbonour  uf  Ihew  Rc-milictiiw*,  vU.  that  all  the 
ancient  English  tiioDkii  tx-fore  tbt>  Contjunt  wm 
only  of  Ihi-  onlpr  of  S.  K<)iiitiiui  Some  higfair  coti- 
ccmeil  t«i  n-futo  tliix  n-|>ort  wnitm  «it«t  to  our  uili- 
quiiriot  in  RnftbuKl  for  tWir  judfrment*  herein,  fram 
wbnm  tliej-  nvtnvod  tliU  following  oniwer: 

**  Quoniam  bac  nwtni  wtatf!  exorta  pat  cootfo- 
**  Tenia  tie  miHmrhatn  (irvgfiril  magiii  vt  At^uKinl 
**  Cautuariensb,  worioniniqur  ejiut  qu«M  (in-gnritM  ta 
"  Angliam  do  tmo  niunvtorio  pnrdiratidi  enngelU 
"  ouiM  dcstituune  legitiir;  quibitwUm  ip«cM  ontiai 
**  Benedirtioo  addicimtihiu.  quihuadam  veni  id  ■ntilir 
**  pen^Botibus,  el  i|HHi«  onliui  8.  Rquitii  nve  alieol 
"  alii  aarribmitibun ;  nm  qui  multttm  temporii  I 
"  rebiM  YetUKtw  turn  civililKm  turn  ^ 
**  im|irimis  qiur  wA  Uritaiiiiiam  niMtiain  potifl 
**  spoctant,  impenditniM,  nigati  ut  tc«tinioaiuin  prr- 
"  bibonrmiM  veritatj.  cum  neuiriiu  partiii  pivjiuliriia 
**  iiimtu  obnmcU ;  dieimoa  e(  affinnamu%  nut  dno 
**  wlum  moiiadionini  seneim  io  (irimif  Saxooica 
"  apud  mi^oraa  WMtraa  iseclcsbr  tcmpuribua :  nntiMi 
"  eonim  qui  ^grpUetNiiaro  room  Mxnili  in  bae  in- 
**  fiula  florebaut,  ante  adTentum  Augiutini :  altvram 
**  eorum  qui  Bcnedictini  Aogustino  itiiirm  erani 
**  eoniitea.  IUdc  tnulitium<a  a  (mtribiiH  ad  Altai 
"  dcrivatam  ewe  Uirfamur.  atqoo  iu  derivalaiiif  at 
**  noQ  IcribitA  inniutur  (abulia,  aot  ratbJtioaii  par- 
"  tiom  coq}(''^un''>  M**'"  ******  ipnm  Tetuata  aignafae 
**  IkM  exhibent  apud  noa  monnnMOta.  Ab  AngB^ 
"  tlno  iitMtpcr  ad  Iltiiricua  oetoTiMi  perpctno  in 
"  bac  Lnmla  viguit  BcnrdtcUfla  iiwtittttio:  oeo  An- 
"  gtwUno  ivoentiotrm  cjiuvr  origiiMBi,  orifininv 
**  nwiiUori*  fsatigium  ulhhi  romperiniM.  llHrtnB 
**  abaat  Equiiiaiuun  aliqumn  in  bae  iiwub  fUM»  or. 

)  E'igiand. 


*'  dinem ;  ut  nulla  omnino  liujuemodi  ne(iue  ordiiiis 
"  ncque  nominis  mentio  in  vetustis,  quibua  vereamur, 
"  tabulariis,  habeatur.  Sane  aliorum  fere  ntnnium 
"  in  hac  insula  engines  ita  observavimus,  ut  unius- 
"  cujuaque  etiam  minimi  ingressum  sue  anno  cnn- 
"  siguatum  babeamue  :  eolius  Benedictini  ordinis 
'*  originem  ante  Augustini  sieculum  non  inveninius  ; 
"  ipsius  SJBculo  floruisse  aperte  reperimus.  Unde 
"  esploratissimum  nobis  esse  profitemur,  non  alterius 
"  ordinis  fuisso  ipsum  sociosque  ejus  quam  Bene- 
"  dictini ;  qui  ideo  proeuldubio  tam  altas  radices  in 
"  Attglia  egerit,  quoniani  prinii  illi  monachi  a  Gre- 
"  gorio  in  iusulam  destinati,  regular  Benedictina: 
"  professores  extiterunt." 

Robertus  Cotton,  Henricus  Spelman. 

Johannes  f^eldenus.      Gulieinius  Camdenus*. 

England  may  see  four  hundred  years,  yet  not 
behold  four  such  antiquaries  her  natives  at  once,  the 
four  wheels  of  the  triumphant  chariot  of  truth  for 
our  British  history.  This  quaternion  of  subscribers 
have  sticken  the  point  dead  with  me,  that  all 
ancient  English  monks  were  Benedictines.  Which 
order,  lasting  above  one  thousand  years  in  this  land, 
hath  produced  about  two  hundred  and  fifty  WTiters 
of  name  and  note,  as  Pitseus'  accounteth  them, 

4.  What  this  S.  Equitius  was,  (pretended  founder Uubb. 

Sure  he  could  not  be  that  Equitius,  of  whom  the 
African  bishops  complained  in  the  council  of  Car- 
thage; that  by  indirect  courses  he  had  invaded  the 

*  Extnnt  in  Clcnt.  Rejaer,  '  Catult^e,  p.  966,  [sub- 
tle Apoatnlatu  Betiedtctinorain  joined  hi  his  work  "  De  Script, 
ill  Anglin,  I.  p.  loi.  ''  Anglitc."] 


Itrii'SthootI :  tltwriiiff  by  thoir  U*f!iit«M*.  (wlKim  tbry 
M-nt  to  tht'  (>ni|HTor.)  that  lie  iiiipbt  bt-  pxpcllcd  UmU 
uHint-.  Yet  he,  in  ilvliniire  of  their  codMn 
went  otmiit  to  iluturb  the  fwAcv  of  tbr 
Mure  [tiviliable  it  U,  bo  wil'«  either  Gquititu,  ■  d 
Iri  the  Apomenti  church.  Hmimhiiig  in  the  i 
century,  atifl  faniuw*  Tor  hiif  fuith  uhI  ivnvuej  fai 
tvlifrioii  ill  OMtstiii};  Marvellup,  hiUiop  therpof,  In 
tleiuuli»h  the  teui{>U'  of  Jupiter**,  ur  ulae  his  coo- 
tem|M>mry  Iv<|uitiu>>,  cotutul  ni  Uoaie  with  (imtiaa, 
•XH.  37A.  or  Mwnt'  other  unktuiwa  unto  ub.  Ihit  br 
he  wliu  he  hinueir  or  wijr  other  pleaeetb.  (brother  if 
they  will  lu  S.  (itMirjife  on  hoi«e)iark, )  hi-  vm»  uvyvr 
father  ftanj  moiilcH  in  Kn^land. 
•-  i.  1  intendiHl  to  {ireoent  the  rvn<ler  with  the 
KM  habitu  of  DouedietineA,  ami  all  other  onli3«.  for  ike 
*"  favhioii,  nutter,  iind  <>«)|(iur  then-of.  But  iijwlar> 
ntamlin^  the  in<]Dii(ri<»iM  work  mlled  Alonaitleon  ia 
coming  forth,  (which  liath  xh*-  «»)N>e«l  of  ih»  my  hook 
for  ■  term  or  imi.)  when-in  that  ^abject  ia  bandle«l 
at  btjfci,  I  thnufflit  better  to  fftrtM-ar.  I'artly  liecoiMV 
I  prManie  martvr  |>odBWorth  (an  (•mtnoni  imttro- 
ment  in  that  OMtful  wnrk)  bettt'r  ac<]iuiinteil  than  I 
nni  with  their  tiuhir^i :  [«rtly  berauH-  my  wanlrobt^ 
uf  their  clothe*  (cominfr  >o  Umfr  after  hix)  will  lir 
beheld  but  ao  from  the  M>c<tc»l-liand,  fetchM  fraiu 
Lnn(r4niu%  ktid  hfai  nnw,  bought  out  of  thi*  ilts|«r'a 


6.  TIh>  At'ocvroiuii  vaoeSu  MicMml,  jvnaipBt 
thui  the  lleiietlietiaoa  {n  EoglMid.  tlmifrh  »ltl<v  ^ 
EufD|x>.     For  8.  Ai^wltee  of  Hf|)fo  <•«  wbon 

•   Ada    Cnaol,    | 

1  £»ffltmd. 


these  monks  wonid  willingly  recover  Ibcmselves) 
was  8.  Beiiet's  senior  by  sixty  years",  1  cannot 
lielieve  that  they  came  over  into  Kngland  (what  some 
affirm)  precise  omio  636,  (others  6-tO,)  wlien  Birinus 
was  bishop  of  Dorchester)',  or  that  1059  they  were 
Heated  iu  London',  being  rather  inclined  to  bi-lieve 
that  Eudo,  the  dapit'er  (sewer  if  you  please)  to  king 
Henry  the  First,  first  brought  them  into  England 
atiiin  1105,  and  that  S.  John's  at  Colchester  was  the 
[irime  place  of  their  residence^.  FFowcver.  I  find 
that  Waltham-abbey  (for  Benedictines  at  the  first'') 

*  ["  Aliam  feruiit  hujusc« 
"  coll^ii  originemi  multi  enim, 
"  ut  itiunt,  mortoles  Augustiiii 
"  adliuc  in  humaiiiH  ogeiilis 
"  siuictitatem  aiugularemque 
"  iloctriiiiuii  secuti,  onuiibus 
"  neglectis  quae  possederant  in 
"  eivmum  coDcesscre,  unde  est 
"  eremitanorum  nomen  ileduc- 
"  tuin.  Atque  ista  Aiigusli- 
"  niaiia  fiiuiilia  prima  est  ex 
■'  monacbJK  niendiciuitibus.''  Inventione,  VII. 
c.  3.  The  Augustiniaiis  came 
over  into  England  (according 
to  Reyner,  a  very  competent 
authority)  nuxt  after  the  CIu- 
niaca.  generally  called  Black 
cauoDS,  or  merely  Canons  of 
St.  Augustine.  This  order  was 
settled  here  by  the  iuHuence 
of  Adelwaldua,  or  Athelwulfus, 
confessor  to  Henry  I.;  who 
erected  a  priory  for  them  in 
NostcU  in  Yorkshire,  dedi- 
ciited  to  St.  Oswald,  and  was 
the  first  prior.  He  engaged 
the  king  to  erect  Carlisle  into 
a  bishopric,  and  to  give  the 
power  of  electing  tho  Iriahop  to 

the  canons  of  this  order;  himself 
being  the  lirst  bishnp.  Apostol. 
Benedict.  158,  The  prior?  of 
the  holy  IVinity  belonged  to 
this  order,  the  luperior  of 
which  was,  cr  officio,  oue  of 
the  twenty-four  aldennen  of 
the  city  of  London,  and  wore 
his  alderman's  habit  over  the 
habit  of  his  order  in  the  city 
processions.  Canons  properly 
lire  those  who  lived  secundum 
canon  ft  prietcrijiloi.'] 

T  [As  to  what  Bale  slates, 
tliat  canon  regulars  wen.'  set- 
tled nt  Dorchester  by  Birinus 
in  636,  this  is  manifestly  false, 
snys  Reyner,  tipoa  the  very 
authority  of  Cupgruve,  whom 
he  quotes  in  support  of  liis 
opiniiin.      Apost.    Benedictin. 

p.  158.] 

*  Jusephua  Pamphilusi  in  his 
Cronicon  Augustin.  [p.  J76. 
ed.  .581.] 

'  [Prime  place,  that  is.  thu 
Hrst,  founded  in  1105.  Ret'ner, 
p.  158] 

*>  [Canons  secular,  according 
to  Reyner,  p.  I59O 

S  4 

an*  TV  //JJtoy  ^JbAfyt  woi  vi. 

had  Hi  copy  •Itered  by  kiog  Haay  the  Seooad,  ami 
boitowed  on  Angmtlniani. 

7.  Thue  AofiutUuuii  in?ra  abo  eaOiMl  caaoa* 
reguUr,  wbctv,  by  tbo  way,  I  nicvt  with  ntch  a  nie» 
diitiiicUon,  whioh  disbeartciu  dio  fnHU  pnKcniling  to 
exaotDMi  ia  rvekoaing  op  theae  ordeit.  For  thia  1 
find  in  our  EnglUi  Eniuiia': 

And  all  mcb  otbor  eooatarfUbian 

It  flocRu  Iho  if  ban  Binoiuit«Ui  to  a  k 
efTevtuol  a«  to  diicniiunatv  ehammu  from 
(thougb  botb  eanoHici  in  Latin.)  but  what  Kboald  bo 
tbe  diSttnmm*  bi-twixt  tbetn  I  dare  not  iRttipoae  nj 
cm^fortnn!.  I  havo  done  witti  tbrsv  Augi 
wlii-n  I  have  f)lMfiTc>l,  (hat  th»  unler  ia 
aflbrdi-fl  (hrt-c-acorv  oiid  ton  cDiin«tit  writOT«', 
one  in  (M>nnat>y  worth  thrm  all  in  cfTrct,  I  i 
Martin  i^itlii.-r.  vrtid  hy  liio  writtngx  ^rc  a  i 
wound  tft  all  thL**-  order*,  yea,  and  to  the  root  a 
Botniah  religion. 
>  8.  GiutEansB  monki  may  be  the  third,  a  mongrel 
onkfT,  ohaenring  Kune  adcrt  niUii  )iartly  of  8.  Bmm, 
pwtly  of  S.  Augustine*.  Sn  nnnxtl  rn>m  i  iilb*^ 
(•on  to  Joetdino  a  knight.)  loni  of  Scmprinfrham  in 
Llnpolmhirai  vfano  1148  flnt  they  were  planted. 
Whereapoa  tbia  ordar  may  boaat,  iliat  it  alone  in  a 
nadn)  and  mdigata,  (w^Mffaaa  Bci)e«lirtine*  arp  by 
original   ItaUana;   AagnrtinlaM.   African;   Cartba- 

'  CIranr  b  Uw 

■'•  tab.  [r.  jDot.] 

ik  p.  974- 

I  Ellwand. 


sians,  French;  Dominicans,  Spanish,  &c.)  pure  Eng- 
lish by  the  extraction  thereof.  This  Gilbert,  un- 
handsome, but  not  unlearned,  erected  this  order, 
(contrary  to  .fustiniaii's  constitution,  who  forbad 
double  monasteries,)  wherein  men  and  women  lived 
together  (though  secluded)  under  one  roof.  He 
survived  to  see  thirteen  houses  of  this  his  own  order, 
and  in  them  seventeen  hundred  Gilbertine  brothers 
and  sisters'-  Yet  I  find  no  writer  of  this  order, 
conceiving  them  so  well  busied  with  their  company 
in  their  convent,  they  had  little  leisure  for  the 
writing  of  books. 

9.  Carthusiak  monks  make  up   a  mess,  much  c«rthu«i«i. 
famed  for  their  mortified  lives,  and  abstinence  from 
all  flesh ;  one  Bruno  first  founded  them  in  the  Dol- 
phinate  in  France,  anno  1180s,  and  some  sixty  years 

'  [If  I  understand  R^jTier 
aright,  who  is  somewhat  con- 
fiigeil  in  this  portion  of  h.\n 
work,  the  nuns  of  tliis  order 
were  to  follow  the  rule  of 
the  Cistercians  ;  and  the 
monks  were  to  be  of  the  or- 
der of  Aueustinians,  or  White 
canons,  coUed  FrgcmonstrBtene, 
which  had  shortly  before  this 
been  introduced  into  Engbnd. 
The  same  writer  says  that  Gil- 
bert, before  he  died,  lived  to 
sec  ten  houses  erected  of  this 
order,  and  their  numbers  then 
umouiited  to  fifteen  hundred 
nuns,  and  seven  hundred  ca- 
nons.    Aixrat.    Benedict  in.    p. 

K  ["  Quidam  enim  singnluri 
"  doctrinn  nomine  Bruno,  homo 
"  Coloniensis,  cum  Lutetiv 
"  Parisiorum  philosophiam  pro- 
"  fiteretnr,  contigit  ut  omicum 

"  quendam  bonis  moribus  prs* 
"  ditum,  et  vita  jam  defunctum 
"  prius  quaui  ad  sepulturam 
"  daretur  audire  visas  sit  cla- 
"  Diontem,  jufto  Dei  judiciu 
''  damnalus  mm :  et  ea  re  motus 
"  e  veatigio  cum  sex  sociis, 
"  pari  miraculi  eventn  territis, 
■■  eremi  deserta  quEcritans,  per- 
'■  venerit  in  dinvesini  Gratia- 
"  nopolitanom  [Grenoble],  (eat 
"  Celiicffi  civitas)  ibiciue  locum 
"  optaverit,  cui  hodie  Car- 
''  tusiie  nomen  est.  quem  ei 
"  assignendum  curavit  Hugo 
"  tinitianopolitanus  e|>iscopuB, 
"  qui  stntim  post  se  ad  earn  fa- 
"  miliam  adjunxit.  Eu  igitur 
"  loci  Bruno  divinis  intentus 
"  primum  oEnobium  fundavit, 
''  cum  his  rigidie  ribe  institu. 
"  tia :  intima  enim  ve«te  utun- 
"  tur  ciltcinn,  aumma  ptillio 
"  nigro.  aubter  Candida  toga. 

Tf>,-  t/ittoTjf  of  A^y*  KHM  n. 

arier  llivy  wMv  biuujctu  otlt  into  Eofcbuid.  1 
witinler  men  fiutiiif;  wt  much  «h(iul<l  liavt.>  twt  li^rti 
itpiritN  uu  onltT  Ntaitdin;r  morr  rtmilljr  un  their  pri- 
rtlcgvs ;  inaomuoh  wbfni  tim  m(«n4  nt  nil  coiiTantt 
were  vmlu«<l  in  Un>  n-ijrn  of  kinjr  Ht-niy  the  EiffhtliS 
a  INvuluu"  rUuM*  was  aiMlhI  tu  the  jmU'iit  of  tlw 
cummiiMioncni,  tim[H>wt>ritift  theiit  iwrtirularijr  to  ibIb 
Cliutvr-hooM?  iu  Ijomlon.  Ilnwrrtr.  tbeir  book* 
(Uiera  beiaK  elirven  lenmp<l  nultmni  nf  Knuliiib  C«r> 
ifaumiu')  coataiu  niurli  tmiilin^to  iiiortifinttlon,  and 
oat  of  thum  Putiiin  the  Jcvuil  bath  calli!rt(><l  a  ft«Kid 
inwt  of  hi*  ntmhitioiw. 
i'  10.  Sa  mui*)i  of  mooks;  eamo  wv  now  to  frian, 
r,  auil  it  M  vuxetmn  to  iiremiau  wliat  vt-aa  tlu*  difr 
tinctkm  betwixt  thorn.  For  tbouffh  *amv  will  My 
the  matt«r  is  not  much  If  monlu  and  frfaura  i 
ccmfuundii)  tO)p}lber,  yet  the  dUtin^ishin^  of  I 
eotHluccth  much  to  the  cleorioi^  of  btMory. 
make  monks  the  gvnn*.  aiit)  fHan  bnt  thp  « 
that  all  friara  were  monks ;  but.  rrm/ra,  all  I 
wen  DOC  Man.  (Hben.  that  monks  wnv  c 
to  tbelr  dobtvni  whilst  more  liberty  waa  allowall 


"4m.    HttlMkwMlMMMt 

"  MUa  yhriiMw  habdMMibi 

"  MoMMt,  b  caUoaib    ow    »  dcwK  f»r  mwd  mI  lIliilBiM 

-  trndmHtM.'    PuL   Vlmfl.  4l 

UvMt.  ik.    TU«   m^  mm 

I  praa.    im  m«iM  a  Witlm  ia  LW 

■  ftm    Mfa»Um  bf  IImtt  II..  mA 

ifaiMw     tkir  fnt  pri<ir  -«•  iW 
irpwrfirtM     bratod   Hi.    linco.     '^ 

"  Ian  ad  amMk  iKi  aansAi,    |h  t6i 


"  o—liiil 


>  Pita.  A.  p.  97.1- 

BOOK  VI.  in  England,  267 

friars  to  go  about  and  preach  in  neighbouring 
parishes.  Others,  that  monks  were  in  those  convents 
who  had  a  bishop  over  them,  as  Canterbury,  Nor- 
wich, Durham,  &c.,  but  never  any  friars  in  such 
places  where  the  bishop  was  the  supreme,  and  they  in 
some  sort  had  the  power  of  his  election.  I  see  it  is 
very  hard  just  to  hit  the  joint  so  as  to  cleave  them 
asunder  at  an  hair's  breadth,  authors  being  so  divided 
in  their  opinions.  But  the  most  essential  difference, 
whereon  we  most  confide  is  this,  monks  had  nothing 
in  propriety,  but  all  in  common ;  friars  had  nothing 
in  propriety,  nor  in  common,  but,  being  mendicants, 
begged  all  their  subsistence  from  the  charity  of 
others.  True  it  is,  they  had  cells  or  houses  to  dwell, 
or  rather  hide  themselves  in,  (so  thefoa^es  have  holes^ 
and  the  birds  of  tlie  air  have  nestSy)  but  all  this  went 
for  nothing,  seeing  they  had  no  means  belonging 
thereunto.  Yea,  it  hath  borne  a  tough  debate 
betwixt  them,  Whether  a  friar  may  be  said  to  be 
owner  of  the  clothes  he  weareth  ?  and  it  hath  been 
for  the  most  part  overruled  in  the  negative. 

11.  It  will  be  objected,  that  many  convents  of  Objection 
friars  had  large  and  ample  revenues,  (as  will  appear  distinction, 
by  perusing  the  catalogue  in  Speed's  tables,)  amount- 
ing to  some  hundreds  (though  never  thousands)  by 
the  year,  some  friar's  bams  well-nigh  as  wealthy  as 
some  monks',  (rather  every  pretended  Lazarus  a 
Dives,)  holding,  though  not  severally  to  themselves, 
jointly  amongst  themselves,  most  rich  endowments. 
Here  also  it  will  be  in  vain  to  fly  to  the  distinction 
of  ctesis  and  chresisy  of  using  and  owning,  seeing  the 
monks  will  lay  a  claim  to  that  distinction,  and  chal- 
lonpe  as  great  an  interest  therein  as  the  friars  them- 



18.  I  have  nntbtng  to  return  lit  uwwer  hnvtrntfl^ 
nvo  oriljr  thnt.  o/t'm  rrr»  ntm  fuii  «iV,  "  from  Um 
"  bfjrinnin^  (nf  the  iruititutinn  of  frian)  it  wn  Dot 
"  so;"  tlivM.'  vldilions  of  latidii  untn  thpni  are  uf  btar 
date,  and,  belti^Tc  it,  not  »r  their  M-ekiag.  but  their 
boDefiKtofB*  caatiDff  upon  tbem. 
W*a  IS.  HowoTcr,  nathfaig  more  common  i!uui  to  maka 
Jli  M  monks  and  fHan  both  HTnoajma'i  niid  rtviprord.  and 
^^"  for  mjr  own  part,  I  p«k»  not  if  in  thin  oiy  butoi^  I 
bavo  comtnittofi  the  mxav,  and  hrrraftt^r  <duUl  b» 
guilty  nf  ynvAter  miftakoft.  KnrvsttriB  laugfaid  ■!  tlie 
ifpionuicL-  of  that  j;cntlcrruui  who  made  this  dUfafMMV 
betwixt  a  fttajr  and  a  hart,  that  tho  one  «w  %  n^ 
the  other  a  fmllow  deer,  heiDg  both  of  a  1 
diflbrent  bi  age,  and  aonw  olbcr  rin 
Tetter^.  I  mar  nuke  tho  like  sport  to  mmc  | 
reader,  (and  murh  ]i*>od  l«*t  it  do  him.)  in  i 
some  onkra  which  an*  tho  samo,  and  idei 
other  orders  wbidi  are  distinct,  bat  the  i 
no  dangenma  ooncerameot.  tfa;  we  be  bnt  c 
to  ordlfr  omr  eamrvraoHoiu  ari^t,  Uial  God  s 
*w  kis  ati/ratifM^,  and  it  matters  not  much  ff  we 
otnnmit  ermr«,  and  dbroTn-  igmtranee  in  ordciing 
Man  not  in  their  exact  numbrr  and  wtiinrity. 
llMae  premheJ,  we  begin  with  tht-ir  four  Hfuivntal 

W^  14.  WieUllb  eoostandf  inTeigfaoth  againU   friars 

wSikft  under  the  name  of  Oiim.  Had  it  been  Cain.  I  •bonld 

'^^       have  mapectud  Us  alhurioD  to  the  word*  uf  the 

npcwtlc,   TA*y  kmee  fime  im  Uu;  itatf  o^  Cain},  Sot 

DOW  am  at  a  losa,  and  had  so  coatinued,  had  I  nni 


nuUng   hexastie  of  an  oncharitabla 

■  1.  ty 

BOOK  VI.  inEuglaiul.  209 

rbythmer,  (a  base  fellow  may  shew  an  honest  man 
the  way,)  who  thus  letteth  fly  at  them : 

Per  docies  binos  Sathanas  capiat  Jocobinoe, 
Propter  ct  errores  Jesu  conrundo  Mini»re8, 
Augustionees,  pater  inclyto.  aterne  per  enses, 
Et  Carmelitas  tiinquam  falsos  Heromitae 
Sunt  confessttrea  Domitiorum,  scu  Dominarutn 
Et  eeductorofl  ipsorum  sunt  animaniiu'". 

C  Carmelites,  A.  Angustlnians,    /.  Jacobius   or 
Dominicans,  Af.  Minorites  or  Franciscans,  friars. 

And  thus  at  last  we  have  the  groat  mystery  un- 
folded, whom  Wicliffe  therein  did  intend. 

13.  Of  these,  Dominicans  were  the  first 
which  came  over  into  England  anno  1221,  being  but  "*" 
twelve,  (an  apostolical  number,)  with  Gilbert  de 
Fraxineto  their  prior,  first  landed  at  Canterbiuy, 
fixed  at  Oxford,  but  richly  endowed  at  London  ; 
they  were  commouly  called  Black  friars,  Preaching 
friare",  and  Jacobin  friars".    They  took  their  name 

>n  [These  lines  are  quoted 
in  Weev-er's  FuuenJ  Alonu- 
menta.  from  a  MS.  of  Bale's, 
p.  140.] 

"  [They  were  called  Fralret 
Prmdicaloren  from  a  very 
strange  circum stance,  narrated 
by  Thomas  CantiprHtanus  in 
Ilia  hook  "  De  Proprietate  A- 
"  puin  ;"  who  6uurislied  be- 
tween 1152  and  1263.  Thus 
it  18 ;  Conrad,  abbot  of  V""!!!!- 
ria,  believed  to  be  a  saint,  was 
sent  by  the  pope  as  his  legate 
into  Germany,  his  native  coun- 
try. On  his  way  he  came  to 
Paris,  and  seeing  the  brfthren 
of  die  order  of  St,  Dominic, 
who  hiid  lately  come  thiiher. 

he  associated  with  them.  Hav- 
ing some  doubts  in  Lis  heart 
concerning  them,  he  prayed  to 
the  Lord  that  he  would  vouch- 
safe to  shew  him  for  what  pur. 
pose  that  order  had  come  to 
Pariii.  At  the  moment  an  o|)en 
book  was  put  into  his  hands, 
containing  this  answer  to  hia 
thoughts,  and  the  purpose  for 
which  that  order  had  sprung 
up,  couched  in  these  words: 
"  To  praise,  to  bless,  and  to 
"  Y>^s^eh,"(laudare,henedicere, 
et  pradicurt.)  The  holy  abbot 
immediately  bursting  forth  into 
the  praises  of  the  Lord,  ex- 
claimed before  them  nil  : 
•■  Though  I  be  of  the  habit  of 

The  Hithtry  nfAhbryt  MXM 

from  8.  Domitiir,  horn  at  Cumkiga  in  8p«bi:  wmA 
llulM?rt  tie  Hur^n,  vnrX  or  Kcnc,  was  Iheir  prinv 
jiatmn,  bostoving  hi»  ittUcp  in  the  mbiirfaa  t4 
Uincliiu  upon  tbetnP.  vhirb  nftmrards  tbcy  aoU  to 
t)i<!>  afvhbi»tiofNk  (if  York,  redtliiiff  thttvin,  till  hj 
Mmif  imrtNttction-i  )>c>twixt  king  Wvnty  th«  fQ^tb 
lunl  oAnlioAl  Wtilwv  it  Invaiik*  ihc  ro^  co«rt»  m»w 
known  br  tlic  nooio  of  \Vbit(>halli.     AftenrmnK  tqr 


kv,  yd  w{U  I 
"  b«  fovr  hrolhtc  m  long  u  I 
"  lifw."  Pnm  tlui  aeaMJaa  r>i<lid  bf  bmw 
tlMtvbnilwHGdMtkfCMs  chi«Hcl«n:  '" 
IVwrfiMtorMN.  For  wbn  k 
WHtorraJv*  ili  canfinMiioa 
fton  Um  pop*.  liH  fcalia— 
a?*  order*  to  Uh  aoUfj,  UmI 
\a  Um  d«Krip6o«  of  tW  arte 
he  alMMild  UM  th*  ivriM  /*!«• 
f rrj  PrMfmmtat,  wba,  tnAliH 
lb*  IrUer  of  taaSmaaikm,  bw2 
tkr  wMih  Frmlrta  Pnnliem' 
IWTM  rigktlf  MMM^  TIm 
pvp*  bavioc  iMfwmJ  tW  lrt> 
Urr  mhI  tn  Uw  M(wr.  ••  Whr 
■'  iBd  7«a  But  IM,  M  I  IdU 
**  fom,  tW  «wda  Fmtm  Pr^ 
'    mA    Frmtm 

Mriht  npiM  Willi  ■  bed  ad 

WW  iftWWdi  IMMnBT  MBpa* 

•d.    lb•IUH«.^49<>J 

•  [Do  alU  »ca>  IW  IM 
bniK  i>  Pak.  »liU  mtm  la 
t^  Mnvt  al  fit.  Jmm  (Mmrfi' 


t  [Tto  aninl  «m1  iiwplliw 
•4  d»  <aibr  iflW  Ifa_W<ra* 
w  Ki^Uad  b  tima  dmiiM 
bf  Ni«.  Trim.   MM  mT  Ifcnr 

,  IB  «M  nmwrt  pvo- 
I  aJn  ilir  |iid>- 

"  art.     cmw  rttUi  ites. 

~  dn  alifarajatiiB.  Ma 

'  fanav.  PramdMMM  Ml^ 
'  fnMTt*  dt  CWalnvk.  *•■•• 
-  mat  LiiwdoMhi  la  KhIa  S. 

*  LaanwUli  at  aluviM  CH*. 

•  rImi   (■  iHla  AMMapdMt* 

I  Etigliuiil. 


the  bounty  of  Gregory  Rockaley,  lord  major  of 
Lomloti,  aiul  Robert  Kilwarby,  arcIibiBhoji  of  Cjiii- 
terbury.  they  were  more  conveniently  lodged  in  two 
lanes  on  the  bauk  of  Thames,  in  a  jdaee  enjoying 
great  privileges,  and  still  retaining  the  name  of 
Blaek  Friars.  No  fewer  than  fourscore  fiimoiis 
English  WTiters  are  accounted  of  this  order'.  At  this 
day,  as  beyond  the  sca-s  they  are  much  conclemnc<l 
for  being  the  solo  active  managers  of  the  cruel 
Spanish  inquisition,  so  they  deserve  due  commen- 
dation for  their  orthodox  judgments  in  maintaining 
some  controversies  hi  divinity  of  importance  against 
the  Jesuits. 

1 6.  Francibcans  follow,  commonly  called  Grey  f™i 
friars  and  Muiorites,  either  in  allusion  to  Jacob's 
words,  sum  minor  omnihvs  houjinis  fuvs*.  or  from 
some  other  humble  expressions  in  the  New  Testa- 
ment. Tliey  received  their  name  from  8.  Francis, 
born  in  the  duchy  of  S]Kjletum  in  Italy.  Canonized 
by  pope  Gregory  the  Ninth,  about  two  years  after 
whose  death  the  Franciscans  came  over  into  Eng- 
land, and  one  Diggs,  ancestor  of  sir  Dudley  Diggs, 
bought  for  them  their  first  seat  in  Canterbury,  who 
afterwards  were  diffused  all  over  England.  For 
skill  in  school  divinity  they  beat  all  other  orders 
quite  out  of  distance,  and  had  a  curious  library  in 
London,  (built  by  Richard  Whittington,)  in  that  age 

"  honoremoratariumeonstrux- 
"  eruiit:  et  habebniit  kcIioIos 
"  illoB  quic  nunc  S.  Edwarili 
*'  diciintur,  in  cujus  pnrochia 
"  locum  occpperant,  in  quo 
"  tempore  aliquo  morabantur. 
"  Sed  eum  non  csset  nppnrtu- 
•'  nitas  locum  siifficienti-T  dila- 

idi  transtuk-runt  sc  ail  lo- 

M    n   r^e  eis   coneessuiii 

nnc  boIiitaDt  (?itra  mu- 

ro«."  I.  p.  176,    Reyner,  tb. 

1 6a.] 

'PiW.  ib.  p.  981. 

»  Gen.  xxxii.  10. 

tn  Tht  History  of  Abbeys 

ooitlng  Bre  handred  and  fiftr  |x»uidB,  which  qvleUf 
might  bo  mndf  up,  if,  afi  it  i*  reftorted,  an  bmiisi 
mariu  werei  oxpondi-d  iit  tmtucribiDg  the  CoaoDM^ 
tuice  of  Lyni*. 

17.  We  most  not  Torget  that  one  Bernard  of 
rranf*."  Sicnua  about  tho  year  1400  rpfinnl  iho  Friniitf 
*""'  into  Oliwrvants.  no  diatinet  ntotal  fnnn  iho  fv 
but  diQert-'iit  from  thMn  u  rteel  from  inm. 
Etlwanl  tliP  Fourth  fiivt  broogbt  them  into  I 
wbcru  tht'T  hail  mx  funoiu  eloiiten:  i 
time  there  have  beun  a  dcw  ord<<r  of  Mi 
bejoad  the  hmw.  Coureivinfr  tbo  com 
Uinor  too  high,  thcj  have  donccudcd  to  &fi 
■oeonUng  to  onr  Saviour's  own  wnnla,  Ut  i 
(a  iiiukim;  or)  the  leatt  amomy  yiw,  tie  mm»  a 
jnulttt :  and  I  ranch  ndniuv  that  nooe  I 
begun  an  ordor  of  Minnr-Minimo'it:  tbormthvr.  1 
eaute  of  the  ^KwtleV  wnnls  of  himavlf.  irAo  am  i 
UlMm  Uu  least  of  all  faimtt.  'E^oi  r^  cXaj^ivi 
vwTw  TMv  ayimr,  aa  1  may  i«r,  a  subtor  ■ubtetlaCiv* 
in  hii  huniiitly.  Ai  for  other  diminutivn  of  Fntt- 
daeana  or  &linorite*  lieTiiad  the  mwi,  Itccolleeti^ 
Peuitvotiaries.  Capurhiiw.  &c^  ftowxf^  they  had  tboir 
riac  dncc  the  lall  of  abbt>T«  in  England,  th( 
not  to  our  |>n<«mt  inquiry.  Sufficctb  It 
ordur,  durinjBT  ttie  rxtrnt  of  our  fftory, 
England  a  huwlrvd  and  ten  li«med  writon. 
Cttmikm  IB.  CAHMKLmcB,  or  While  frian.  oome  i 
i^^hMUuned  fmm  m<»unt  Carmel  in  Hyria,  bnmgfat  i 

iuti)  Kngbuid  iti  the  tvif;a  of  l(in|t  KiHiard  the  First 
by  Italph  Fn-ohum.  and  plarcd  at  Atnwirk  in 
NfKthumticrtand  in  a  wildemeM^  {tie  tmmiiuM  rata/iM,) 

'  IUtmt  ia  j^iiiililiiii  BiaiillilliiiBB.  L  ^  i6i. 


in  England, 


most  like  unto  Carmel  in  Syria  ^.  Whose  convent, 
at  their  dissolution  in  the  reign  of  king  Henry  the 
Eighth,  was  at  low  rates  in  that  cheap  county  valued 
at  one  hundred  ninety-four  pounds  and  seven  shil- 
lings per  annum  ^,  to  justify  our  former  observation, 
that  even  mendicant  friars  had  houses  endowed  with 

19.  Tliis  soundeth  something  to  the  commendation  a  great 
of  the  English  Carmelites,  that  their  order  lost  not  English 
the  vigour  thereof  by  being  poured  into  cisterns, 
(mediately  derived  from  other  countries,)  but  as  our 
author  telleth  us*.  Hi  cum  primis  monachis  Britonum 
et  Scotm'um  ex  jEgypto  et  Pakestina  in  Britannicas 
insiilas  monachatutn  inttderunt,  *•'  that  monkery  and 
"  Carmelite  friary  came  out  of  Egypt  and  Palestine 
^*  into  Britain."     Thus  they  will  allow  us  to  have 

^  [After  the  death  of  John, 
king  of  Jerusalem,  when  all 
Judaea  fell  again  into  the  hands 
of  the  Saracens,  the  Carmelites 
were  obliged  to  seek  refuge  in 
Europe,  about  the  year  1238. 
This  was  the  first  occasion  of 
their  coming  over  into  Eng- 
land. Trithem.  de  Laudibus 
Carmel.  in  Alegre's  Paradisus 
Carmel.,  p.  663.  At  first  they 
wore  a  white  robe,  intended  as 
symbolical  of  purity  of  heart ; 
but  after  the  Saracens  had  ob- 
tained  possession  of  the  Holy 
Land,  they  were  compelled  to 
adopt  a  grey  habit,  white  being 
confined  among  the  infidels  to 
noble  persons.  When  however 
this  order  came  into  Europe, 
they  resumed  their  white  ha- 
bits, wearing  them  over  their 
grey  ones.  lb.  p.  662. 







Bale,  in  his  MS.  history  of 
the  Carmelites  (Harl.  1819.), 
gives  the  following  memoranda 
of  the  introduction  of  this  or- 
der into  England,  p.  198.  *'The 
Carmelites  entered  this  king- 
dom, according  to  some,  in 
1220,  in  the  vigil  of  the 
Nativity,  and  in  the  year 
1 230  died  lady  Lucy  Greye, 
*'  the  first  foundress  of  the 
**  convent  of  Aylesford  in 
**  Kent.  The  friars  preachers 
**  entered  England  in  1221  ; 
"the  Minorites  in  1224,  in 
**  the  feast  of  the  E-xaltation  of 
'•  the  Holy  Cross."  But  in  his 
fourth  century,  as  quoted  by 
Reyner,  he  fixes  the  foundation 
of  this  order  in  Endand  to  the 
year  1240.] 

w  Speed,  Catalog,  p.  795. 
X  Reynerus,  ibid.  p.  164. 

874  Tk€  Hittary  rfJUr^  m 

BU|<cr«tition  imiiieiliaU>l5  (honco  wjtboot  Uf  < 
from  Rome.  )>ut  an-  liifflilr  oflbniU'd,  uwl  i 
miuiii}'  to  the  contrary,  tliat  wo  vtiould  fetch  I 
relifpon  tbcncL*,  with  tlio  ondLnil  obscn'mtton  of 
EuIct;  (>ut  tliia  fuiwHith  wc  must  mx-irp  tx.  the 
weond  haii'l  from  Koiiic,  and  bo  ordend  i 
to  bcr  dircctitinx  Ih4>n'iii, 
AM^fim  80.  AnntbiT  lliiiifT  aIm)  i«  allejp^  in  Ibe  [ 
imdmuj.    our   Can]iclit4>K,    tlint    tht*T   wvrv    nin*t 

kc>eping  the  rv^o^tN  of  tboir  unk*r,  that  thv  Ust  I 
lo«t  of  thp  nftiPtlirtiiit^  iKtminirans.  he.  («TO  1 
or  therv  a  bnikfu  link  or  two,)  Cannvlitva  have  | 
■LTvwi  the  mont-wiTe  tvnv*  of  their  {m>vtiiriali.  Ijit 
thciu  thank  John  Uolo  lii'mii.  onov  one  of  ibcwi, 
(thi>U];h  they  be  pleased  to  jeer  him  h  forwkinj:  it 
for  Uio  lore  of  bia  dear  Doruthyf,)  who  in  hb  yuatll 
>  tbo  eatalogue  out  of  love  to  bin  opjer.  Mid  is 
hb  qM  ago  pnwTTcd  it  tmt  of  hb  grneral  i 
to  antiquity,  and  it  will  not  be  taam  bera  to  i 


I  itir  una 

I  BMdet 

T    [R«riiFr'a    t%\tntmimi    in  "  anil  I 

ki>    Apnat     Hrnnlieliii.    I.    n.  "  yrie»wl  at  ■  a 

i6i,     (K  Hair.  W*w*»   UtM  ■■  u  U  «lk  lu^  h4  I 

•|ivalu  ill  kte  FunenJ  Unan-  "  nvailieaHl,    wks 

aMwU.  cjonlinf  owie  Iums  frnm  "  ar«lin«  tmA  coap* 

him  pooH  "  D»  Anli^niuir  Fra-  "  rinUntt  mHkm  ■ 

"  inuH  CwmrUtai urn:'— -  lip  -  ukI  oUmt   of  iW  i 
"  HMnka  ■neb  m  ilw  ktxMMir 
I  nligiMM  «v4cr.  of 

"  wUcb  W  WU  ■  MMibfV  i 

■'  iW  WMMtefTaf  tlM  CanaM 

■*  wMiIb  iIw  cut  of  NorvKh, 


Began.Ruied.    Liet  butiedin\ 

Ralph  Krehurne. 

mo  1 

14  [  Alnwick. 

Ilenn,'  de  lluina. 


17  'Stanford. 




■  4: 


WfllEam  llaml-erv. 



3      I«ndon. 

ST, '?":■""'""• 


18  '  Sta(.ford.] 



S     Stanford. 

\rill.  NV«pnhiim. 



1     Cambridge. 

Kioh.  Welwrii. 



4  1  Hulchin. 

M'iUiuin  rsjtiiam. 



3     .tIetli,uiIreUnd. 

Jiihn  Itark  enisled. 


7  1  London. 

Hi.']iar.l  Bhtaii. 



6  1  LiDocdn. 

John  H'alMnghsm. 
John  Bamnlfiori.. 



3  !  Avinion. 



4  i  London. 

John  Ulexam. 



J  ,  Oiford. 

John  Polenhed. 



7     York. 

John  FnlshRtn. 



6    Norwich. 

Waller  Kelfaam. 



1.15  J 


[Widter  Kflhani  («.). 



5     AlverMoii.] 

Joh„  CoUMton. 



,1     l«ndon. 

Thomas  Brown. 


?     London. 

Rol*rt  Yvorie. 


.1     London. 

John  KininKhum. 



5      York. 

i>U-uU.  rstrintlun. 



15     London. 

Thomas  M-atdi-n. 



<r,     Rouen. 

Jo.  Kpiiinizhall. 


'430  j 

13     Norwich. 



•1      London. 

Jo.  Milverwn. 


i*if>  1 

11     Undon. 

John  Saturn. 


[John  .^lilverton  (bit). 



„     London.] 

Jo.  ^'inde. 

St.  Botolph'.. 


14    BoHon. 

Rol>.  Lovp. 



7     Norwich. 

Uirhard  Ferria. 



.t    Oxford. 

.!ohn  Bird. 

Coventry  ? 

■  S16 

Ilol«rt  l^esbury. 


3     Ch«er. 

[John  Bini  («.). 


(.    Chc«er.»] 

This  order  was  vertical,  and  in  the  highest  ex- 
altation thereof,  in  the  reign  of  king  Edward  the 
Fourth  ;  under  Nicholas  Kenton,  their  twenty-fifth 
provincial,  they  reckoned  no  fewer  than  fifteen  hun- 
dred of  their  order'.     But  when  John  Milverton, 

2  [This  oit.iUigue  Fuller  has     Centuries.] 
topieil  from   Reyner,   p.  165,         ■  [Hta.  de  Script  p.  658.] 
nho   collected  it  from  Bale's 

T  2 

976  7%<  Hillary  «tfAbbaf*  boo*  vi. 

hi«  BuceeMor,  b^tD  (in  fiirour  of  Maty)  ruriamly  to 
enf^ffc  a^nst  bishoiw  aod  the  McnUr  cIcrffT.  the 
Carniflitc*'  gocNl  niMt«n  and  dsniMi  bcgmii  tu  fonako 
thi'in.  iiikI  tliPT  novcr  reooTpml  tlirir  rmlit  till  tlwjr 
wpro  utterij  <liiiiHitTn)\  John  Bird,  the  one  and 
tbirticUi  (Mfnic  say  la^t)  (irunnrial  n(  tblf  < 
ic>iUoii.«1t  itnpufpiod  tit*.*  ]M){)i''fl  |irimacT  ia  hi*  | 
tnotiA,  for  wliirh  \w  was  mtdo  tht>  tint  I 
Chester,  and  wm  tweeted  that  wc  in  the  rdga  «f  ' 
c)uccii  Mary  beeaiuc  bo  wm  tiiani«d'. 
TWM^  SI.  Wo  must  not  forget  bow  tb(»  C'annelitaa 
SMh.  boact  very  much  of  oiw  Himon  Stock  of  their  oftler. 
a  Kentish  man.  or  rather  Kentish  bojr.  wbkb  1 
bot  twvlre  jcan  of  tge,  went  out  into  tbo  i 
and  then*  fi-'d  on  roots  and  wild  fruit,  Unng  1 
trunk  of  an  hollow  tnw.  whence  ht>  got  tbe  i 
of  Stock',  having  a  nrrelation.  That  mmhi  after  4 
■bould  eomo  out  of  Syria  and  coufirto  hk  i 
which  ouno  to  paM  when  tho  Camwlitei  c 
He  afterwmrda  became  masterfennal  of  tlMlrv 
(to  wfaiim  the  revpoctive  proThieiab  are  a 
and  if  mid  to  be  fanKnu  (ur  hia  minKlet.    Let  Sjifel 

k  Idrn,  n.  A74.     [Bdc.  in  " 
tba  UtdioUMMt  prriird  Ui  hla         Aaolkn-  nana  w«j  VUm  as. 

Iratii     (.'cDtnrT,     lUt**     that  il«f  kriit  ap  its  miaUli—  Waa 

MTMMM    U>   Urn    lwJ«hip    nf  ftoo)  Uin,  tiMl  Bo  a»«  WM  1^ 

Joha  MUrarhn.  tbv   fanwl.  mittnl  (idAK*vitaM)Ua4a> 

llaa  WW*  tW  WMt  Inracd  nrii-  pw  in  dtvinttr  wiowpl  thaa, 

■imM  hodv  ia  Kadm^.     Lr-  aalw  ba  had  ma  praafcaf 

had.    Ua    ScripL    llrit..    hm  Ua  )mrnii«  b«  maa   ^M 

■niaaw  rail  J  man  Ihaa  nat  haa-  pahUcatiaa.    Of  th*  f^frf 

4r«4  aad  Ifty  writwa  af  tUa  llaa.  Ma  aln  Pits.  p.  976.] 

•  Ootfwia  ia  iW  BfaLfa  «r 

MMtr.  p.  77«.     [ItcyaOT,  ». 

"  innaai  tfm  gaawia  nria-     164.    mm    wImm    vom*   1b 

■  I  W  1 

■*  vlnaa  taU 

laMfaaUb-     la  Ite  cfconb  af  RMa.] 

■  WMtntWh        '  "  

«  Rafa*.  iUd.  p.  164. 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  fPTJ 

then  boast  no  longer  of  the  sanctity  of  their  Simon 
Stulites,  (so  called,  it  seems,  because  constantly  living 
about  a  stone  pillar,)  our  Simon  Stock®  may  mate 
their  Simon  Stone  in  all  particulars  of  holiness, 
though,  under  the  rose  be  it  spoken,  Mr.  Richard 
Stock,  the  painful  minister  of  St.  AUhallows,  Bread- 
street,  in  London,  for  thirty-two  years  did  advance 
God's  glory  more  than  both  of  them  ^ 

22.  AUGUSTINIAN    EREMFTES    lag    last,  of  fer   later  Augusitin- 

date  than  Augustinian  monks,  as  who  first  entered  mu^ 
England  an7io  1252,  and  had,  if  not  their  first,  their 
fairest  habitation  at  St.  Peter's  the  Poor,  London, 
thence  probably  taking  the  denomination  of  poverty, 
(otherwise  at  this  day  one  of  the  richest  parishes  in 
the  city,)  because  the  said  Augustinian  eremites 
went  under  the  notion  of  begging  friars  s.  Mean- 
time, what  a  mockery  was  this,  that  these  should 
pretend  to  be  eremites,  who,  instead  of  a  wide  wil- 
derness, lived  in  Broad-street,  London,  where  their 
church  at  this  day  belongeth  to  the  Dutch  congre- 
gation ^  !  To  give  these  Augustine  friars  their  due, 
they  were  good  disputants ;  on  which  account  they 
are  remembered  still  in  Oxford  by  an  act  performed 
by  candidates  for  mastership,  called  keeping  of  Au- 

23.  So  much  for  the  four  principal  sort  of  friara.  Trinitarian 
The  following  orders  being  but  additional  descants  ""^ 
upon  them,  with  some  variations  of  their  founders : 

^  [He  died  above  the  age  of         9  [Their  first  settlement  was 

a  hundred.  A  detailed  account  at  Woodhouse  in  Wales^  be- 

of  his  life  and  miracles  will  be  longing  to  the  family  of  the 

found   in    Alegre's    Paradisus  Tankervilles.] 
Carnieliticu8,  p.  261.]  ^    [Given   them    by    Hum- 

'  Stows  Survey  of  London^  phrey  de  Bohun  in  1253.  Rey- 

p.  821.        [See    his    Life   in  ner,  p.  165.] 
Clarke's  Martyrology.] 


27H  Tht  HUtory  t^AUtgf 

iun<>ng«i  whimi  wuro  tbc  TrinitaiteM*.  for  ' 
KnUrt  llokciHlcT  built  first  a  houie  at  Uottfa^dH 
in  K<>iit^;  tticy  wcro  callud  also  {tobcrtlom.  and  ^ 
fMftttptifme  atptivorum,  whoae  wttric  wm  to  bey 
DioaoT  (if  well-dt^MMvd  peof^  for  tbo  nunaming  of 
Chrutiiuw  in  ra[)tiTit_r  with  the  pagnns.  A  chariubl* 
emplo^iiMit.  and  <io>l  liiniactf  in  aome  aort  mtcf 
■eem  aovpmgn  of  their  order,  who  loottik  the  fri- 
Mmer,  and  thrir  niyhing  eoaittk  b^on  iim'.  Uj 
aathor*  udlcth  me  tliat  he  coDoafrvCh  them  mp- 
[irpMod  in  RngUnd  before  the  genetBl  lUaolatiaa  «f 
[iriorii-N  though  conjecturing  at  no  crnnao  thomC 
Sure  I  am  it  was  nut  becatMO  niUite  tmmtm  MKtar 
rjfniHs,  picutj  of  Chriatiao  eaptivn  then  and  iine« 
rcmatning  amongit  the  pagaoa;  nor  will  I  he  m>  on* 
charitable  aa  to  soqwct  aonw  faiilirect  dealing  in 
their  iiiiita|i|ilnng  eontributkiiu,  bat  leave  (he  reana 
to  the  ioqiiify  of  dthetw. 

84.  Tbo  BoNUioMEs.  or  ^nod  men.  cuceerd  t 
being  alia  eremite*  brnuglit  over  into  England  <l 

'  ["  V«ran  al  Imofmtil  »•     "  |«ctio 

-M  M  wwMitiCTw  Trial. 
"  tuk  ■!  TOMBt  anfo  id  tcm> 
-»ri»  «nrt»  [ilflo]:  «pU. 
■  dun  MiJHi  Jawaw  Kuia  M 

PoJjd.  \'irpL  *W  larwM.  VU. 

lalhlliM.Ee(i.  VIII,  «.•>.] 
*   [Abmi  1475.    Hm  ■•;. 

Mr,  p.  16s.] 
'  Fmlm  iKzim.  M.  aadeUvi. 



BOOK  VI.  in  England.  279 

Ricliard  earl  of  Cornwall,  in  the  reign  of  king  Henry 
the  Third,  his  brother".  So  styled,  not  exclusively 
of  other  orders,  but  eminently  because  of  their  signal 
goodness.  Otherwise  the  conceit  of  the  epigram- 
mist*',  admiring  that  amongst  so  many  popes  there 
should  be  but  five  pious,  lies  as  strongly  here,  that 
amongst  so  many  orders  of  friars  there  should  be  but 
one  of  good  men.  But  indeed  the  apostle  himself 
makes  a  good  man  a  degree  above  a  righteous  man : 
for  scarcely  foi'  a  righteous  man  will  one  die^  yet 
perndventure  foi'  a  good  mail  some  looidd  even  dare  to 

25.  These  Bonehomes,  though  begging  friars  (theTheir  rich 
poorest  of  orders)  and  eremites  (the  most  seques- 
tered of  begging  friars),  had  two  (and  I  believe  no 
more)  convents  in  England,  absolutely  the  richest  in 
all  the  land,  monks  only  excepted ;  the  one  in  Ashe- 
ridge  in  Buckinghamshire,  now  the  mansion  of  the 
truly  honourable  earl  of  Bridgewater,  where  I  am 
infonned  more  of  a  monastery  is  visible  this  day 
than  in  any  other  house  of  England.  It  was  valued 
at  the  dissolution  yearly  at  four  hundred  forty-seven 
])ounds,  eight  shillings,  halfpenny^.  The  other  at 
Edington  in  Wiltshire,  now  known  for  the  hospi- 
tality of  the  lady  Beauchamp  dwelling  therein  r 
valued,  when  dissolved,  at  five  hundred  twenty-one 
pounds,  twelve  shillings,  halfpenny.  It  seems  that 
these  friars  (though  pretending  to  have  nothing  nee 

"    [About   the   year    1257.  to  England  until  1290.      An- 

Tlie    monastery    near    Berk-  tiq.  Benedict,  p.  165.] 
hanipstead  was  built  for  them         ^  John  Owen. 
bv    Ktlinund,  the  son  of  this         p  Rom.  v.  7. 
earl.    Pol.  Virgil.   VII.  c.  4.         q  [In  Dodsworth  these  houses 

But   according   to   Reyner,  a  are     respectively     valued     at 

better  authority,  they  came  not  4i6Li6s,4^d.  ana  44 2/. 99.7^1/.] 

T  4 


7%r  l/i*ioty  tfAbhfjt* 

in  ftmprto,  mm-  in  commuHi)  woald  not  CMt  tbiir 
rat*  (I  bIiouM  mr  tbc-ir  ruwls)  at  rich  io<raiB«s»  If 
bCDtowcHl  ii|Hm  them,  bat  rotitcntcdlr.  not  to  tKf 
choorfullv,  cniltrMv  the  imtne. 

SG.  1  nm  afniil  I  ttavp  wroitgrd  tbo  Ooodked 
rrinm  in  Ihrir  M-ninrilr.  whn  aboat  tbc  tmntt  tin^  if 
not  Itpforv  tb*^*  IloiR'houu'S  vix.  1344,  oune  over  into 
Kn^'IniKl  with  tlit-  poi>i>'N  autbeittic.  and  tliii  umwoal 
priTili-^p^-,  Tli&t  noiK-  Hhoiiltl  n<]imTo  tlunr  enter,  or 
upbmid  them.  <ir  rotiiiiiarMl  thum,  andvr  |«in  of 
cxconimuiiiratioii.  Thcv  earned  a  cruoi,  #unio  tmy 
on  their  iitavn^  otbrnt,  on  tbi^ir  back*,  calleil  bi 
Kn-nrb  a  mmcA  ;  and  juotlv  tnij^t  tltojr  br  Uigiy,  if 
their  iiniperaCM  n-on.'  deliimil  into  ilefnrmitT  oo  the 
HUiu)  mt»tako  uhenxfn  Kdmund  C'murhbork.  Invtber 
to  king  Ivlwani  the  FirM.  one  of  tbf  romeliest  mm 
aliTc',  tH  misn.'|irvaentcd  to  pott^rity  fur  cronknl- 
backed,  men'l,T  for  aBauniiuft  the  rrow  on  bini  in  tlw 
boir  war.  The  {>lare  of  Cruurbed-rrian  in  l^ondoa 
•till  n>taim>th  their  luuue*. 

97.  Soon  alter,  one  Tear,  via.  \t$T,  productsd  tWjB 
0t9w  ordi-n  :  •<>  that  I  know  itut  bow  to  marahal  t 
priority,  eict^rt  to  avoid  eont<-(rt«  they  will  be  f 
fliarn'li-ly  to  une  the  i>x|MMlient  l^^wixl  the  e 
of  men'liant  taitcim  and  »ktnni>ni  in  lymdon,  to  t 
ttteir  imiTtHtonrT  yearly   by   tuma.     IVith  of  I 
wm*  fixed  in  (.'ambrid({r :  the  finrt.  tb«  bnthratt^ 
fmtilmtM  Jesu,   ritbf*rwi«   hrptbrvn   of  the 
wboio  cell   ainee  b  tunH.<d  into  Pct«T<lHiaK. 
othiT  Bechlcmitea,  dwelling  «Hni<wbi*ro  in  TVob- 

•  lor  iiu>  wibr  M*  R«]r-    m. 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  S81 

pington-streetS  and  wearing  a  star  with  five  rays  on 
their  backs.  But  their  star  proved  but  a  comet, 
quickly  fading  away,  and  no  more  mention  found  of 
them  in  English  authors. 

28.  I  will   conclude   with  the  Robertines,  con-FnarsRo- 
founded  by  some^  distinguished  by  others^,  from 

friars  Trinitarians.  These  owe  their  original  to  one 
Robert  Flower,  son  of  Took  Flower,  who  had  been 
twice  major  of  York,  (the  name  lately  remaining  in 
that  city,)  who,  forsaking  the  fair  lands  left  him  by 
his  father,  betook  himself  to  a  solitary  life  about  the 
rocks  in  Nithsdale  in  Yorkshire,  and  it  seems  at 
Knaresborough  the  first  and  last  house  was  erected 
for  his  order.  Matthew  Paris'^  reports,  that  his 
tomb  abundantly  cast  forth  a  medicinal  oil,  which 
possibly  might  be  the  dissolving  of  some  gums  used 
about  his  body,  and  other  natural  causes  may  be 
assigned  thereof. 

29.  For  mine  own  eyes  have  beheld  in  the  fair  Swctting 


church  of  Ilminster  in  Somersetshire  the  beautiful  out  of 
tomb  of  Nicholas  Wadham  of  Myrefield,  esq.,  andmiradcT 
Dorothy  his  wife,  founders  of  the  uniform  college  of 
Wadham  in  Oxford,  out  of  which  in  sununer  sweats 
forth  an  unctions  moisture  with  a  fragrant  smell, 
(which  possibly  an  active  fancy  might  make  sove- 
reign for  some  uses,)  being  nothing  else  than  some 
bituminous  matter  (as  by  the  colour  and  scent  doth 
appear)  used  by  the  marbler  in  joining  the  chinks  of 
the  stones,  issuing  out  chiefly  thereabouts. 

30.  So  much  of  monks  and  friars,  as  great  being  Why  » 

rarioui  ih9 

the  variety  amongst  historians  about  their  number,  number  or 


^  Mat.  Paris,  in  anno  1157.  ^  Reyn.  de  Ben.  Apost.  p. 

^    Weever's  Funeral  Monu-      166. 
ments,  p.  143.  >  In  his  Hist,  in  anno  1239. 


T^  JIulorjf  ofA66eft  MiM  n. 

w  among«t  critics  in  nvkoning  up  t)a'  ori^tial  b^ 
goage*.  aiitl  the  (lifrennKc  almiwt  ]>n>or<^kHh  oo  lbs 
ammo  accttuni ;  for  m  thr  nii^counting  nf  iltoJi-cto  Ar 
litn^K-*  ciuiH'loMly  multi|ilu>tli  the  namlMT  of  tboav 
l&iijfungi'M,  M>  nwii^,  inlMakiiif;  Kmdiut  for  ifficofinl 
ftiffeivticw  siDODgM  ordora,  havr  almaat  douUvnl  tMr 
true  ntunbcr  on  tfakt  ukprUnn.  Maiter  Knx,  in  Um 
Tvlfn  of  king  Heni7  tlio  Third,  rwkoniKb  up  no 
f(>W(>r  thnn  mi  liundn^  and  two  nialc  »rdm  <if 
monks  and  rri)in>,  (no  nuns  being  cast  iiiln  tW 
arrtiuiit,)  but  tht.ivin  ho  cotifinirtti  not  hinwlf  to 
nicli  u>  only  wen*  exUmt  in  Eof^nl,  Kul  Uikrtli  in 
tho  wluili.'  cunipoM  of  Cliristandoni  ttienin  to  nwke 
up  hm  raulogtio'.  We  have  work  rnoogli  u|iaii  our 
lianda  lu  inaiit  apoa  such  ojrdon  w  kmad  fboUag  1m 
OUT  land,  apeciallT  tlie  tnoM  priadfMl  of  Umh. 
For  otlicT  inferior  ordoni  I  purjKMiidj  omit,  (b*> 
lido*  tho  ifnuid  ones  of  TetnpUra  and  lln^iaUfli^ 
Imguiw  larg^  bsodlvd  in  my  Holy  war,)  u  the 
order  of  tlio  PleMed  Mary  of  n>niinl.  whioti  Mr. 
Luobert  confoand*  vith  tbr  ('mii<'tif«l  and  Trini- 
tarian firian,  for  wliich  my  antlior  falU  fnul  with  lik 
mwiKiry,  affinning  ihttw  to  Ix'  tbm.<  dintiiK-t  ordom, 
Mitm,Jtiui,  t4  nmttitutmmihui*.  Dbtinctioiu  i 
of  all  couoienoo  to  divpfHry  them,  and  thffaw 
gruatvr  tlic  wonder  that  Mr.  Lomliert't  pvn  i 
loap  0T«r  thb  troblv  ditrh.  to  conftMutd  tbcm  into 

SI.  Tho  aicNTNud  author  abn  rhargeih  him,  a*  If 
,  ht>  made  hit   |>i*fanitiQlaliun   alNiat   Kent,  a*  iWoa 
lucndy  out  of  »pit«fu]  dcoigu  to  disgrace  the  I 


1  Ami   and    MtM.  p.  160.         ■  Krpt.A»AfaA. 
[L  3)6.     la   Ri*ima   apwuik     is  Aag.  p.  i6j. 
nf  1 71  u«bn  ■!*  fwiMlid.J 

BOOK  VI.  in  Kiigland.  283 

religion,  never  mentioning  any  convent  without 
mocking  at  them  ;  adding  moreover,  that  his  book 
contains yJ//>//7fiw  ineptas^  et  crassa  mendacia\  Mean- 
time he  advances  John  Stow  to  the  skies,  (though 
confessing  him  far  inferior  to  Mr.  Lambert  in  learn- 
ing) for  his  sedulous  distinguishing  of  those  orders, 
and  concludeth  that  Stow's  Antiquities  of  London, 
for  the  worth  and  truth  thereof,  have  often  passed 
the  press,  whilst  the  other  his  Description  of  Kent 
underv^^ent  the  hand  of  the  printer  no  more  than 
once.  Nor  stops  he  here,  but  useth  so  slovenly  an 
expression,  (it  is  well  it  is  in  Latin,)  calling  his  book 
charta  cacata^  which,  saving  reverence  to  the 
reader,  may  be  returned  on  the  foul  mouth  of  him 
who  first  uttered  it. 

32.  Now  I  conceive  not  only  queen  Elizabeth's  Jiwtiydis- 
poor  people  at  Greenwich  (so  are  the  almsmen  there  ^^"^ 
termed  in  a  fair  house,  which  this  Mr.  Lambert 
charitably  founded  for  them**)  engaged  to  assert 
their  good  patron,  but  also  that  all  ingenious  Eng- 
lishmen are  obliged  in  his  just  vindication  from  this 
unjust  aspersion.  Indeed,  his  book  is  a  rare  piece  of 
learning,  and  he  in  age  and  industry  the  true  suc- 
cessor to  Leland  in  the  studies  of  English  antiquity, 
and  the  height  thereof  above  conmion  capacity,  the 
sole  cause  that  his  book  (as  also  his  worthy  work  on 
the  Saxon  laws)  hath  no  oftener  passed  the  im- 
pression. His  labours  are  feasts  for  scholars,  not, 
like  Stow's  works,  daily  fare  for  common  people. 
Thus  the  draper  may  sooner  sell  forty  ells  of  frieze 
and  coarse  cloth,  than  the  mercer  four  yards  of  cloth 
of  gold,  as  only  for  the  wearing  of  persons  of  prime 
([uality.     Nor  doth  the  slow  selling  of  a  book  argue 

»  Idem.  ^  Camd.  Brit,  in  Kent,  [p.  232.] 


The  t/ittory  ofAbheyi 

it  to  bo  tt  drug,  wwiting  n«l  worth  In  itavlt,  m  iiliig 

thifi  nllinj;  ReincriuK  hin  own  book.  (notwitfaitoiidiBy 

till*  imtDjKms  titlt>  tht'T%xtt.ApotlolatHs  HntfJiciinormm 

in  Au^ia,)  thonph   printcil   niix'  ami  twviitT  remn 

liiici*,  viz.  16S6,  bnlli  not  (on  my  Wm  Inquirr)  m  jrcc 

i»ccn  honooml  with  a  )»promI  cilition  *. 

A-ttfMkr       S3.  Itcfoiv  W(*  lako  our  fan-well  of  friars,  koow 

ttitnmA   then*   was   n   dmilly  antii«lhT  Wlwixt   thorn   and 

P)^      pttrisb  |>ric4its:  for  the  fomicr  Kli^HitvH  the  latter,  ■> 

good  niono  to  take  titli(>s  anil,  like  harknrr  pait< 

hnm-ft,  only   to   run   tlio  «tiigo  in   lbi>  mam  boolu 

unmrlum  H$um  S<trvm,  ignorant  and  aiinblo  to  p 

Wht-n-forr   thi'    rriani.   when    inradiiig   the 

wniiltl  not  WT  to  the  paivon,  Kt  yotir  leave,  lit,  bat 

|ir»udl_T  pn-Muming  on  thfir  )Ht|NU  pririlcgea,  ■hiibm4 

it  to  tbcnuelvM.  *»  forfeilitl   to  th<>iii.  for  the  yKt- 

■on'a  want  of  ikill  or  will  lo  nmkf  um>  of  it.     But 

dieae  raltarm   bail    tho   (]uickL'«t    night   and  went 

■boot  eorpt,  floektog  Awtevt  to  men  of  fashion  wboi 

Ijinif   on  tbeir  tlMth-bodi,  wfaaae  laat  ronfwioaa 

were  more   iwofitable  to   thr   frian  than   half  I 

glebe  huid  ibst  TPar  to  the  priest  of  the  parii^ 

la  ibw.        !I4.  'rim  plainly  a|>|K-an>th  out  of  Eraaintw  Ib' 

y^  Ml  ■Hi  dfaUoguea.  who,  though  (wrrhonce  therein  be  \ 

Larian  it  tofi  much,  yt^  tniih  may  be  diaeoTCred 
under  the  vmmUb  of  hi*  ■rofltng  wit  He,  (n  him 
diaJ<igue  intitled  Fmmmt.  telU  ttfl  how  iff  iivotfutt 
the  rich  knight,  being  formerly  ronfeMed  to  th» 
frten,  the   porodttal   puior  nftued   to  tmry  Ua 


w     ito^aw  WBintf  4fvf^w  vvVv 

rml  rkliM  Hbm'a  wrh  ia  hi  tnm  wfcai  fWOvr  aa4  al 

•faun  an  otlwr  of  iW  tnw ;  wqiwat  aailMn  h 

hni  it  ow  fiMUoMUr  is  Kvl-  tli^  kwwlnUt  bTiW  MMH 

\um.  Ik  «nlm  ia  EivkaJ.) 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  985 

because  be  could  not  give  an  account  to  God  of  tbis 
bis  sbeep,  as  unacquainted  witb  bis  final  estate ;  and 
tins  case  commonly  bappened  in  England,  tbe  occa- 
sion of  mucb  beart-buming  betwixt  tbem. 

35.  Monks    also   bated    friars   at   tbeir   bearts,  Monks  why 
because   tbeir   activity   and   pragmaticalness    msAef^^ 
monks  be  beld  as  idle  and   useless,  yea,  as  mere 
cipbers,  wbilst  tbemselves  were  tbe  only  figures  of 
reckoning  and  account  in  tbe  cburcb. 

36.  Mattbew  Paris,  a  Benedictine  monk  of  St.  Al- 
ban's,  was  a  back  friend  to  fiiars,  and  on  all  occa- 
sions batb  a  good  word  in  store  for  tbem,  tbus 
speaking  of  tbe  coming  in  of  tbe  Bretbren  of  tbe 
Sack,  as  also  of  tbe  order  of  Betblemites,  be  wel- 
comes tbem  witb  tbis  compliment,  "  Tbat  now  tbere 
"  were  so  many  orders  in  England,  tbat  of  tbem 
"  tbere  was  an  inordinate  confusion^." 

37.  Indeed,  tbe  pope  at  last  grew  sensible  tbat  tbeFnan 
world  began  to  groan,  as  weary  witb  tbe  weigbt  offourowierfc 
friars.     Wbo,  if  multiplying  proportionably  in  after- 
ages,  would  so  increase,  tbere  would  be  more  moutbs 

to  bog  alms  tban  bands  to  relieve  tbem ;  and  tbere- 
fore  tbey  were  stinted  to  tbe  aforesaid  four  cardinal 
orders,  of  Dominicans,  Franciscans,  Carmelites,  and 
Augustinian  eremites.  Tbese  boasted  tbemselves  to 
be  like  tbe  four  Evangelists%  tbougb  (tbe  number 
alone  excepted)  no  conformity  betwixt  tbem.  And 
tbey  more  like  unto  God's  four  sore  judgments^ 
wbercwitb  be  usetb  to  afilict  a  sinful  nation. 

38.  Come  we  now  to  nuns,  almost  as  numerous  in  The  nume- 
England  as  monks  and  friars,  as  baving  (tbougb  not  Ji^lJ^ 
so   many   orders)  more   of  tbe  same  order.     The 

<l  Hist.  Angl.  in  Hen.  III.  ^  Erasmus' Dialogues  in  Fun. 
p.  949.  '  Ezek.  xiv.  2 1 . 


ri,r  tliiUanf  of  Albfyt 

wittkor  OCX  bath  ovi?r  pqunllml  men  in  their  devo> 
tinii ;  iift«>n  exrtHiIeil  them  in  miiiemiUon.  M  in  tlw 
otio  iiiotoiKt'  Hr(iilU*rlitif«  may  ttiiiK-ar.  Thc«e  w«v 
on  horniaiilinxlite  onter.  n.i  ii«  afon>8>u<).  wImiUiiiK 
Imtli  mm  aiid  womi--n  untlt*r  tlie  Munc  niaC  mW 
tluriii);  the  lift'  of  (iilbert  tlirir  firot  founikT  fur  w WB 
luimln^t  brctlin-n,  IIutl'  •ttvTV  Hrvoti  hutidml  URtMS 
L-titt'ivtl  into  thnt  onirr'.  Nnno  can  he  no  t^xsrt  ia 
rerkimirij^  up  t\w  nuns  u  (hr  frinn,  hccnaw  that  m*x 
nfTortlwl  no  wnt4.>n  to  otqiuitit  iw  with  ih^.'  rrftiruaw 
nf  thf>ir  ohfwnnuiceiL 

39.    We  will  itwbtt  onl^r  on  three  ports:  I.  T1m> 

anei(<nti.>«t ;   fi.  tlio  ponnitt ;   9.  thu  hituvt  hum  in 

""^         Kiiglaiid.  Of  ihi-  finrt  »ort  wt?  urcoutit  the  *!»  Bnxs 

dtrtinvN,  commonly  ralh-d   blnrk  nun«.  hut  I  uamv 

yon,  {(t-nny  white,  Mog-  most  richly  ondowML     The 

{uMiR-rt  follow,  being  the  ftriirt  onler  of  S.  Cluvw  a 

laily  lirinj;  in  the  Nuno  time,  and  born  in  the  wane 

town  with  S.  Franrift;  and  licr  nun«  did  mtmx  a  Ulto 

habit   ill  <Hi|<)ur  with  the   FmnctifnuM.     I  atn  rli»> 

rita)>ly  iiirUnMl  to  iM'licvu  thiU  tbeae  w«n>  the  IcMt 

bod  nmnnffBt  all  the  pmrnaiians  of  vfrgiiiity. 

tiri««M>     40.  Thr  Brifritmn  anns  were  the  latat  in  Eng- 

.niwrf     land,  tint  ti-ttlnl  hcrv  in  the  «rr>tttd  y»«r  of  kinn 

■""■         Ht-nry  thf   Kiftli,  anuo  Ikm.  UI5,  dmoWcd  with 

the  rewt  of  all  nnlfn,  a»»o  1A38.  so  ttint  thi>y  couti- 

nned  hirri'  only  nnu  Imndntl  thm'  and  twenty  yean; 

an  onUf  to  Iw  lovt-^J   on  thi»  arroimt,  tliat  it  waa 

tb«  lait  in   Knj^Uuid.      Bridgvt.  t|ni<en  of  Hwvdm, 

ftnre  tlieiii  their  name  and  InMitiition^:  men  and 

Knnrtal  Mmii. 


BOOK  VI.  m  England.  287 

women  living  under  the  same  roof,  the  women 
above,  the  men  beneath,  and  one  church  common  to 
both.  By  their  order  their  house  was  to  be  endowed 
plentifully  at  the  first,  whereon  they  might  live  • 
without  wanting  or  begging,  as  well  in  dear  as  cheap 
years,  and  after  their  first  foundation  they  were  un- 
capable  of  any  fixture  benefactions :  si  postea  tottis 
mundus  possessiones  et  p)'{Bdia  eis  offei^ety  quicqiiam 
omnino  recipere  non  licereV:  "  if  aftem'ards  the  whole 
"  world  should  proffer  them  farms  and  possessions,  it 
was  utterly  unlawful  for  them  to  accept  any  thing 
thereof:"  as  indeed,  additions  to  such  who  had 
plenty  before,  is  rather  a  burden  than  a  benefit. 

41.  The  mysterious  number  of  Brigetteans  might  The  my»ti- 
not  exceed  the  number  of  eighty-five,  w  hich  forsooth  ^bh"***^ 
was  the  number  of  Christ's  apostles  and  disciples  put  »e«te»^ 
together,  and  thus  they  were  precisely  to  be  qua- 
lified: 1.  Sisters,  sixty;  2.  Priests,  thirteen;  3.  Dea- 
cons, four ;  4.  Lay-brethren,  eight ;  in  all,  eighty- 
five.  Where,  by  the  way,  know  we  must  reckon 
seventy-two  disciples,  which  the  evangelist  makes 
but  just  seventy^,  and  also  put  in  St.  Paul  for  the 
thirteenth  apostle,  or  else  it  will  not  make  up  the 
sum  aforesaid ;  but  it  is  all  even  with  discrete  per- 
sons, be  it  over  or  above  it.  This  order  constantly 
kept  their  audit  on  All  Saints'  eve,  October  31 ;  and 
tlu'  (lay  after  All  Souls  being  the  third  of  November, 
tliey  gave  away  to  the  poor  all  that  was  left  of  their 
annual  revenue,  conceiving  otherw  ise  it  would  putrefy 
and  corru})t  if  treasured  up,  and  be  as  heinous  an 
offence  as  the  Jews'  when  preserving  manna  longer 

1  Tho.  Walsinghuin  in  Hen.  V.,  in  anno  14 14.   [p.  387.] 
^  Luke  X.  I. 

288  The  HiMtary  ^Jbbry*  Moa  n. 

tliaii  the-  rontiiiuaneo  of  one  ttnr.  Tbcso  BriftvCtcaas 
hail  but  ont'  cotiTpnt  in  Knj^land,  nt  Sjou  in  Middl»- 
sex,  built  \ty  kitif;  llonrr  the  Fifth,  Ixit  no  i 
that  it  was  TiilntMl  yparly  worth  at  tJio  i 
one  thouBuiid  uiiiL>  htiiHlred  lurtT-four  poimdi.  « 
shilling  eight  ppn<-o  farthinff'. 

4S.  No  convL'iitA  of  nuns  in  England  more  car^ 
fullj'  kept  their  records  than  the  prinr^  of  CluriMi^. 
well,  to  whcMc  credit  it  is  registered,  that  wr  baw  % 
{terfect  catalogue  of  their  prkiwc^  from  their 
fountlation  tn  their  dtasohitJon,  (defeoCiTe  in  all  otWr 
housea.)  according  to  the  order  feUowing,  via.* 

1.  CliriAianL  13.  Joan  LvtAraor. 

8.  Ermcgud.  H.  Joan  Falhaai, 

S.  lUwina.  IS.  Katharins  Brajrbralta. 

4.  Eloooora.  16.  Lom  AUawood. 

5.  Aleda.  17.  Jou  V{«m. 

6.  OMiUa.  18.  HattuaC  BOwdL 
I  7.  Uai|H7  WiMtnle.  19.  Ubdl  W«ol* 
L8.I«b«IL  »a  Maivan»  BaL 
[.Bi  AEatt  OxMMjr.  81.  Agaca  Cliftird. 

una  MaKjr.  SS.  Kathariiw  OtMaa,] 

^1.  Dmjra  Braa.  S3.  ImIhA  HoHigr. 

I  It.  Margo;  Vtvj.  S«.  l«boU  Sackvfla-. 

Hod  the  like  care  rantimwd  In  other  roarenti^  H 
hail  contributed  mncfa  lo  the  deamrai  of  nnlraii 
liral  hintorv. 

4S.  Sir  Thomas  Chalkner,  tutor,  as  I  take  it.  Ut 
prince  IleniT,  not  bmg  ago  Imilt  a  ■[«rioa>  hooM 
within  the  eloM  of  that  jmory.  ii)>on  the  fronti^ifeee 

>  Tk.  Wahiagliim,  at  |wtw.  •  [Vmtt  Wrcrwa  FatnJ 

■SMvd'«rHi«((irBrilaiBt]  Mmoomicm^  f.  4>9.wh«tn«. 

C^uL  wt  RaflftoM  Hmm»,  p.  wrOinl  iWa  fro*  •  M9.  ia 

79i.  tW  C«(lMi  LOnrj.] 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  289 

whereof  these  verses  were  inscribed,  not  unworthy 
of  remembrance : 

Casta  fides  superost,  velatae  tecta  Sorores 

Ista  relogatae  deseruore  licet : 
Nam  venerandus  Hymen  hie  vota  jugalia  servat, 

Vcstalemque  focum  mente  fovere  studet**. 

Chaste  faith  still  stays  behind,  though  hence  be  flown 

Those  veiled  nuns,  who  here  before  did  nest : 
For  reverend  marriage  wedlock  vows  doth  own, 

And  sacred  flames  keeps  here  in  loyal  breast. 

I  hope  and  believe  the  same  may  truly  be  affirmed 
of  many  other  mmneries  in  England,  which  now 
have  altered  their  property  on  the  same  conditions. 

44.  So  much  for  the  several  dates  of  monks  and  Exactnesa 

f  *  1  ••/•  1  ^'ii^  •      A^      in  (uit68  not 

rriars ;  wherem  if  we  have  failed  a  few  years  in  the  to  be  ex- 
exactness  thereof,  the  matter  is  not  much.  I  was^**'****' 
glad  to  find  so  ingenuous  a  passage  in  Pitseus,  so 
zealous  a  papist,  with  whom  in  this  point  I  wholly 
concur :  he  speaking  of  the  different  eras  of  the 
coming  in  of  the  Augustinians  into  England,  thus 
concludeth  :  I?i  tanta  sententiarum  varietate  verU 
tatem  invenire  nee  facile  est,  nee  multum  refert^.  The 
best  is,  though  I  cannot  tell  the  exact  time  wherein 
every  counter  was  severally  laid  down  on  the  table, 
I  know  certainly  the  year  wherein  they  were  all 
tlirown  together  and  put  up  in  the  bag,  I  mean  the 
accurate  date  of  their  general  dissolution,  viz.  anno  . 
one  thousand  five  hundred  thirty  and  eight,  on  the 
same  sign  that  Saunders  observeth  a  grand  provi- 
dence therein,  that  Jesuits  began  beyond  the  seas  at 

o  [Extracted  from  Weever's  tally  obliterated.] 
F\ineral   ^lonuments,  p.  430,         p  Pits,  de  Script,  in  Indice, 

before  the  publication  of  whose  p.  974. 
book  the  lines  had  become  to- 

FULLER,  VOL.   Hf.  U 

flSD  Tkt  iTutery  ^JUt^ 

the  very  mac  linw:  wo  will  not  hxg^  vMi  M 
fnuik  a  rhnptnan  fnr  r  few  munths  under  or  aw. 
but  taking  liis  chrouult^  herein  d^  6emt  a$»,  ooe 
word  or  the  nune  nf  tbat  order,  finC 
plcsMiit  atoiy. 

43.  A  roantrrmBii.  who  bad  lived 

man;  jou*  fe 

the  Ilircinuu)  wuocb  in  Gi'nui 

Into   a   poimlonii   citj.   domnndin^r    of  the 

"  What  Gn«l  tht-y  did  wonbipT  It  wm 
him,  "Ther  wowhipped  Jenia  ChitaL" 
Wlnnapon  the  wild  wocKJtnan  n«kcd  the  nantM  ei 
the  nerml  ohorcbM  in  the  city,  which  w«se  all 
oUIed  hj  the  nuidfy  wutitu  to  whom  tbey  wen 
aMTatn).  "  It  is  nnmj^',"  said  ho,  **  that  70a 
"  wnnliiji  JesiH  Christ,  and  he  not  han  ooe 
"  in  all  T<iur  city  dcdicat4>d  unto  him."  Bnt  it 
Ifnatios  Loyola,  fbandor  of  this  new  order,  finding  all 
other  orden   coniigned  to   sumo  Mint   or   other, 

whciire  tlmy  take  their  denomination,  intvwled  at 

hut  peciitiArly  to  n|t|impriate  otto  to  Joaua:  that  •■ 
at  that  hoijf  name  eray  knee  tkotM  foip,  n  all  olber 

Olden  ■hoald  do  homage,  and  eubmit  to  thk  hia 

now  ooe  of  Jenilta. 
n-     56.  Here,  had  not  better  eyoi  than  mine  owa 
""made  the  diiooTcry,  (being  bcbi^den  to  M.Ch— 

oitiua  tbereini,)  1  had  iierer  noted  the  nlet  At 

fimee  betwixt  Jetnata  and  JcMiita,ao  nnr  in  tmma, 

Ibongb  not  in  time;  but  it  Kema  in  oatnro  dlMin. 

gnisbod.    The  former  began  at  Sieoa  in 

yeor  1366,  of  whom  thua  SabelUcttl. 

tnih'o  domesticatim,  nmplid  Miirn  aaiicA*, 

<tD— iHmJimI II  fiwiifwi  ifitfcp.  I.  wA.  isH-l 

BOOK  vr. 

in  England, 




quceritantes.'^'-^^Apostolici  ab  initio  clerici  nuncio 
patiy  hi  neque  sacris  initiantur^  neque  celebrant  missor- 
rum  solemnia^  tantum  orationi  vacant,  Jesuati  ab  eo 
dicti  quod  Jesu  regis  summi  /requens  sit  nomen  in 
illorum  (wr,  SfcJ  "  Men  of  much  innocence  and 
"  piety  were  gathered  in  the  beginning  from  house 
to  house,  clothed  in  poor  habit,  and  seeking  their 
own  livelihood  with  labour  and  pains,  called  from 
"  the  beginning  apostolical  clerks.  These  neither 
"  were  entered  into  orders,  neither  did  celebrate  the 
"  solemnity  of  masses,  but  only  bestowed  themselves 
"  in  prayer,  therefore  called  Jesuats,  because  the 
"  name  of  Jesus  was  so  frequent  in  their  mouths.'* 
But  it  seems  these  Jesuats  sunk  down  in  silence 
when  the  Jesuits  appeared  in  the  world,  the  former 
counting  it  ill  manners  in  likeness  of  name  to  sit  so 
near  to  those  who  were  so  far  their  betters". 

*•  [Ennead  IX.  9.  p.  822.  ed. 
Basil.  1560.  Compare  with 
this  passage  the  remarks  of  Sa- 
bellicus  in  his  treatise,  De  Situ 
Venetae,  lib.  i.  p.  254,  same 

^  [**  Quinto  ejusdem  Urbani 
[V.]  anno  qui  fuit  salutis 
humanse  mccclxviii.  Jesu- 
atorum  secta  Senis  orta  est : 
coUigebantur  ab  initio  do- 
mesticatim,  simplici  habitu 
amicti,  multa  innocentia,  et 
pietate  viri,  sibi  victum  la- 
l)ore  et  opera  quaeritantes. 
1 1  OS  Urbanus  quia  jam  sus- 
pecti  ut  malefica  aliqua  su- 
perstitione  imbuti  haberi  in- 
cipiebant,  ad  se  Romam  vo- 
"  catos  de  cseremoniis  et  vit« 
instituto  interrogavit,  cogno- 
vitque  to  tarn  rem  et  probavit. 



f  ( 











*'  deditque  ut  alba  tunica  ute- 
"  rentur,  et  capitio  quadrato  a 
"  cervice  ad  humeros  dejecto. 
"  Cinguntur  scortea  zona,  nu- 
"  dos  pedes  ligneis  soleis  in 
'*  inferiore  parte  muniunt  : 
"  datum  inde  est  ut  canusinum 
"  pallium  tunic®  superjectum 
"  ferrent.  Apostolici  a  prin- 
"  cipio  viri  nuncupati  sunt, 
"  sacris  non  initiantur,  tantum 
•'  precibus  vacant,  et  Jesuati 
''  ab  eo  dicti  sunt,  quod  Jesu 
"  nomen  frequens  sit  in  illorum 
**  ore.  Fuit  rei  autor  Joannes 
"  Columbinus,  homo  Senensis." 
Pol. Virgil,  de  Inventione,VII. 
c.  4.  This  order  never  extended 
beyond  the  Alps.  According 
to  one  writer,  who  received  his 
information  ^m  a  brother  of 
the  order,  they  are  called  in 

U  2 

7%w  HtMtary  ofAbbryt  mm  vi. 

■  ff7.  All  unlen  may  bo  Mud  eminenU;  extant  Id 
the  Juiiuit«  to  ukI  abore  tho  kJoil.  tbe  degxva 
thorenf;  uid  indeed  ther  ramc  ncMnnably  to  M^ 
port  tbe  tiitlL-rinp  ehun-h  of  K^tmo :  Tor  wbcQ  tbe 
pn>t«»tjuitii,  odvoiitAj^l  with  Ipttrninjc  luid  languigv^ 
bnnigbt  ia  tlio  tvfonnatioit,  monki  and  fmn  wm* 
either  so  ignorant  on  iiwy  (-ould  not,  wa  Idle  M  they 
wDutd  not,  or  00  cowanltr  tliat  thcr  dum  not  taakm 
eflectual  oppowtiou,  as  little  Bkilled  in  btbm»  Im* 
in  acriptiire,  awl  not  at  all  Tcraed  io  Icarnni  bn- 
gMgoa.  As  for  the  FrancincBiHi,  I  tnav  nv  or  tbook 
tfaojr  fren>  the  best  and  wont  scholan  of  all  fiian*. 
Hie  bett,  as  nio«t  mibliroe  in  aebool  dirinitj ;  wont, 
teft  if  bofore  their  eotnuiev  into  that  order  ikmj 
knew  not  leuniog.  tbey  were  onjoined  not  to  tkady 
U.  Beeidfls,  tnonki  and  frian  woru  m  clogged  with 
the  nbwmneee  of  their  orden,  that  it  eoaflaat 
them  to  tbejr  eella.  and  reDdered  tbctn  uadca  hi  ■ 
fimetical  way.  ^\*hefefbre,  to  halann'  tbe  pro- 
teatant^  the  Jemila  ware  act  on  fnoi,  oblige]  t«i 
tboee  itadiea,  (oot  of  fiwhkm  with  monks  aud  fttan^) 
whereto  they  quickir  attaJiivd  a  grmt  eminenoy,  ■• 
thotr  verjr  advorsarioi  miut  oonrcH.  And  at  their 
beada  wen  bettor  ftimbbod  than  other  orden^  a« 
their  bandf  were  left  at  mora  liberty,  (not  tM 
behbid  their  baebi  to  a  Ux^  poatnie  of  ranonhal 
idlencw.)  whence  tbejr  arr  boeomo  the  moat  aethr* 
and  prnj^natira]  iindi-rtakif*  in  all  Cbrtftcodom. 

ft8.  1  nnnot  bat  connend  one  imliey  in  the  J^ 
■nitiw  which  oondneeth  mnefa  to  their  credit, 
namely,  whereaa  other  orden  of  monlu  ud  tSan 

lull,  rrmin  WriT  «(f M.  frUM     KMw.  Ubc  Uo^MiM.B.Sa.1 
tWir    •ttnitiM    in    dutiUinit        •  Sh  Cmi.  XIV.  haJk  It. 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  293 

were  after  their  first  institution  sifted,  as  I  may  say, 
thorough  many  other  searches,  still  taking  new  names 
according  to  their  sub-de-re-reformations;  the  Je- 
suits since  their  first  foundation  have  admitted  of  no 
new  denomination,  but  continue  constant  to  their 
primitive  constitution  ;  chiefly  because  sensible  that 
such  after-refinings  fix  an  aspersion  of  (at  leastwise  a 
comparative)  impurity  on  their  first  institution,  and 
render  their  first  founders  cheaper  in  the  world's 
valuation;  whilst  the  Jesuits  still  keep  themselves 
to  their  foimdation,  as  begun  and  perfected  at  once, 
and  are  oXoKXrjpoi,  all  of  a  lump,  all  of  a  piece  ; 
which  unity  amongst  themselves  maketh  them  the 
more  considerable  in  their  impressions  on  any  other 

59.  They  had  two  most  ancient  and  flourishing  in  Enf. 
convents  beyond  the  seas,  Nola  in  Italy,  as  I  take  it,  astroiogen 
where  their  house  it  seems  gives  a  bow  for  their  "*  *^*'™®' 
arms,  and  La  Fletcha  in  France,  where  they  have  an 
arrow  for  their  device;  whereupon  a  satirical  wit 
thus  guirded  at  them :  and  I  hope  I  shall  not  be 
condemned   as   accessary  to  his  virulency,  if  only 
plainly  translating  the  same. 

Arcum  Nola  dedit,  dedit  his  La  Fletcha  sagittam, 
Illis,  quia  nervum,  quem  meruere,  dabit^? 

Nola  to  them  did  give  a  bow, 

La  Fletch  an  arrow  bring. 
But  who  upon  them  will  bestow, 

Wliat  they  deserve,  a  string  f 

I  have  done  with  these  Jesuits,  who  may  well  be 
compared  unto  the  astrologers  in  Rome,  of  whom 
tlie   historian   doth    complain,  Ge7itis   est   hominum 

V  [See  Howell's  Letters,  p.  120,  ed.  loth.] 

u  3 


Tkt  JfUUtry  frfJhbtjfM  m  BrnglvU.      BOM  vi. 

qHod  in  civibUe  nottra  ei  trtaiitmr  tewiper  «f  rwtim^ 
bitar':  "  Tlicfe  is  ■  kind  of  men  tn  our  cttj  wito  «iU 
**  alwari)  bo  forbiddea,  and  yet  atwKrn  be  retained 
**  thcn'iii."  Ko.  though  many  Kiren>  ImWft  hsTn  beMi 
made  lunuiiat  tlieni,  ypt  citlicr  web  their  buldiiMa  faft 
adifiituring,  or  our  iitato-mildiwai  in  oxeeoti 
aututw  l^tmtlMlt  them,  that  alwajm  thejr  tn  i 
bonrt',  aitd  alwaj*  tboy  stay  bere,  to  the  | 
tarbonra  of  oiu*  ami  adnmoeBKnt  of  Aeir 
60.  WvTv  I  iHjriMMuly  omit  the  bonaea  for  I 
I  people,  ttioiifch  indeed  thcjr  deiwnr«l  more  cfaarity 
than  all  tlii.<  n-st ;  and  I  may  ny.  thb  only  wm  am 
order  of  God's  makiu^,  wbea  he  waa  phiaacd  to  1^ 
hi*  afiUoting  liand  on  jKicir  pvople  in  that  loathaaoM 
dkcaae.  1  take  Burton-Ljuam  in  LMrortmhtn  to 
be  the  beat  eiulawod  botuw  for  that  purpuou.  Bat 
aa  that  dtaoaae  came  into  Kajflaod  by  the  Holy  War. 
■o,  M  wo  have  daewfaere  obaerved*,  it  ended  witih 
the  and  tbevEof.  And  God  of  bis  foodiiMB  hath 
taken  a«^  the  leproaj  of  leproiy  in  F-"y*y*d 

•  TMh.  IliM.  lib.  I. 

•  In  mj  Ualy  War.  [V.  p.  15.] 






It  was  enacted  hy  a  law  made  in  the  twenty-seventh  year  of 
the  reign  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  that  "  whosoever  re- 

a  [Arms.  Sadler.  A  lion 
rampant,  party  per  fesse,  azure 
and  gules,  armed  and  langued, 
argent.  Arms.  Coke.  Per  pale, 
azure  and  gules,  three  eagles 
displayed  argent.  (See  Bloom- 
field's  History  of  Norfolk,  V. 
1041.)  Sir  Ralph  Sadleir 
was  son  of  sir  Thomas  Sad- 
leir, knight,  sheriff  of  Hert- 
fordshire in  the  twenty-ninth 
and  thirty-fifth  years  of  Eliza- 
beth, and  grandson  of  the  cele- 
brated sir  Ralph  Sadleir,  the 
keeper  of  Mary  queen  of  Scots. 
He  married  Anne,  the  eldest 
daughter  of  sir  Edward  Coke, 
lord  chief  justice  of  the  king's 
bench,  at  the  early  age  of  fif- 
teen :  "  He  delighted  much," 
says  Mr.  Clutterbuck,  quoting 

from  sir  Henry  Chauncy,  "  in 
'^  hawking  and  hunting,  and 
"  the  pleasures  of  a  country 
*'  life,  was  fieunous  for  his  noble 
"  table,  his  great  hospitality  to 
'^  his  neighbours,  and  his  abun- 
"  dant  charity  to  the  poor." 
And  he  is  thus  spoken  of  by 
Isaac  Walton  in  his  Complete 
Angler,  as  being  attached  to 
the  diversion  of  hunting:  "To- 
morrow morning  we  shall 
meet  a  pack  of  otter  dogs  of 
'^  noble  Mr.  Sadler's,  upon 
**  Am  well-hill,  who  will  be 
''  there  so  early,  that  they  in- 
"  tend  to  prevent  the  sun- 
**  rising."  (p.  3,  ed.  Major.) 
He  died  without  issue  some 
time  after  his  wife,  Feb.  12, 
1660,  and  his  estates  descended 

U  4 



a&B  Th*  Bitturjf  cfAbbtjf  mob  vt. 

»  taimt  aUtf-tmkb  afim  tim  tmoMtm  fmtd  m*i  iLm 
"Jinmt  flU  erwem,  ikimU  imp  a  Mimimy  immi,  w  Jm  ^r- 
"  fint  ntry  wttmA  twmlf  mMm,  nnwmmiiU  frim  tttm  m 
"  amy  court  ^tteant." 

TViM  it  it,  lci»g  Jomm  wm  yracimufy  fimati  m  lib  li<m 
Jlni^hit  rtiym  to  nftat  tkit  aH  mmd  hmm  IAm  rW.jW 
mJuA  MMjr  imdm'  tit  Uuk  (■«(»  wiO  mti  fmy)  tNB  am 
thmh  to  iii  mmmry.  Bml  imfftm  fUt  /mmI  iMMto  d0 
iii/Ww,  jwM  w^  il^y  off  wyWMinyir  «iqr  WpMiifr  II9 
M^  ^  afumi  fomfir  tit  mmt. 

tmdt^  ym  af0  fomtmd  9f&t  Jmr  tamtmi  ^  W^^kmif  im 
QhmtHtwnkirt,  amd  liUf  m  <u  immtntU  hrwta  «*  m^ 
Utmi»  im  SaylaiiJ  1/  that  no/vrv  orw  trnjapd,  UalttmJ  ■• 
fmt  jpnnu^iiAUr,  Mr  Batpk  SaJUir,  iy  hmy  Ilmrj  Ik 
'    iUm  faAtr,  jmrt^  m  mMwrmymma  fa  wtUf  1«  wi^ 

\  ^  99  kit  tknt  MUrm,  to  «B  wMe4  A«  wm  ^i'ij  w 

F<4  M  rfrwjir  of  pmmlty  M  jmi,  trlMf  Amh*  if  ihwwi  <■  it 
liU  «mAv  ^  kt^fitotily,  tritmtt  mm  «U«tt  flbwMnfiw  («arf 
liby  iM«  aMW  t»  tkal  Umam)  miyU  barm  H  hvf  »  Im^ 
lifwi  laiU,  wbw  off  «fv  MWw*rf ;  liW  rteA  far  wrth^ 
mIm  fiUir  aecoMMM  Iniy  lim  .-  ri#  fmtftr  rhanty^  witm 
Aiy  irimy  flUir  otwiwiwM  to  /wi»  <y  jwr  iatiWiW 

/aWM,  UU  i— i*MW»  »f  Umdm  yim  frr  A$  ■>««•  ^  lb 
■nM  ^timr  ttmfamf,  I  wm  •  ttnngvr,  umI  y«  Inoh  ■■ 
k.  Atf  Mi^  Mr  ^^•'Mr  oUq^  HtoadM  iwA  «4*  4W 
m»lmtt,t<^  gim  mdtrlmiimml  $»  ttrmmymt.mun  ynftrfg 
«r*  (if  Mrab  f/JwIfa  to  ymmUf  mmd  wdtr  mif,  wimrn 
iami  it  mti*  immymtral  to  aO  pttr  /wyf<,  ttol  tA«  "HH^ 

Mffaian,  A«  will  im  dm  tim*  nnim  ym  t^  iatt  tit  Immt, 
wktrtim  Amm  it  maay  mmrntJamt  ^mtHmtimy  Ittfjimtm. 

•In  nwiM  air  tUlr^'i  Mtot     p.  iiS.] 

II«rtft«^kirr,   II. 

HOOK  VI.  iM  England.  297 


|HE  specious  pretences  of  piety  andAbiK)c», 
contempt  of  the  world,  abbots  andi^XJ 
monks,  were  notoriously  covetous,  even*"*""^ 
to  the  injury  of  others :  witness  their 
renting  and  stocking  of  farms,  keeping 
of  tan-honses  and  brewhouses  in  their  own  hands. 
For  though  the  monks  themselves  were  too  fine- 
nosed  to  dabble  in  ton-fats,  yet  they  kept  others 
(bred  in  that  trade)  to  follow  their  work.  These 
convents  having  bark  of  their  own  woods,  hides  of 
the  cattle  of  their  own  breeding  and  killing,  and, 
which  was  the  main,  a  large  stock  of  money  to  buy 
at  the  best  band,  and  to  allow  such  chapmen  they 
sold  to  a  long  day  of  payment,  easily  eat  out  such 
who  were  bred  up  in  that  vocation.  Whereupon,  in 
tlio  one  and  twentieth  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth  a 
statute  was  made.  That  no  priest,  either  regular  or 
secular,  should  on  heavy  penalties  hereafter  meddle 
with  sucli  mechanic  employments. 

2.  Secondly,  they  impoverished  parish  priests,  by  *i*^n* 
decrying  their  performances,  and  magnifying  their  can  by  ^ 
own  merits.     Alas  !  what  was  the  single  devotion  of  SJ^JJ/" 
a   silly  priest   in    comparison    of  a   corporation   of 
prayers  (twisted  cables  to  draw  down  blessings  on 
their  patrons'  heads)  from  a  whole  monastery?  And, 
su])]K)»;e  (which  was  seldom  done)  the  parson  in  the 
pariiih  preaching  to  his  people,  yet  sermons   in   a 
church  once  constituted  were  needless,  as  ministering 
matter  of  schisms  and  disputes,  and  at  the  best  only 
l>rofiting  the  present,  whilst  prayers  benefited  as  well 
the   absent  as   the   present,   dead   as   living.     Bnt 

Tht  HUlary  tfJbbi^ 

wpocuUlj  prayers  of  monasteries  ooi 

plnfwd  with   the  hnljr  Tu^eaee  of  m  tuuiy 

mijrbty  iietiiioiiere.     B;  thow  tnd  ochor 

Xhey  uridennintHl  oil  priut*  hi  the  afbetioM  tt' 

omi    people,    and  procurpi]  from  pope 

t)mt  mnnT  rlmrrhcs  pnwintativc,  vltli  their 

Rixl    titlifn,    wort'   npjimprintnl  to    their 

leavin;;   but   n    poor   pitUuiw  lo  the   parkb 

thou^i  the  pofN.'  (u  fftyltnx  hinueir  bat  a 

ought  to  luivo  hwa  more  wiuible  of  tbt^  nd  ee&- 

*yj**»      S.  Dcridei  ^ipnpriatton  of  soeh  rhim4i«i,  ibbajw 

mm^imm  alio  wroii]^  puish  [oiesti  bjpiocnriiijf  (rom  tiw  pop* 

*^'***pMchtI  the  Second,  SMfM  Amu.  1100,  in  the 

of  Mcntx,  tlmt  their  demomcu.  (kmu,  uid 

(anciontly  paying  tHhM  like  the  lutdi^  of  otbar 

Bni)  dwald  hereafter  be  free  tmm  the  Munv. 

tU>  exemption  waa  aftenmnls  bj  )w>[ie  Adfiao 

Pnarth,  iilrout   the   yrnr   1150.  jiistlj  limitofl    awl 

ntitraini*H ;  n'lipouH  orHen*  iM-ing  onjoitiiHl  the  paT- 

metit  of  tithe*  of  wlintMM'^-er  inrmuv  tbiT  had  Id 

their  owu  oeeupotion.  (wte  of  itcw  impmrenenta  by 

cnttare  of  parture  of  their  rattle.)   and  of  garden 

fniiu''.     Only  three  orden,  namely,  the  Cbtareiaai^ 

TcmpUtrv.  and  Knlghta  boipitallen,  (otberwiie  caDei 

of  S.  JohnV  of  Jenmlem.)  weiv  exempted  fran  tlM 

general  pnyrocnt  of  all  tithet  whataoerer. 

rn«*M        4.  And  why  Cisterdans  rather  than  any  oAar 

I^b7    order?  Give  me  leave  to  eoi^jcotore  thnw  rratma 

■'^*      thcrvof: 

I  Adrian  the  Foorth.  ovtx  own*  eoaatryBian.  w«a  at 

*■  Vid.  Alffi.  i*  8ntw 

•  Nmm.  la  tfaa  «%. 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  299 

first  a  Benedictine  monk  of  S.  Alban's,  and  these 
Cistercians  were  only  Benedictines  refined. 

ii.  They  were  the  Benjamins,  one  of  the  youngest 
remarkable  orders  of  that  age,  and  therefore  made 
darlings  (not  to  say  wantons)  by  the  holy  father  the 

iii.  It  is  suspicious,  that  by  bribery  in  the  court  of 
Rome  they  might  obtain  this  privilege,  so  beneficial 
unto  them.  For  I  find  that  king  Richard  the  First 
disposed  his  daughter  Avarice  to  be  married  to  the 
Cistercian  order,  as  the  most  grasping  and  griping  of 
all  others. 

I  leave  it  others  to  render  reasons  why  Tem- 
plars and  Hospitallers,  being  mere  laymen,  and 
divers  times  of  late  adjudged  in  the  court  of  Aides 
in  Paris  *^,  no  part  of  the  clergy  should  have  this 
privilege  to  be  exempted  from  tithes.  But  we  re- 
member they  were  swordmen,  and  that  aweth  all 
into  obedience. 

5.  However,  the   Lateran   council,  holden  anno  Confined  to 
1215,  ordered.  That  this  privilege  of  tithe-freedom  before  aT* 
to  the  aforesaid  three  orders  should  not  extend  toj^^^ 
postnates,  (as  I  may  term  them,)  to  convents  erected 
since  the  Lateran  council,  nor  to  lands  since  be- 
stowed on  the  aforesaid  Orders,  though  their  convents 
were  erected  before  that  council.     Therefore  when 
the  covetous  Cistercians  (contrary  to  the  canons  of 
that  council)  purchased  bulls  frt>m  the  pope  to  dis- 
charge their  lands  from  tithes,  Henry  the  Fourth, 
pitying  the  plea  of  the  poor  parish  priest,  by  statute 

c  C.  le  Bret  [Recueil  d'aucuDs  playd.  en  la  cour  des  Aydes. 
PI.  27.  ed.  1609.] 

nailed  nich  Inills  ■*.  and  nxluml  thoir  bndi  into  UmC 
■talo  wIitTt-in  they  wen-  btfufv. 

6.  Oncu  it  wu  ill  mr  niiiid  to  oK  dovn  a  tat^ 
luguo  (ca«T  to  ilu,  and  tuefiil  wben  done)  of  M>eh 
hootus  or  Cistercians,  Tompbn.  uid  ll(MpitaU«B 
whifli  were  fuundttl  pituM!  tlie  Latcmn 
(foing  utnlcr  the  gc-iicnl  notion  of  titbts^^ 
pvat  iryiiry  of  the  chiirrJi.  But  mnce,  « 
Umughia  1  cocwdvod  It  better  to  lot  It  akt 
tun-  on  tiuch  diicovery  of  any  bleviiy  fti 
miniKti'm  which  Hbotdd  i^o,  bat  rcrtahi 
runeii  fn>ni  iturh  Ijirnien  who  should  loao  tl 

7.  Now  when  king  llenrr  the  Eighth 
monaftterieH,  there  wwt  put  into  his  hand  ai 
tuiuty  and  advantnf^'  to  ingratiate  liinunlf 
mrmoiy  for  ever;  namely,  b}-  rvstoring  Utbca 
priatod  to  abbeys  to  tboir  rmitortiTe  |«ri<tbt'a.  B«l 
whether  be  wanted  mind,  nr  mittding,  or  both.  Go4 
would  not  do  him  so  much  hrttiour.  that  be  ibaaM 
do  n  much  honour  to  Go<l  and  tiia  cfanrcb :  being 
now  past  liiie  laT4«>ni  with  the  n-«t  of  the  abhay- 
land,  to  the  frreat  impairing  of  the  jnit  naiotannat 
of  mir>i»tent. 

8.  Lastly,  one  grand  miaeliier  <to  omit  nnf 
otben)  doiw  bj  Bonailariaa  was  hy  the  priTilegaa  «f 
■anctaarieii  whereby  their  houses  became  the  sink 
and  eeotre  of  sjnnen,  to  the  gnat  dtahocMmr  ef  Ood 
and  ohstruotion  of  jnstiee. 

9.  And  hero  I  commend  tbe  mcmafy  of  TnrkalflU 
Morr  a]>bot  t,(  Cmwtatkd,  being  ewiMent  thaA  As 
reader  silt  join  with  me  in  hb 

<«  Amm  I  Hra.  Um  Fmrtb.  r 

BOOK  vr.  in  England.  301 

vast  immunities  were  bestowed  on  that  convent  by 
Wichtlaf,  king  of  Mercia,  that  if  any  officer  did 
follow  an  offender,  of  what  nature  soever,  to  fetch 
him  out  of  that  liberty,  he  was  to  have  his  right  foot 
cut  off®.  Strange  exchange!  when  a  legal  prose- 
cutor is  made  a  malefactor,  and  the  malefactor  an 
innocent ;  such  the  converting  power  of  a  monkish 
asylum.  But  in  process  of  time,  and  depredation  of 
the  Danes,  this  privilege  was  lost,  and  proffered 
afterwards  by  some  Saxon  kings  to  be  restored, 
which  Turketill  would  never  consent  unto :  and  take 
it  in  the  authors  own  words ^;  Antiquam  vero  loci 
impunitateni  vel  immunitatem  nulla  modo  consensit 
acqxdrere^  ne  sceleratis  et  impiis  refugium  a  publicis 
legibns  videretur  in  aliquo  prcebere^  et  cum  hujusmodi 
maleficis  compellei^etur,  vel  in  aliquo  contra  conscien- 
tinm  suarn  cohabitare^  sen  consentire.  This  privilege 
other  churches  of  S.  Alban's,  Beverly,  Westminster, 
did  accept.  Such  sanctuaries  were  grievances  con- 
stantly complained  of  in  parliaments  till  Richard  the 
Second  first  began ;  Henry  the  Fourth  and  Seventh 
proceeded  to  regulate  them  as  abused  and  usurping, 
and  Henry  the  Eighth  utterly  abolished  them  as  use- 
less and  unlawful. 



The  officers  in  abbeys  were  either  supreme,  as  the  The  abbot, 
abbot,  or,  to  use  a  canonical  term,  obediential fi^,  as 
all  others  under  him.     The  abbot  had  lodgings  by 

«  Ingulphi  Histor.  p.  856  =         8f  [Mat.  Paris,]  in  vitis  vi- 
8,  ed.  Gale.  ginti  trium  abbatum  S.  Albani, 

f  Idem,  p.  879  =  40.  p.  1 70. 

903  Ti»  Hittory  tfJibegt  mms  ti. 

hinuelf,  witli  k11  ofllocft  thon>mito  bt4oiifiiift.  1^ 
reitt  loi.k  [irerrtU'nritui  nrrnrrlinjr  t«  the  tojiicsl  «*• 
tuimi  uf  tbi-'ir  cniivt_-iiu.  but  for  the  genenlitj  | 
tliiu  niay  be  numballed. 

3.  Kiret,  thu  prior,  wbo,  Uko  tho  prMMenkt 
the  tnwAer)  in  our  ruUcj{t>«  in  Cauibrwlge^  v 
to  the  ttbliuU  Nol4.-  bj  tbo  w»T,  that  in  t 
vetilA,  which  tuul  no  nbUit^.  tliu  prior  ww 
u  the  imwdimt  iu  «ouc  Ozroitl  rounihuioa*^;  asA 
beinft  iiMtmlled  prion,  mme  votvd  u  baroti*  in  i«fw 
Uuncnt,  wheruof  roimcriy.aft  the  prior  of  Cutterliaij 
and  Coventry.  But  when  the  abbot  waa  wpvciiH 
tentUot,  then  the  pemou  tenned  prior  waa  bja  aoba^ 
diiHU«,  wbo  in  bin  alMenre,  in  mitred  ab) 
ooartOTjr  wh  mluted  tliv  tun]  prior. 

3.  Secoodlj,  tbu  aub-ftrkMr,  (aa  Hugo  I 
prior  of  Ely,  founder  of  PetwJiaain.)  ({tiery  % 
anjr  eompliinont  doteanded  ao  ktw  aa  to  lord  t 
prior  in  the  absence  of  thu  prior  and  abbot, 
the  third  prior  and  fourth  prior,  for  lueh  d 
■ppMU-,   they  como  not  within  the  i 
innoh  favour'. 

•  4.  Thirdly,  tiie  ■eowttry.  who  waa  tba  rcfbui^ 
aoditor,  and  cbaoecUar  of  the  oonTent,  H  befag 
proper  to  Ua  pbee  to  write  and  retnra  letten,  and 
nanago  tbo  moat  laamod  onployiiKBta  in  tbe  ■»- 

*■      5.  With  him  the  mmermriut,  or  rhambcrlain.  mtj 

Trbnlr,  Mid  8t.  JoImV 

Ckrirti.     Iba  Mcrwl  rap  vA  i 

'  la  ib»  nhcriptkai  cl'  lb* 

■  raiwih.irw 

Cfcma.  of  lb*  A>mMtiakmt  af    aada  of  tbt  wen  fry  w  m. 

Ui  dki  -I  •"   Tiiil^ 

w  Aal^.fl^■^l■l■Af^^a^fc^ 

in  £ttffland. 


seem  to  contest  for  precedency,  aa  keeping  the  keys 
of  the  treasury,  issuing  out  and  receiving  in  all  con- 
siderable sums  of  money';  in  which  notion  the  cham- 
herlain  of  London  holdetli  his  name. 

6.  Fifthly,  the  cetlartus,  or  celierarius,  a  place  of  The « 
more  power  and  profit  than  the  name  may  seem  to 
imjiart.  He  was  the  bursar,  who  bought  in  all  pro- 
visions, and  appointed  the  pittances  for  the  several 
monks;  and  in  some  houses  he  was  "'secundus  pntei- 
in  raonasterio,  as  in  the  abbey  of  Bury",  where  a 

'  [Providing  all  portions  of 
dress,  bcils,  rasors,  towels,  and 
suchlike  for  the  use  of  the  mo- 
nastery.    Lnn franc's    Decreta, 

t.  Tii.] 

™  ["  Pater  totiiia  congr^a- 
"  toiiis  debet  esse."  Lanfranc's 
Deeretfl,  c,  ix.] 

"  Joceline  Brakelonde.  [MS. 
in  the  Cotton  Library.  See 
llie  Hist,  of  Cambridge,  p.  i6. 
This  ollice  is  thus  described  in 
the  Decreta  of  Lanfranc,  e,  is. 
To  the  office  of  the  celerer 
it  belnngetb  to  provide  every 
thing  which  in  meiit  or  drink, 
or  food  of  any  kind  uiay  be 
necessary  for  the  brethren. 
All  the  vessels  for  the  cellar, 
kitchen,  and  refectory,  and 
furniture  for  each.  Of  his 
iDi[K>rtauce.  the  foLowing  de- 
cree in  behalf  of  the  soul  of 
Aduin,  the  huniar  nr  cetlarius 
of  St.  Alban's,  furnishes  no  bad 
proof,  "  J>ecree  for  the  soul 
"  of  Adam  the  Bursar ;"  "  It 
"  is  decreed  by  the  abbot 
"  Warren  (Gwnrinus),  and  the 
"  whole  convent,  that  on  the 
"  day  in  which  the  anniversary 
"  of  Adam  the  bursar  of  this 
"  church  shall  be  declared  ( who 
"  for  his  excellent  services  hath 

obtained  the  distinction  of 
being  buried  in  the  chapter), 
that  it  shall  be  kept  as  a 
feast  by  all  every  year,  as  is 
uitually  done  mth  greater 
honour  and  solemnity  at  the 
anniversaries  of  our  abbots ; 
to  wit,  with  psalms  and 
'  masses,  and  feasting  the  poor. 
For  this  annivefHiry  the  clerk 
'  of  the  kitchen  (celierarius 
'  coquinB  monachoium)  shall 

provide    whatever    may 
necessary,   that 


'  cient  and  apleadid  banquet 
'  for  the  convent  in  the  re- 
'  fectory.  Theidmoneron  that 
'  dny  shall  feed  a  hundred  poor 
'  people  for  his  soul ;  and  the 
'  like  nundier  the  celierarius 
■  of  the  kitchen.  Aloreovcr 
'  tlie  church  of  Southbury  hiid 
'  been  appointed  by  the  said 
'  brother  Adam  the  bursar,  fur 
'  the  celebration  of  this  anni- 
'  versary.  and  also  for  that 
'  which  is  celebrated  on  the 
'  sixteenth  of  January  for  the 
'  souls  of  his  father  and  nio- 
'  ther,  and  of  all  the  parents 
'  of  the  monks  of  this  church; 
*  because  that  church  was  ac 
'  quired  hy  him  :  inasmuch  as 
'  he  improved  his  foresaid  ser- 

Mi  TAt  Hittitry  i^Abbfyi  Moc  *i 

Iivge  imrt  of  tlio  buiMin^  wu  wsignod  for  hia  r*^ 
denn>,  iin<l  X&wU  fnr  liL->  iniuntetHUiiw.  llwH)  ccU 
loivn  wen*  linivo  blodi'fl,  much  ftflttcthi|r  wfcvAu  gal- 
buitiy.  For  I  find  it  iximplaiiipH  uf^  ttut  thcj  tacvl 
to  gwagjtCT  with  tlieir  iiworIo  bj  tbrir  riilea  like  kj 

7-  Tbt>  n-'mftining  cifBd-i-rB  aif  l>o«t  rvrknnrd  np  by 
the  rarmniral  rmitns  (wi  I  may  term  them)  in  ■■ 
RbbeT.  e«cb  jiving  ileiiomiiiatiuo  to  bira  who 
tbe  iovpcction  thcroor.  I  lK>jrin  with  the  gmte-heot^ 
■nd  its  n>lal)Tc  the  porter ;  an  oflice,  I 
•ome  tnut  in  an  Bbbey,  to  know  what  gui 
when,  cqiecially  nt  tbc  [MWtt'm,  art*  to  bo 

8.  Hio  next  room  U  the  rfftetnrium,  and 
rt'iu  the  contnillcr  tbcnNif^.  It  was  the  hall 
the  mooka  dinod  together,  and  aometiffltv  the  abbot 
on  great  •olemnitiea  graced  tbem  with  his  [>rc*eao«. 
when  he  had  vatleffum,  that  is,  not  coDunoi 
but  TAHtel  breads,  or  nmnels  for  his  diet'. 

9-  At^oiniug  to  it  waa  the  hcntitnum^  or 

"  ric»  (otwdiantii) ;  to  wh,  tka  Mving  1^  •^'^  "  f^*  ^ 

-  UuhvH  of  Uw  mumIu.  hf  kirn  nmptad  tnm  the  dMM  wt 

"  vn  troMbfo  ud  car*,  whh  iIm  Intdwo.  to  wkM  all  «iitwi 

"  MMMMJiacawMofoaaluuk*  wtr*  cUifpd  to  •olwiit  wtMrw. 

**  drarfpoMndiiMltluMaMfln,  8m  alao  iha  nilr  of  S.  Fra*. 

"  wrtaa  ftiaHwa  JHHW."    Sw  Mouh.  can.  «i.  tk»  Upmvh  «f 

Mil  Puk  b  VU.  AUtfa  UaftMe.  ap.  ».  |pnM««  ia 

8.  Albaai,  p.^    TImm  wtn  Hnwr,  Dt  Aat^.  BmnA^ 

Mkr   wUmril    bnUM   lUi  ^  1 1?.] 

•Smt,  wfco  !•  «  nibd  W  WW  •  ttuchud.  d>  oAw  Ife. 

•f  4Maclioai  H  cdmriw  B«i«fi  «.  OidH  b  OOfaMTa 

nd  r^^^H 



Mam.  >id  lk>  lika.    or  IW  Twnjn)  P-  »«•■ 

inia  or  lb  <riknri_.  tW       <  CUu-  "h)  >•  Vkk.  p. 

mdv  OMT  MMsh  tW  rob  oT  141. 

>  HllilM. op. i»«l. ■«< a|».        'S»alaai>TO 

«»i».hywfca*»dici«i>h»ilii«i.  mt,  [^  v.] 


in  England. 


because  there  leave  was  given  for  the  monks  to  dis- 
course, who  were  enjoined  silence  elsewhere.  Thus 
we  read  how  Paul,  the  fourteenth  abbot  of  S.  Al- 
ban's,  made  it  penal  for  any  to  talk  in  the  cloister, 
church,  refectory,  or  dormitory. 

10.  Oriolium^  or  the  oriol,  was  the  next  room".  The  orioi. 
Why  so  called,  some  of  the  namesake  college  in 
Oxford  are  best  able  to  satisfy.  Sure  I  am,  that 
small  excursion  out  of  gentlemen's  halls  in  Dorset- 
shire (respect  it  east  or  west)  is  commonly  called  an 
orial.     The  use  hereof  is   known  for  monks,  who 

were  in  latitudine  morbi^  rather  distempered  than 
diseased,  to  dine  therein,  it  being  cruelty  to  thrust 
such  into  the  infirmary,  where  they  might  have  died 
with  the  conceit  of  the  sickness  of  others. 

11.  Dorrnitorium,  the  dormitory,  where  they  allThedormi. 
slept  together,  it  being  ordered  in  the  council  of ^^'^^ 
Aquisgrane,  Nisi  in  dormitorio  cum  c^steris  absque 
causa  inevitabilif  nemo  dormire  prcssumpseritK 

8  In  Vitis,  p.  loo.  [Speak- 
ing  of  the  same  abbot  Matthew 
Paris  says  :  '*  Hie  quoque 
**  priino  pennisit  aliquibus  fra- 
"  tribus  in  quibus  per  maciem 
*'  et  pallorem,  debiGtatem  per- 
''  penderat  manifeatam  (quibus 
**  videbatur  inconveniens  esse 
'*  et  conscientise  Isesionem  in- 
"  trare  intirmariam,  quia  quam- 
"  vismacilentiessentvelpallidi, 
"  vel  etiani  debiles  non  sibi  in- 
**  tirmi  videbantur)  ut  seorsum 
**  scilicet  in  oriolo  camem  co- 
**  mederent."  But  in  another 
part  of  his  work  (p.  142)  he  thus 
explains  the  meaning  of  this 
term:  "Adjacet  atrium  nobilis- 
*'  simuminintroitu^quodporti- 
'*  cus  vel  oriolum  appellatur."] 


^  Sub  Ludov.  Imp.  au.  816. 
cap.  134.  [In  the  statutes  of 
the  provincial  chapter  held  in 
the  year  1444  the  following 
provision  is  made :  *'  Statuimus 
**  etiam  quod  omnes  tam  offi- 
"  ciarii,  quam  claustrales,  ae^ 
"  cundum  dispositionem  dicti 
''  sui  Prsepositi  singuli  singula 
'*  lectistemia  seu  cellas  pro 
"  modoeonversationisaccipiant, 
"  ita  quod  omnes  et  singuli  in 
*'  uno  loco,  et  sub  nno  tecto, 
**  tam  obedientiarii,  quam  alii, 
"  si  commode  fieri  poterit  dor- 
"  miant ;  lumen  vero  in  dor- 
"  mitorio  de  nocte  jugiter  ar- 
"  deat.  Monachi  vero  in  suis 
"  cellis,  ubi  solent  dormire. 
*'  lectistemia  desuper  aut  per 


Tk«  Hiatoty  ofAhbejft 


1  M- 

IS.    LarahpriHm    wirccoda,   genmlly   mHcoI 
bniwlry,  when>  t)icir  plotbea  wen  WMlkMl.    H^l] 
WM  also  tliL>  plow  (tiurb  hi  the  vmt  ncte  i>f  W< 
miiutin-  clc^flten)  whore  all  the  mnnki  at  thr 
waHluil  tlieir  haiiiU,  there  licinj^  a»  mncb  ptoA 
lowflhip  in  wadiinjt  ax  vtXm^  Xopyrhor. 

IS.  Scriptorittm  rvmtiUtf^  a  room  wht'R^  the 
tulanoff  WIS  burned  in  writirifi,  c«iw>rially  em] 
In  tbf  tnuiMTittiiig  of  tht^>  biMikfl:  Iheb* 

i.  IPnliitatt,  rniiljiinin);  the  nilmc  of  their 
uid  <liriTtr>rT  of  tlieir  pfVod*  id  *ervice. 

ii.  CfmmetHJinoU,  pmenllng  the  anrient  nmaum 
of  tboir  coDTcntii. 

ili.  Trf>fiarir». 

It.  C*Mrcianf$,  wherein  the  eccteitMtkml  eMIerte 
were  Mrlr  writt*-!!". 

14.  Next  thin  the  librarr,  which  moM  frrrat  ak 
be;*  bad  exartlr  fumhhed  with  rarietv  of  eboiee 

*■  Iccti  cbcuUirai  imn  habraat 
"  nU  lie  tSba  vcl  A»  nigm 
"  UHUw  rd  lb  Ivww  cum  ^1- 
"  libiH  ifnini*  albi*  rel  mi- 
"  gri>-~  Aa4  ■■  •onthi^r  held 
la  i_U?  't  <•»  nrdainnl.  Tlul 
■II  kiniU  nf  niftaiiu  tlioulil  be 
rcmiTeil  from  the  becU,  *u  m 
that  tW  BHiok*  isif^  b«  cMi' 
liMHQy  amim  tke  ere  of  Umm 
•miMvd  10  HpMkl»«4  tbe 
dotBrilary.  day  ud  aij^t.  8m 
th(«  !■  Kafaer,  Da  ApnL 
BvBMlkt.  Aff.  iU.  p.  Ill  ami 

(H  tU  bnk«  (1*M  to  &  AJ- 

■'  nUr(i«ru«.tW.*  Vita  AtA 
tmn.  fct-  p.  51. 
Tha    iroparia 

tW  Uraak  aMriMa,  A««  »U<h 


in  England, 


parts  in  the 

15.  All  is  marred  if  the  kitchen  be  omitted,  so  The 
essential  a  requisite  in  an  abbey,  with  the  larder  and  ^^*"* 
pantry  the  necessary  suburbs  thereof. 

16.  Come  we  now  to  their  abbey  church,  were  weTheteTerai 
first  meet  their 

i.  Cloistei's^  consecrated  ground,  as  appears  by 
their  solemn  sepultures  therein. 

ii.  Navis  e€clesi<B,  or  body  of  the  church. 

iii.  Gradatorium,  a  distance  containing  the  ascent 
out  of  the  former  into  the  quire. 

iv.  Presbyterium^  or  the  quire,  on  the  right  side 
whereof  was  the  stall  of  the  abbot  and  his ;  on  the 
left  side  the  prior  and  his  moiety  of  monks,  who 
alternately  chaunted  the  responsals  in  the  serviced 

V.  Vestiarium^  the  vestiary,  where  their  copes  and 
clothes  were  deposited. 

vi.  Avoltay  a  vault,  being  an  arched  room  over 
I)art  of  the  church,  which  in  some  abbeys  (as  S.  Al- 
ban's)  was  used  to  enlarge  their  dormitory,  where 
the  monks  had  twelve  beds  for  their  repose  y. 

vii.  Coficameratio^  being  an  arched  room  betwixt 
the  east  end  of  the  church  and  the  high  altar z,  so 
that  in  procession  they  might  surround  the  same, 
founding  their  fancy  on  David's  expression,  —  and 
so  will  I  compass  thine  altar ^  0  Lord\ 

As  for  the  other  rooms  of  the  church ;  cerarium^ 

X  [In  Radulphus  de  Diceto 
this  word  seems  to  be  used  to 
express  the  chancel ;  for  we 
find  when  Tracy  and  others 
proceeded  to  the  murder  of 
Thomas  a  Becket,  the  arch- 
bishop descended  down  the 
steps  of  the  presbyterium  to 
meet  them.  It  was  so  called, 
according  to  Somner,  because 

originally  none  but  the  pres- 
byters sat  in  this  part  of  the 
church.  Olossar.  s.  v.  Preslqr- 

y  In  Vitis,  p.  125. 

«  In  Vitis,  p.  5a.  [We 
find  the  same  in  the  church  of 
Jerusalem,  and  in  all  the  ear* 
liest  churches.] 

A  Psal.  xxvi.  6. 

X  2 

90B  lU  Biatmy  t^ AhUyM  «mm  «i. 

when  tbcir  wax  ouMlIm  were  kept :  eampamtttt  tJieir 
■teaplp;  ^M((rajf(/rt'>//ii,  (lit-  churrlinmj,  anH  tKUntrtiaw 
Um  dianifl-lii>UM>,  )l>1  oiirh  In*  ruiuulUil  with  wImi 
bare  written  larf^  (nliiines  on  thb  nilijfct,  who  will 
alM)  iiifonii  tht'tii  uf  the  rii^iitkii  ami  tlutUa  of  Um 
pnxMOitor,  Mcrwt,  vab-aurat,  capelhuie,  aitiar7.  vea- 
tkiy.  emofenuy.  &cc.  beloagiog  thenninht.  TW 
nmainiog  roonu  of  an  abbojr  Mood  a  dntancv  froa 
tfw  oiaia  ■tmotaiv  tbenwf.  To  begin  with  tbti  bial 
flnt :  efawaryarfg,  or  tb«  almor^,  being  a  buibtt^r 
Boar  or  within  the>  abbev,  wbnvin  poor  and  tmpolaat 
penoQs  dill  ltTL>  maintainod  liv  tbcir  clumty. 

17-  StMNindtv,  MtKt»aritnn,vT  the  n'titury.  wbnnia 
dcbton  taktnjic  refu^  fnini  llivir  rn-diton,  male- 
Ibeton  from  the  judge,  liTra)  (tiM'  more  the  pitr)  in 
all  aocuritv. 

18.  Thinlly,  inJiTmarium,  or  the  finnocy.  (th* 
eiumtor  wbcrt-of  tnjirwiariuM,)  wbvmin  penoH 
light  «irk  (tniuldi'  to  othiTN  and  tmaUed  bjr 
if  loitgiiig  in  tin*  diirtnitoiT)  had  the  benHb  af 
pb^ic,  and  attoiidiuuv  privato  to  themtplTea^.  No 
l«Dt  or  fiuting-day*  caniv  ovt-r  the  thrrdiold  of  llria 
ivoin ;  akknea  Ixring  a  dtHpi^matinn  for  the 
of  flcah.  It  wan  imninhable  fur  atijr  to  < 
exrcpt  wilniiiilv  d*'«i^ifd  for  the  plarv. 

19.  At  diidancv  irtwMl  tlie  vtattlc^  wbefe  ll 
hrimi,  or  mwixr  of  the  liom',  did  rumi 
ttndcr   him    the  procfndariiu^,  wh<s    as   bl» 
impoft^  provided  provender  for  the  hocwa. 

k  [!■  tW  kmr  kMMillM  t«  ^riakk  aU  llw  ta^  •>«* 
Urmarimm  M  hi  tm^fm»m  dn  aflH-  ihi  CMuMBttr.  wM 
hJtf  mttr.    %>  iW  fV< 

■^Mior  «r  Um  Mmarr  «m        "In  Vhk.  *« 

BOOK  VI.  ui  England,  309 

were  divided  into  four  ranks,  and  it  would  puzzle  all 
the  jockies  in  Smithfield  to  understand  the  meaning 
of  their  names. 

i.  MannU  being  geldings  for  the  saddle  of  the 
larger  size. 

ii.  Runcini^  runts,  small  pad-nags ;  like  those  of 
Galloway  or  Goonehely**. 

iii.  Summariij  sumpter  horses. 

iv.  Averiiy  cart  or  plough-horses. 

This  was  the  quadripartite  division  of  the  horses 
of  William,  the  two  and  twentieth  abbot  of  S.  Al- 
ban's,  on  the  token  that  he  lost  an  himdred  horses  in 
one  year. 

20.  One  room  remains,  last  named,  because  least  The  jaU. 
loved,  even  a  prison  for  the  punishment  of  incor- 
rigible monks,  who  otherwise  would  not  be  ordered 

into  obedience.  It  was  a  grand  penance  imposed  on 
the  delinquents%  "  to  carry  about  the  lanthom,** 
(though  light,  an  heavy  burden,)  but  such  contuma- 
cious monks  as  would  not  be  amended  therewith,  the 
abbot  had  tetrnm  et  fortem  carcerem^  a  strong  and 
hideous  prison,  where  their  obstinacy  was  corrected 
into  reformation. 

21.  We  omit  other  rooms,  as  vaccisteriunij  the  The 
cow-house;   porcarium,   the   swine-sty;    as   having *^'*°^* 
nothing  peculiar  therein,  but  concurrent  with  those 
offices  in  other  houses.     As  for  granges,  being  farms 

at  distance,  kept  and  stocked  by  the  abbey,  and  so 
called,  as  it  seemeth,  a  grana  gerendOj  (the  overseer 
whereof  was  commonly  called  the  prior  of  the 
grange,)  because  sometimes  many  miles  from  the 
monaster>%  they  come  not  within  the  reach  of  our 

*1  Wats  in   Glossar.   at  the         «  In  Vitis,  p.  52. 
end  of  ^lat.  Paris. 

X  3 

810  Thr  History  »fAIAnf 

pKwnt  diieaunK.    Oal;  1  add  in  frmale 
tiona  of  DonneriM  there  ww  a  «in«*pondet»cj  of 
the  Min«  tncmtibl  offictis  and  office*. 
SS.  Kx|*crt  not  of  mi-  a  list  of  thaw 
'  in  tht<  alilH'V,  whiMo  cniplnymoDt  wai  not  to 
M  their  nuntt  liarbaroiM,  aod  of  Engliah 
Bach  werv. 

1.  Collonuiiu,  rutler. 
S.  CuptiariRH. 

3.  Pota^riuL 

4.  8eal«lUriufl  Auhr. 

5.  BdMrioM. 
fl.  pDrtariun. 

7.  Ciuwtaria^  tCarter]  CVlIenuii. 
H.  Pel)ipariu<i.  |«rcUmL-iit  provider. 
9-  BrMimiriu^  [nnd  nnwiator.]  maltxtcr. 

All  IhflM  appean-d  at  tbi-  Imli-inutu  or  liolv  court 
of  the  odfauvr ;  ainl  it  i»  the  dcgnJii^  the  aoal  of 
a  acbolar  (boat  picsacd  in  a  pnign!aai*e  mothio  to 
attain  ck>ganrjr)  to  itoop  to  tlie  andentandiiif  af 
■uch  haw  and  luilfaruud  etjmokigiea. 

SS.  Note  that  the  oKce*  aforeaaid  In  the  onaDar 
abboyi  wrre  hut  om*  lair  entire  mom.  which  in 
gmUer  mofuuttTint  were  n  distinct  itructurv,  with 
all  under-olBev*  attendant  themi|KHi.  Hitu  the 
flrnioT^',  in  the  iirinrr  of  Canterbuir  had  a  rvfectocy 
thfnrtii  tM.*lon)(injr,  a  kitcb<-ii.  ■  dortour '.  diitribitted 
into  ■evcnil  rhauibfn  tliat  one  might 
another,  and  a  private  rbapd  for  th«  davol 
the  dlHMed.  Tlieir  almury  alw  waa  aeeoniB 
with  all  the  afnmaid  apporteoaneea. and  htAt 

'  [Tbat  H,  dw  Awwifavj  ) 

BOOK  VI.  in  Mtigland.  811 

distinct  manors  consigned  only  to  their  mainte- 

24.  It  were  alien  from  our  present  purpose  toThevmot 
speak  of  cells,  which  were  aut  pars^  aut  proles  of 

all  great  abbeys,  sometime  so  far  off,  that  the 
mother-abbey  was  in  England  the  child-cell  beyond 
the  seas,  and  so  reciprocally.  Some  of  these  were 
richly  endowed,  as  that  of  Windham  in  Norfolk, 
which,  though  but  a  cell  annexed  to  St.  Alban's, 
yet  was  able  at  the  dissolution  to  expend  of  its  own 
revenues  seventy-two  pounds  per  annum.  These 
were  colonies  into  which  the  abbeys  discharged 
their  superfluous  numbers,  and  whither  the  rest 
retired  when  infections  were  feared  at  home. 

25.  Thus  have  we  run  through  the  main  rooms  The  Ho- 

,  ncNin  in 

in  all  great  abbeys,  though  besides  the  same,  par- Canterbury 
ticular  abbeys  had  particular  houses,  known  to  those  ™^' 
of  their  own  convent  by  peculiar  denominations. 
It  were  endless  for  one  to  instance  in  all  these,  and 
inii)ossible  to  render  a  reason  of  their  names,  except 
he  were  privy  to  the  fancies  of  the  founders.  Thus 
we  meet  with  a  pile  of  building  in  the  priory  of 
Canterbury  called  the  Honours ;  but  why  so  termed, 
my  good  friend  and  great  antiquary  Cf  is  fJain  to 
confess  his  own  ignorance. 

Some  general  Co?iformities  observed  in  all  Convents. 

Sundry  orders   were   bound   to   observe    several  Rui«  cai- 
canonical  constitutions.     However,  the  rule  of  the  the  Bene. 
ancient  Benedictines,  with  some  small  variations  ac-^^^ 
cording  to  time  and  place,  hold  true  thorough  most""^*^^ 


^  Mr.  William  Somner,  in  his  Antiquities  of  Canterbury/ 
p.  196. 


7^  Uutory  ^JIAry» 

noDBiteriot ;  wme  geaeni  heads  wbocof  (th«  «bA» 
bnuebcs  being  infinite)  wq  will  faera  iinnt ;  it  briHg 
bard,  if  unongit  mocb  dram  mme  ffold  be  not  taami 
to  repair  the  painti  of  thi-  ruader.  We  will  eoaCrim 
ihem  into  ranuni^  coUiX!t«l  uut  of  nolbun  befnc*  mr 
In  the  dafB  »(  Uututmit  K 

i.  Let  monks  (aAor  the  example  of  DavM ') 
pniae  God  seven  Itmet  a  day. 

Sttm  fuMi.]  Somo  diAreooa  in  nekaoiog  tliwn  vp,  1^ 
tiw  fbDowiag  «oDi|Mitati(Mi  [ 

1.  Al  axi'tromm^.  Bmoom  tho  PnlniM  wiUi.  Al 
midni^  iBiU  Jfraif  lit  Lord^ ;  aod  mMt  «■- 
flftv*  tbat  Clout  RMo  bom  tiw  daad  aboot  Iktf 


S.  JtfdMiMfi.  At  th«  Snt  hour,  or  ata  of  tli*  ala^ 

when  ths  JvmA  aiondng  Moriftoe  «a«  oKbtmi  ; 

uad  at  what  ttiM  OhiMt'a  naumrtMO  waa  Ij 

tbe  ai«(4i  fart  ootifiMl  to  th«  woawtL 
8.  At  tba  thini  hoar,  or  nioa  of  tha  duk  bafcia 

aooD.  wboa,  aeeordiag  to  St.  Uarit,  Clvirt  ■■■ 

ooodaouMd  and  aooarfid  bjr  f  ^lata. 
4u  Al  tha  aiitb  boar,  or  twalw  of  tba  dnek  at  Ugh 

Boon,  wbca  Chriat  waa  enicdUd,  and  iaikamm 

o««r  all  the  oartb. 
fi.  At  tba  niBth  hiiur,  or  thrao  of  tbe  dooh  ta  iha 

aftmiooa,  whvn  (-lirwt  gan  ap  ibn  (boat,  aat 

wbieb  WEM   an  biwir    at  poUio    pcajar    ia    1km 

b  [Iibmbabb  lint  b tba  oTSl.Bc 

cwljr  pafiad*  vT  wnMiric  bk-  tkaw,  of 

Unt.  tba  ralai  aad  mitn  at  aipacUd. 
UAmU  fcaai   aad 

BcoMbet.     Mifhiiwk. 
'     ba 

Moa.    Aftn.    bat    iMMrallr  aU    aiUt    b» 
tftrntnllyS.    Mi|»«lMiM  aai«  Um  Ma 

ofSi.  BmU.  ibaMWr  (WruW        * 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  813 

temple  ^  and  privately  in  his  closet  with  Cor- 
nelius ^. 

6.  Vespers.  At  the  twelfth  hour,  or  six  o'^clock  in  the 

afternoon,  when  the  evening  sacrifice  was  offered 
in  the  temple,  and  when  Christ  is  supposed  taken 
down  from  the  cross. 

7.  At  seven  of  the  clock  at  night,  (or  the  first  hour 

beginning  the  nocturnal  twelve,)  when  Chrisf's 
agony  in  the  garden  was  conceived  began. 

The  first  of  these  was  performed  at  two  of  the 
clock  in  the  morning  ",  when  the  monks  (who  went 
to  bed  at  eight  at  night)  had  slept  six  hours,  which 
were  judged  suflScient  for  nature.  It  was  no  fault, 
for  the  greater  haste,  to  come  without  shoes,  or  with 
unwashen  hands,  provided  sprinkled  at  their  entrance 
Avith  holy  water,  to  this  night's  service ;  and  I  find 
no  express  to  the  contrary,  but  that  they  might  go 
to  bed  again ;  but  a  flat  prohibition  after  matutinesy 
when  to  return  to  bed  was  accounted  a  petty 

ii.  Let  all,  at  the  sign  given,  leave  off  their  work, 

and  repair  presently  to  prayers  ®. 

Sign.]  This  in  England  (commonly  called  the  ringing 
inland)  was  done  with  tolling  a  bell,  but  in  other  countries 
with  loud  strokes,  as  noblemens'*  cooks  knock  to  the  dresser, 
at  which  time  none  might  continue  their  work ;  yea,  the 
canon  was  so  strict,  that  it  provided  scriptares  literam  non 
int^nrent :  that  writers,  (a  great  trade  in  monasteries,) 
having  begun  to  frame  and  flourish  a  text-letter,  were  not 
to  finish  it,  but  to  break  off  in  the  middle  thereof. 

1  Acts  iii.  ] .  nse  Abbatis.     Ed.  Hugo  Me- 

m  Acts  X.  30.  nardus,  1638. 

n  This  whole  chapter  is  the  ^  QSee  R^ula  S.  Benedict!. 

abridgment  of  the   Concordia  c.  xliii.] 
Rceularum  8.  Benedicti  Ania- 


TV  HiMwy  ^Ahtryi 

Ui.  Let  thiwe  who  M«  abwnt  in  public  employ 
moot  be  n^fiuted  prownt  in  pnjrcre  >*. 

Aiiml.)  Henev  it  m*  Uiftt  uiacatl;.  ^  thm  mi  ti 
ptmytn,  then  «a«  a  pwtwulu'  oonuneaantioa  B*d»  «f 
tboD,  knd  lliey  bjr  imidp  iwioiniiwnAiil  lo  drnav  p**- 

It.  Let  no  monk  gn  alone,  but  aIwbjb  r«* 

7W.]  That  M)  thojr  mifbt  nntualljr  have  bwtli  tt^am 
LmmMit  and  iMwitonM  pitlatit.  Aw)  Uii*  «••  doa*  m 
MNM  initatioo  of  ChriM'*  maHitg  h»  diH»|ik»  to  pwah, 
httmiidhtn  h^n  Aw/kmi.  that  m>  tiwy  m%fat  ahnt—ldy 
•Ma  eoo  aanUiar. 

T.  From  EubT  to  Wliitcamlftj  l«t  tbctn  dimm 
tXynj*  at  twvlrf,  and  imp  at  rix  of  the  dodi. 

/>uw.]  TliP  primitJvt-  rharah  forboik'  fiurting  tar  tksM 
fifty  dajr*,  that  Chrurtiaiu  miflit  bv  chevrfld  far  th> 
mmorjrof  CtuHfaramrffcliaQ.  ** /aanniMSf  [^gM^JI) 
fl  Af  Pmdut  in  Pmtvnmlm  mtfm  ^miAmnm,'  and  IhM^bv* 
mora  raoil«ni  is  the  nutom  of  bating  oa  AaoLiuiaii  Bv*. 

vi.  Lt't  tliem  at  other  tjiiie«  b«t  on  Wcdneailiyv 
and  Fridajt  till  threo  oVIoek  In  t^ 

flmr  tf  lit  ttatt.]  So  makiiif  bat  ean  «ieil  a 
IPMNr  tbat  tlw  tmlw  dap  in  Christaa*  wtn  in 

▼IL  Let  tliun  fiwt  erefj  dar  in  Li-ut  till  nx  of 
Uw  clock  at  night  *. 

Sim  •*tUeL]  Stamfiti^  k  charartw  oT  ■ 
on  that  thna :  ror  thavffit  all  a  ma«li*«  life  m^  ta  W  •  ' 
Lant,  yM  tfait  tnoit  w|Mcially,  wbomn  tbcy  merv  to  ahstv 

P  [Sh-  B«fal>  a  BMcJieti.        '  TfrtnlUMi  ik  C  uraM  Mt- 
&  L  UrM.]  Ihu.  t.  s. 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  315 

of  their  wonted  sleep  and  diet,  and  add  to  their  daily  devo- 
tion :  yet  so,  that  they  might  not  lessen  their  daily  fare 
without  leave  from  the  abbot,  all  things  done  without 
whose  consent  will  be  accounted  presumption,  and  not 
redound  to  reward ;  so  that,  in  such  cases,  obedience  to 
their  superiors  was  better  than  the  sacrifice  of  their  own 
free  abstinence. 

viii.  Let  no  monk  speak  a  word  in  the  refectory, 

when  they  are  at  their  meals  *. 

Speak  a  word.]  Whilst  their  mouths  are  open  to  eat, 
their  lips  must  be  looked  to  speak :  for  proof  whereof  they 
corruptly  cite  the  apostle^s  words,  to  ecU  their  own  bread 
with  silence " ;  whereas  indeed  it  is,  work  toith  quietness^ 
and  therein  a  contented  mind  enjoined.  Such  might  also 
remember  Solomon'*s  rule.  Eat  thy  bread  with  joy. 

ix.  Let  them  listen  to  the  lecturer  reading  scrip- 
ture to  them,  whilst  they  feed  themselves. 

Listen.]  This  was  St.  Austine'*s  rule,  Ne  solce  /auees 
sumant  cibum^  sed  et  aures  percipiant  Dei  verbum\ 

X.    Let  the   septimanarians   dine   by  themselves 

after  the  rest  y. 

Septimanarians.']  These  were  weekly  officers,  (not  as  the 
abbot,  porter,  &c.  for  term  of  life,)  as  the  lecturer,  servitors 
at  the  table,  cook,  who  could  not  be  present  at  the  public 
refection ;  as  the  bible-clerks  in  Queen'^s  College  in  Cam- 
bridge (waiting  on  the  fellows  at  dinner)  have  a  table  by 
themselves,  their  stomachs  being  set  to  go  an  hour  after 
all  the  rest. 

xi.  Let  such  who  are  absent  about  business  ob* 
serve  the  same  hours  of  prayer  *. 

Absent.]  Be  it  by  sea  or  land,  on  ship,  in  house,  or  field, 
they  were  to  fall  down  on  their  knees,  and  though  at  dis- 

t  [viii.  ix.  See  Regula  S.  J  [Regula  S.  Benedict],  c. 
Benedicti,  c.  xxxviii.]  xxxv.] 

"    2  ThcsS.  iii.  12.  «    [Ib.c.l.] 

*   111  regula,  capite  v. 

8M  The  HiMtory  of  A  Uryi 

taooe,  wmI  m^  linoAy,  yot  in  rano  aort  ta  keep  I 
tuna  with  the  conrvnt  in  their  devotiocM. 

xii.   !<<<(  nono,  hoin^  fmro  liomo  about 
and   tiopin/t  to  rettiru  at  night,  premunpyoru 
dicart,  tii  cat  abroad  '. 

£W  oAraoJ.]  This  mioa  ma  aftcrwanla 
with  by  the  aMwt,oa  mvctbI  ooeudocu,  thai  It  i 
tral«  in  oflbet,  wbm  monlw  bMaow  cMnaum 

xiiL  Lot  the  Completory  be  Mlemnly  tang  i 
iBTen  o'clock  at  night. 

Otmfiatmy.'\  BccauM*  it  oocnplotod  ths  dotan  of  llw 
da;.  Thia  aomoii  was  ^onchdod  with  that  Tit<iJ>  af 
the  pabniM,  MM  a  waled.  0  J>n^  &yWw  ay  awafll.  aarf 

xiv.  Let  none  Kpvok  a  word  after  the  Completory 
ended,  but  lutftcn  to  their  bods '. 

Sfiok  m  tnnL]  For  Ihojr  aught  rapKM  ihnMthaa  tgr 
apu,  and  n  iBiDe  caaea  whtaiMr,  bot  m>  aufU;  that  a  ihM 
Might  not  cnrvrfaov  it.  TUa  Hkooe  w«« 
flbaanad  bjr  mnim,  thai  ihajr  waaU  do*  ifMk  t 
■■Mwltiil  with  thiavaa.  to  naha  Saetmaj  fai  f  ' 

XV.  Let  the  mouki  riecft  tn  bodi  linglj  hf  4 
Klvea,  but  all,  if  punible,  fai  ooe  twmt*. 

Himfy  if  atMuiwm.]   To  pianat  that  m  of  i 

i^ae.      0am  rmm.\    For  tlw  eonliavt    of  thdr  I 

xvi.  Let  them  altN^  in  tbeir  clothca.  girt  tvHh 

>  [RMtnkBMM 
k  fW.ciIi.j. 


*  I«T— »nfi.  lb.  «,  mU.] 

BOOK  VI.  m  England.  SI 7 

their  girdles,  but  not  having  their  knives  by  their 
sides,  for  fear  of  hurting  themselves  in  their  sleeps. 

In  their  clothes,']  Is  slovenness  any  advantage  to  sanc- 
tity? This  was  the  way,  not  to  make  the  monks  to  lie 
alone,  but  to  carry  much  company  about  them. 

xvii.  Let  not  the  youth  lie  by  themselves,  but 

mingled  with  their  seniors. 

Seniors,']  That  their  gravity  may  awe  them  into  good 
behaviour  :  thus  husbandmen  couple  young  colts  with 
staid  horses,  that  both  together  may  draw  the  better. 

xviii.  Let  not  the  candle  in  the  dormitory  go  out 

all  the  night. 

Candle.]  In  case  some  should  fall  suddenly  sick;  and 
that  this  standing  candle  might  be  a  stock  of  light,  to 
recruit  the  rest  on  occasion. 

•  xix.  Let  infants,  incapable  of  excommunication, 

be  corrected  with  rods  ®. 

Infants.]  Such  all  wore  accounted  under  the  age  of 
fifteen  years,  (of  whom  many  in  monasteries,)  whoso  mino- 
rities were  beneath  the  censures  of  the  church. 

XX.  Let  the  offenders  in  small  faults  (whereof  the 

abbot  is  sole  judge)  be  only  sequestered  from  the 

table  ^. 

Small  faults,]  As  coming  after  grace  to  dinner ;  breaking, 
though  casually,  the  earthen  ewer  wherein  they  wash  their 
hands;  being  out  of  tune  in  setting  the  psalm;  taking 
any  by  the  hand,  (as  a  preface,  forsooth,  to  wantonness ;) 
receiving  letters  from  or  talking  with  a  friend,  without 
leave  from  the  abbot,  &c.  From  the  table.']  Such  were  to 
eat  by  themselves,  and  three  hours  after  the  rest,  until 
they  had  made  satisfaction. 

c  [  *'   Aut    jejuniis    nimiis  dicti,  c.  xxx.] 
"  affligantur,  aut  acribus  ver-         ^  [See  Regula  8.  Benedicti» 

"  beribus  coerceantur,   ut  sa-  c.  xxiv.] 
•*  nentur."    Regula   S.   Bene- 

xxi.  Lpt  th^  oAiitleni  in  gntXtt  balu  be  ia». 
ppndiNl  frmii  tatitu  and  pnjrcn '. 

t  pmahiea  ll 

xxii.   Im   imno   onnvonR!  with   any 
cfttcd,  iinder  the  pain  4if  exmrnmuniratioD  V 

A'mw.]  Yet  borrin  tm  keefier  (tlepulcd  bgr  tl 
ma  axeeptad.    CmMrM.]  Ehhar  Ui  wmt  iv  apaak 

Ho  nighl  not  m  noeh  u  hiom  Um,  or  bia  BMal         

hj  htm  i  jwt,  to  atoM  msimU.  bo  migirt  riiv  ii|i,  lin^^T 
barv  hit  h«*d  to  Uiis,  in  omo  Uie  uUmr  did  int  with  aOad 
gMtu«  ■klnla  hhn. 

zxHL  Lut  IneorrigiUu  o&oden  be  Mpelled  dw 
montitory  *. 

/Mvrnj^vU*.]  Wbon  no  eucwytiiw  wiUt  wonH  Mr 
aotTMtion  with  blom,  dot  oenaura  of  •uamumMimAm 
WNdd  HMod.     Abdiioa  la  tbo  enl;  phatar  for  Mill  ■■ 

xxir.  Lei  wi  i-x|n'II(h1  brothor,  hfinf 
on  pimnlae  of  bli  niiK'nduiont.  Im*  net  lart  in  onW^. 

Latl.]  II«  wa«  to  bwo  Ua  fotmBr  aMUority,  and  bmia  at 
Uw  tiottora.  Know,  that  wbuawnar  wiUfai^j  iiuittad  tka 
awnant  thrice,  cr  wm  thrieo  aul  out  far  hia  wimitma^ 
Mnii  mlpit  not  Mijr  norv  bv  rwMVM. 

xzT.  Let  DTctfy  nook  bavF  two  ootu  utd  iwn 
oowla,  &e.* 

■aitwwaarii:  oaairfaiUchw 
aap  aad  uxtvtai.  far  whiMrf 
a  Uiaan.flr  ■  tbwaJ  baw  aaaw 


f  r[l««.  Bmiad.  c  ur.] 

k  (lb.  c  nri.J 

'    [lb.  e.  iiTNt.] 

•>   lib.  c.  aui.j 

'  [nT.  xsri.  savfi.  lb.  e.  Iv.     ihvf  w«ta  la  bar*  a  i^falar. 
TVrfr  ibrtiM  waa  la ba  wf  ■     ibaM  aa4,Mada«|p  tpifalM 
teaJ  by  tba  Aaala.   la  gea*.     at  calig*).] 
lal  1^  van  aOawad  m*  evwfa 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  S19 

Two,']  Not  to  wear  at  once,  except  in  winter,  but  for 
exchange,  whilst  one  was  washed ;  and  when  new  clothes 
were  delivered  them,  their  old  ones  were  given  to  the 

xxvi.  Let  every  monk  have  his  table-book,  knife, 
needle,  and  handkerchief. 

NeedhJ]  To  mend  his  own  clothes  when  torn.  Hand- 
kerchu"/.]  Which  they  wore  on  their  left  side,  to  wipe 
away  rheum,  or,  as  we  may  charitably  believe,  tears  from 
their  eyes. 

xxvii.  Let  the  bed  of  every  monk  have  a  mat, 
blanket,  rug  *",  and  pillow. 

Mai,]  In  Latin  matta,  the  liers  whereon  are  termed  by 
St.  Austine  mattarii ".  A  blanket,]  Lama^  in  Latin  qtuisi 
de  lana^  saith  Varro,  made  of  thick  wool^.  No  down, 
feathers,  nor  flocks  used  by  them ;  yea,  no  Unen  worn  on 
their  bodies.  The  abbot  also,  every  Saturday,  was  to  visit 
their  beds,  to  see  if  they  had  not  shuffled  in  some  softer 
matter,  or  purloined  some  prog  for  themselves. 

xxviii.  Let  the  abbot  be  chosen  by  the  merits  of 
his  life  and  learning  p. 

Merits,]  Though  he  were  the  last  in  degree,  and  though 
he  had  the  fewest  voices,  the  better  were  to  carry  it  from 
the  greater  number;  but  in  after  ages,  to  avoid  schism 
upon  a  parity  of  deserts,  the  senior  was  generally  chosen 
by  plurality  of  votes. 

xxix.  Let  him  never  dine  alone ;  and  when  guests 
are  wanting,  call  some  brethren  unto  his  table  ^. 

Alo)w,]  Such  as  were  relieved  by  his  hospitality  are,  by 
canonical  critics,  sorted  into  four  ranks : 

™  Sagum,  properly  the  lower  [p.  33.  ed.  1581.] 
coat  of  a  soldier.  P  f  Regula  S.  Benedict!,   c. 

n  Contra  Faustum  v.  5.  hi  v.] 
"  Dc  Lingua  Latina,  lib.  4,         ^  [lb.  c.  Ivi.] 

Th€  HiMtory  ^Jbiieyi 

.  C«mtm,  guaata,  thring  ia  or  umr  I 

eit;  «ib(n  Om>  oumnt  itood ; 
Jt.  ffofpitm,  ttnttgen  oouuitf(  tnm  dir 

tant  [tlsMM,  jwt  mUU  of  Uia 

CnUDtiJ  : 
fl.  Ptn^mi,  pSf^rimi  offtitoUMr  oaUoii,  ■    ^^ 

•od  genanOI;  tnratBi^  Cor  d»-j"^*'' 

4.  SfmJidf  boggus,  who  nomad  tfaairabM  witlHHt 

ol  the  gate. 

XXX.  Let  the  opllirer  bo  a  ducreeC  mu.  to  gh« 
mil  ttkeir  nwat  in  due  teaaoa '. 

/KMrMf.]  Ho  neoded  to  be  ■  good  n 
p«g«i  of  mm'a  boUna,  not  alowiofr  sU  faod  aBo^  kit  ' 
proportioaing  it  tn  tbrir  Mnwal  ^pn,  Uraor,  (for  aHi^ 
ommIu  dM  worit.)  k^etitM,  &o.  For  tUo  tliojr  aMtft  Ite 
piinitin  pnotieo,  wbea  all  good*  kofit  in  oanaHS  wmm 
dhidMl,  lluRigh  aiiMinlly,  for  tlw  mna  cqaaOy.  a*  i»  tiMr 
pOTMoal  M«MiiliM.  Aad  Utf  fmrtiJ  Oam  t»  aB  mm^m  \ 
Rwrr  Moa  A«rf  aW'. 

xxxi.  Lot  it»no  )m>  cxcuaod  friMD  tks  olBoe  ai  t 
cuok,  but  laki!  hti  turn  in  hb  weiJc  *. 

Am«.]  TIm  abbot  b  «»optcd,  aad  dM  odl 
aontfau  t  but  buiw  thii  waa  only  aocitiitljr  ■ 
tin  poor  aionaatwwa,  our  EnglMi  aUM^a  I 
vaida  nmka  and  undar-cooka  of  tay-pocaoo*  abia  ta  f 
the  palate  o(  Apwiiw  UntMlT. 

uudL  Let  the  oook  each  Saturday,  wbea  be  | 
out  of  hb  ofBe«,  leave  the  Uumi  and  veaela  dan  ■■4-1 
•ound  to  Ilia  fluoooBon. 

Cfaaa  mmd  JMM^]  Seren  OM  oanon  wbidi  t  ( 


'  [Bigak  B.  Biaidlrtl.  c 
'  Ad*  iii.  4S' 

»  (lU«uk  «. 


BOOK  VI.  in  England,  8S1 

is,  to  receive  twenty-five  claps  on  the  hand  for  every  default 
on  this  kind "  4  and  still  more  harsh  what  another  rule 
enjoineth,  that  the  cook  might  not  taste  what  he  dressed 
for  others,  not  permitted  to  lick  his  own  fingers  ^.  Under- 
stand it  thus :  though  he  might  eat  his  own  pittance,  or 
dimensum^  yet  he  must  meddle  with  no  more,  lest  the  tast- 
ing should  tempt  him  to  gluttony  and  excess. 

xxxiii.  Let  the  porter  be  a  grave  person,  to  dis- 
charge his  trust  with  discretion  ^. 

Grave.]  Whose  age  might  make  him  resident  in  his 
place.  Discharffe.]  In  listening  to  no  secular  news,  and,  if 
casually  hearing  it,  not  to  report  it  again ;  in  carrying  the 
keys  every  night  to  the  abbot,  and  letting  none  in  or  out 
without  his  permission. 

We  leave  this  porter  in  the  peaceable  possession 
of  his  lodge,  and  by  his  leave  are  let  out  of  this 
tedious  discourse ;  only  I  will  add,  as  the  proverb 
saith,  "  The  lion  is  not  so  fierce  as  he  is  painted." 
So  monastical  discipline  was  not  so  terrible  in  the 
practice  as  in  the  precepts  thereof.  And  as  it  is 
generally  observed  in  families  that  the  eldest  chil- 
dren are  most  hardly  used,  who,  as  yet  being  but 
few,  and  their  parents  in  full  strength,  are  taught^ 
and  tutored,  and  nurtured  with  much  chiding  and 
correction ;  whilst  more  liberty  is  allowed  to  the 
younger  brood,  age  abating  their  parents'  austerity, 
and  sometimes  turning  their  harshness  into  fondness 
unto  them  :  so  those  fatherly  rules  fell  most  heavily 
on  the  monks  of  the  first  foundation,  their  rigour 
being  remitted  to  such  who  succeeded  them ;  inso- 

^  ''XXV.  palmar um  percus-         ^  Reguia  S.  Pachomii,  art. 
sionibus  emendetur."     Reguia     ai. 

magis,  cap.  15*  sect.  10.  (?)  '  [R^ala   S«  Benedict!,  e. 



328  Tha  ffiatary  ofjibfyi 

mncli  tliBt,  in  proceM  of  time,  monki 
wantons  thronf^i   buinoiw  ami   lozmT.  m 
(Goil  williu^)  dhalt  aiipear. 

Oftueh  AiioU  teho  atfaitied  to  he 

•  The  highest  dril  hnoonr  thv  l-jigluh  abboc* 
arriTcd  at  w,  that  somo  vcro  wli-rttil  to  bo  k 

"'in  parliament,  aiit)  railed)  tn  bo  tusbtjuit*  to  t 
in  his  grcmt  oounril.  To  bc^n  at  tbu  reign  « 
Henry  tbc  Tliinl,  (Wfuro  wbouc  time  the  foe 
of  Boleran  munntons  to  pariiamcnt  are  almoit  i 
out.)  in  hiii  time  all  abbots  and  jmon  of  ijualitf  i 
gmnmoned  tbitbor.  Ahu !  this  king  tired  i 
tfane  DO  abbcyv,  (tbe  patron  M  bjr  hli  i 
tbe  most  of  bis  maintenance  lamUng  oat 
pnnM  of  priorioft.  ft  was  but  fitting 
tbey  riloald  bo  cnnralted  vilh,  who  wvre  to  amcfe 
MiDfcnied  in  all  pablir  parments.  In  the  ferty^ 
ninth  of  hi*  Tvigtt  no  loM  than  tixtj-foar  abbol> 
and  thlrtr-fiix  prion,  (a  J0II5  number!)  with  tW 
master  of  tlio  Tpmplc,  werr  niluotaiy  MmmmamHit 
nut  of  tbe  king's  free  will  and  pltmure,  (no  right 
that  tbejr  cooltl  claim  themselTM.)  amnmoped  ft* 
partianient  t. 

w-     s.  But  in  after-|Mu1iaments  the  number  of  abbot* 

t  nnmnoned  tfaltber  was  fltictnating  and  nnrrrtain: 
•ometiroM  forty,  aa  the  twontr-*fvetitb  of  Kdward 
the  Pint;  aoowtJne*  sentitv^flvt',  as  tbe  twmtr- 
eigbth  of  tbe  same  king:  6ftt-Mz  in  the  fint  of 
t^iward  tiK'  Hecond,  and  vet  tnil  fifteen  in  the 
KC<Nid   of    his   reign.      Indeed,   when   pariiainmta 

TCh«.49H«>.lll.m.  lid.     [^A 
i.  449,  Btw  c4.1 

BOOK  Ti.  in  England.  3S8 

proved  frequent,  some  priories  far  from  the  place 
where  they  were  summoned,  the  way  long,  the 
weather  (especially  in  winter)  tedious,  travelling  on 
the  way  costly,  living  at  London  chargeable ;  some 
priors  were  so  poor  they  could  not,  more  so  covetous 
they  would  not,  put  themselves  to  needless  ex- 
penses ;  all  so  lazy,  and  loving  their  ease,  that  they 
were  loath  to  take  long  journeys,  which  made  them 
afterwards  desire  to  be  eased  of  their  honourable 
but  troublesome  attendance  in  parliament. 

3.  At  last  king  Edward  the  Third  resolved  to  fix  Their 

,  number 

on  a  set  number  of  abbots  and  priors,  not  so  many  contracted 
as  with  their  numerousness  might  be  burdensome  tol^"^^^' 
his  council ;  yet  not  so  few  but  that  they  should  be 
a  sufficient  representation  of  all  orders  therein  con- 
cerned,  which,   being    twenty-eix  in   number,  are 
generally  thus  reckoned  up  : 

1.  St.  Alban's.  15.  Shrewsbury. 

2.  Glastonbury.  16.  Gloucester. 

3.  St.  Austin's,  Cant.  17.  Bardney. 

4.  Westminster.  18.  Bennet  in  the  Holme. 

5.  Edmundsbury.  19.  Thomey. 

6.  Peterborough.  20.  Ramsey. 

7.  Colchester.  21.  Hyde. 

8.  Evesham.  22.  Malmesbury. 

9.  Winchelcombe.  23.  Cirencester. 

10.  Crowland.  24.  St.  Mary's,  York. 

11.  Battle.  25.  Selby. 

12.  Reading.  26.  With  the  prior  of  St. 

13.  Abingdon.  John's  of  Jerusalem, 

14.  Waltham.  first  and  chief  baron 

of  England '. 

2  [Re}  ner  asserts  that  only     in   parliament,  omitting  from 
twenty-four   abbots  had  seats     the  list  here  given  by  Fuller, 

Y  2 

None  of  tbe«e  lield  of  mnui  lords  by  fnnk-tiimetmga^ 
bot  all  or  the  king  in  capilr  ptr  barfmiam,  ha.y\ttg  tm 
entire  bamnj,  to  wliich  thirtacD  knigbta*  fees  al  ImM 
did  bekmg. 

4.  Yot  even  after  tliU  fixatioa  of  | 

— p     abbot*  ia  a  wt  number,  tbe  aame  ' 

'^  joet  to  varietT.  The  prior  of  Coventfy  pbyed  tt  la 
and  out,  and  declined  his  appearance  there ;  ta  M 
the  abbot  nf  LtrinwtiT.  who  maj  weem  tA  kave  warn 
but  hair  n  mitre  on  bin  bead ;  mi  also  the  abbot  of 
St.  Janiea,  bv  N'ortttaniplon,  mar  btr  mXA  to  dt  bat 
on  one  hip  in  {Miriiaincnt.  ho  ajtpear*  *o  in  tk* 
twilight  betwixt  m  hamn  and  no  hamn  in  tb«  mob- 
rooDs  thervuntn.  Iliit  aftorwards  tbe  ftni  at  ikmm 
three  w»  ronfirmed  in  bia  plaee :  the  two  laat*  oa 
their  eametit  n'<iiu<«t,  obtained  a  Aiehatge,  faMf 
beewiae  thejr  were  lumtnoned  onty  inierpalalis  pits* 
htu,  and  not  ranRtantly ;  partir  became  llker  waJa  It 

BnrwK  (R«r.  1.  51A)  tMkn 
Ikm  nriMT-alaa  !■  all.  »ii- 
Ih  to  lU  m»lm  Kl«n  ^ 
Kbr.  ComMrv.  IVTiaioai. 
od  TWvfcabarxi  ud  ia  iB 
Hm  Vin.  tU  aUot  uT  Bnr- 
li«-Bpai>TTv«t  Ml  ra  p>rii»- 
»rvt,  b«t  C4>»MitrT  ami  Bar. 
bM  w«r»  krU  iW  tU  mtum 
pfw— .  Sw  CMMlrn'i  BrttB*. 
p.  ti3i  .•Wd»'«  Trtl»  of 
Hmmmtr.  Api>.  p.  715.  TImm 
mfaliaM  fai  ibfftnnt  vriwn 

iKia  kOM-  claM  thcrr  wm«  i^ 
■mi :  tW  aUntoof  Mt.  PM«rV 
at  AUwlahtfT.  hi  Dw 

Cnnr.  Dunvtahirr :  St.  PmotX 
(Iwrtapj.  IB  HonvT.  Si.ManV 
EMiMm.  Cnft«dahira  ■  M.  ^ 
riunr'*.  Fa'mban.  Kr«t  1  «L 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  82S 

to  appear  that  they  held  not  of  the  king  a  whole 
barony  in  chief. 

5.  To  these  twenty-six  regular  barons  king  Henry  a  thon. 
the  Eighth  added  one  more  for  a  easting  voice,  viz.  ronry  made" 
the  abbot  of  Tavistock  in  Devonshire,  on  this  token,  ^'enry^tbe 
that  being  created   in  the  eighth  of  his  reign  be^'fif^'*^ 
enjoyed  not  his  barony  full  twenty  years,  and  acted 
so  short  a  part  on  the  stage  of  jiarlianient,  that,  with 
Cato,  he  might  seem  only  ingredi  ut  eanreU  to  come 
in  that  he  might  go  out.     And  because  some  may 
be  curious  to  know  the  manner  of  his  creation,  take 
here  the  form  thereof: 

"  Henricus,  &c.  Sciatis  quod  certis  considera- 
"  tionibus  nos  specialiter  moventibus  et  ob  specia- 
"  lem  devotionem,  quam  ad  beatam  Virginem  Mariam 
matrem  Christi,  Sanctumque  Rumonum  in  quorum 
honore  Abbatia  de  Tavistock,  quae  de  furidation^  ^ 

nobilium  progenitorum  nostroruni,  quondam  Re- 
gain Anglian  et  nostro  patronatu  dedicata  existit, 
'*  gerimus  et  habemus,  hinc  est  quod  de  gratia  nostra 
"  speciali,  ac  ex  certa  scientia,  et  mere  motu  nostris, 
''  volumus  eandem  Abbatiam,  sive  monasterium  nos- 
"  trum  gaudere  honore,  privilegio,  ac  libertatibus 
"  spiritualium  Dominorum  Parliamenti  nostri,  hsere- 
"  dum,  et  successorum  nostrorum,  ideo  concessimus, 
"  et  per  pncsentes  concedimus  pro  nobis  hseredibus, 
"  et  successoribus  nostris  quantum  in  nobis  est, 
"  (lilecto  nobis  in  Christi,  Richardo  Banham  Abbati 
"  de  Tavistock  pradicto  et  successoribus  suis,  ut 
"  corum  quilibet  qui  pro  tempore  ibidem  fuerit 
"  Abbas,  sit  et  erit  unus  de  spiritualibus,  et  religiosis 
"  (lominis  Parliamenti  nostri,  Hseredum,  et  successo- 
"  rum  nostrorum,  gaudendo  honore,  privilegio  ac 
"  libertatibus  ejusdem  ;  et  insuper,  de  uberiori  gratia 




396  The  Otiorf  t^  AUry  soos  vt. 

"  Rofilm,  ft(rM*Uui«lo  iiiltitBtmt  dfcti  noMjf  mimf 
"  U'rii,  roiiftiilenimtn  ejus  tlistjuitum,  itm  tjaoA  ri  MB- 
"  titij^t  nliqucm  A1ibnU>m  qui  pni  Uinpon  fberit, 
-  fope  Tv\  erne  Bbaeiitem  prwptOf  pnrdieti 
"  iililitstcm.  in  non  Toniemlo  ad  Pariuuneatam 
"  dirtum.  hn-mlam.  vel  racceHonn 
"  qiinni  (|iii<)(>m  abtentlam  eidem  Abbati  perdaoMBBi 
"  per  immeiitM ;  lU  UlD«l  qnod  tone  ■olret  ptv 
"  bt^ocmodi  abtientia  cttjiulibi-t  I*nrUiunf>nti  tntcfri 
"  in  noatro  Scaeeario,  mum  per  stiomnlum  qainq— 
**  inaiva*  nobis  bcrodibo*  sivo  nicn'Muribaa  MMtrK 
**  totie«  quotin,  bne  tn  fatamm  coatifieift.  !■ 
"  ct^ofl.  &r.  Te«t«.  &«.  ViceaiBio  tertio  As  J». 
•*  niuu^i.  Ar.  •■* 

Wbomui  tbU  t'hsrtor  nffimietb  Taviitork 
by  king  IltTinr's  nobli-  |fn>)tpnitor«.  WMne  will 
Uiefest ;  and  tbp  ratbor  bpcanac  Ordalpb.  the  aoa 
of  Ordftarp.  enrl  o(  iVvoitshirr,  fa  notoriotulf  kmm 
Tor  the  ftnimlcT  of  thin  monaBtery  befcie  the  CeB 
qacft,  and  tm  Kngliab  Irinff  appauvth  iiinhnBtly  s 
benefaetor  thrreuuto  * ;  yvt  bMiaaae  the  En^A 
kinj^  ■•Pcvwlvfly  confirmefl  the  chartofa  tbenoC 
tbrjr  wen>  in  a  lovnl  rf>ni)>linH-nt  aoknowlvdged  aa 
tfao  intoqirvtnliTO  foumk-n  nf  that  abbcT.  And  w 
little  rblMnm  wh'nc  (larcnta  dccmip  in  tbrir  inRuic]r 
iiiniMvnil^  own  iliftr  (atbcn  and  motlH'r«-in-law  Co* 
tfa^^'ir  nntural  parmtjs  to  nunv  m'Ttnirtorica. 
fint  fouiidiTH  WL-n-  in  a  manni-r  ftirvtitten  a 
oot  nf  niinil,  applied  thcnis?lvci>  to  tin*  pnwwt 
(thoujrh  )nit  tbe  favourm)  aa  to  the  fimmlera  oT 
their  cor^torstinna. 

t  P>|.jIIn>VIIL[«rt. 

fc  (.'wan'.  Br    I 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  887 

6.  Know  that  besides  these  abbots  there  wereAbbeweiiio 
four  abbesses,  viz.  of  Shaftesbury,  Barking  in  Essex,  though 
St.  Mary's  in   Winchester,  and  Wilton,  who  heldb^nlL 
from  the  king  an   entire  barony,  yet   never  were 
summoned   as   baronesses   to   parliament;    because 

that  honour,  frequent  in  lay-persons,  was  never  con- 
ferred on  any  ecclesiastical  female.  Yet  were  they, 
and  almost  all  other  abbesses  of  any  quality,  saluted 
ladies,  as  earls'  daughters  are  by  the  courtesy  of 
England ;  which  custom  hath  made  such  a  right, 
that  they  are  beheld  not  only  as  unmannerly,  but 
unjust,  who  in  common  discourse  deny  the  same. 
However,  the  aforesaid  four  abbesses,  though  not 
called  to  parliament,  were  solemnly  summoned  by 
special  writs  ad  habendum  sertDitium  suum^  that  is, 
to  have  their  full  number  of  knights  in  time  of  war, 
where  the  ladies'  personal  presence  was  not  expected, 
but  their  effectual  appearance,  by  their  proxies  or 
their  j)urses,  to  supply  the  king's  occasions  ^. 

7.  Of  all  these  the  prior  of  St.  John's  in  Jem-  prior  of 
salem  took  the  precedency,  being  generally  of  noble  chief  baron, 
extraction  and  a  military  person.     Yea,  not  content 

to  take  place  of  all  regular  barons,  "  Primus  Anglic 
liaro  haberi  roluitr  saitb  my  author**,  he  would 
be  counted  simply  and  absolutely  the  first  and  chief 
baron  in  England ;  though  the  expression  speaks 
rather  his  affectation  than  peaceable  possession  of 
such  priority. 

8.  Next  him  the  abbot  of  St.  Albau's  took  place  Next  the 
above  all  of  his  order,  to  the  no  small  grief  andsLAibui*!. 

t'   Pat.  5.  Ed.  I.  m.  11.  d.     Foedera,  ib.  II.  539,  new  edi- 
l^)t.  Scutamil  ejusd.  an.  m.  7.     tion.] 
[See  the  summons  in  Rjrmer's         ^  Camd.  Brit.  p.  123. 

Y  4 

an  The  HlUaey  ^AU^i  •earn  n. 

gfndge  of  Olutonbory.  sedng  Joaeph  of  ArinMOba 
WM  two  bandivd  jemn  wolor  to  St.  Alban't.     Boc 
who  ■lull  deny  ttie  pstriuch  Jwob  tlio  priiihga  <f  : 
onNung  his  own  handi  to  pfofier  the  joaagm  I 

the  elder'!    The  Mine 

bnt  on  what  i 

let  ntben  inqniir.  the  pope  unnneth  to  1 
vherri]^  Adrian  tbo   Fourth,  odto  •  monk  of  8L 
Anim'i,  gKn  that  convent  the  precedency. 

9.  Alt  for  tho  remtfnhig  mbbotA.  we  may  ofaaan* 
a  kind  of  a  rarolcM  order  obamrfd  m  thrir  eoHK 
twiuin^  Uj,  and  conseqtMtntly  their  ntting  in,  par- 
lUunent.  Now,  wcing  it  will  not  cnttT  inta  • 
mtionml  belief  that  their  niethodtilnfr  waa  menif 
managed  by  the  will  of  the  elerk  of  the  writ^  IC 
mnvt  deacend  on  ihc  diH)>o«d  of  the  kinjr,  callii^ 
them  in  what  onlcr  he  plvaceth. 

10.  Sun.'  I  am  these  ahbota  were  not  wmnHNHd 
according  to  tlii-ir  petaonnl  aeuioiitiea  of  their  Kvctil 
inatolmenta.  nor  aecordinff  to  the  antiquity  < 
mpeetiTP  fouiuUlious;  fm-  Wnlihatn  abbiM  I 
mHi^-ftemtUiimiu,  aa  but  fnumlmt  by  king  Hot 
eommonly  foBiteentb  nr  fift^t-nth  in  the  i 
Battle  Abbey,  which  in  this  lio«Iy  of  abl 
he  bencnth  the  ancle,  (aa  hut  of  all.  aav 
ranmonly  abont  the  hraaat,  the  eighth  or'nintk  fa 

*  11.  Nor  ate  they  nuik<-d  arrordinff  to  the  rick> 
neai  of  their  annual  rpTpnut**  ;  for  tbcD.  according  to 
their  raluatloiw  at  the  Hbwolution,  thtT'  •honU  h« 

•  0«a.  «l*fii.  14.  takni  frtm  Um  « 

•  [Tbi    tMi*    of  WdliMM  hhI  Kif«l  tM  dH  . 
— »  —<■  «  ptfiiiMiWtwy  WiM  or  black  anWM. 
la  M  77.  wImb  tkk  boMs  WM  I JQ.] 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  829 

marshalled  according  to  the  method  here  ensuing, 
when  first  I  have  premised  a  note  concerning  the 
abbey  of  Tewksbury,  in  Gloucestershire. 

12.  This  abbot  appeareth  parliamentary  neither  Tcwks- 
in  any  summons  exhibited  by  Master  Selden,  most  added  to 
curious  in  this  point  ff,  nor  yet  in  the  catalogue  of  {Jj^*^ 
them  presented  by  Master  Camden  ^ ;  and  reverence 
to  these  worthy  authors  hath  prevailed  with  me  so 
much,  that  I  durst  not  insert  him.     However,  since 
I  am  convinced  in  my  judgment,  he  must  be  entered 
in  the  list ;  partly  moved  by  the  greatness  of  reve- 
nues, partly  because  I  find  him  registered  by  bishop 
Godwin  \  no  less  critical  than  the  former  in  histo- 
rical matters.     Yet,  to  please  all  parties,  we  will 
only  add  him  in  the  margin,  and  not  enter  him  in 
the  body  of  the  catalogue  ^. 

1 .  St.  Peter's,  Westminster     . 

2.  Glastonbury,  Somersetshire 

3.  St.  Alban's,  Hertfordshire  . 

4.  St.  John's  of  Jerusalem, 

Middlesex   . 

5.  St.  Edmundsbury,  Suffolk  . 

6.  Reading,  Berkshire    . 

7.  St.  Mary's,  nigh  York 

8.  Abingdon,  Berkshire . 

9.  Ramsey,  Huntingdonshire  . 
10.  Peterborough,  Northamp- 

*  Tewkesbury,  valued  at 

K  Titles  of  Honour,  p»  728.  ^  [He  is  cited  among  the 

h  Brit.  p.  123.  parliamentary  abbots  by  Bur- 

i  In  his  Annals  of  king  Hen.  net,   Ref.  i.   p*  537.     I  have 

Vni.,  anno  1 539.  placed  it  in  the  list  with  a  star.] 



d.  ob.  q. 



4  11 



4  11 






8  0  0 



0  0  0 



9  0  I 



5  11 



8  1  1 



3  0  1 






3  0  0 



U.  OknoMtir       .       . 


11.  St.  Aiutin't,  Cutorbtir; 


13.  ETgshara.  WorMwU-nbiro 


14.  C'rowtuiil,  liiucoliuhire 


11   0  0 

IS.  WaJtliuiLtiacx 



•    1031 

17.  IlatUc.  Sin«!i  . 


11    1   1 


19.  Hydo,  iii^h  Winebntat 


go.  .Sclliy.  YorlBblie 


81.  .\l11lrnnlm17.  \Mlubini 



SS.  WivflsMituW.  GlfrticMtor- 

nUin?    . 



83.  Mi(UlK'U>ii.  Dorr^'tMliire 


H.  St.  ikiim-c  Holm.  Norfolk 


U.  Sbnnrabarjr 



S7.  BU1I1K7,  Lincalndiire 


llie  Ttlutioiu  of  CoTmtry  ud  CoIcImsUt  I 

find :  and  in  all  theme  tunu  wo  ba.To  traited  llwf 

)  All  iWm  nhulMaa  an 
takM  ami  uf  SoM^a  Catalon* 
■r  lUliciMM  \UmmK  p.  7«7 

ill  n^gU^t  Mmm&mw  • 
M«t«M  nhuiaa  i*  gmn  of 
lltMv  iMNiMa  1  Uw  napwtifw 
nmt  ot  ih*  lint  us  an. 
tto»Lj:tid..  ty*il.  lu.  U. 
For  ao  gnaai  a  diacTvpancr  lar- 

man  of  llMiran  la  «^Ih» 
ti«iwitktUda>rh«MM.  Ba 

rW  bv  lUyw*.  p.  ai  1. 

I'a  funaboa  wm  labia 
fton  u  MCitwt  MS.  h  IW 
CottMilJfam;.  TWaMwraT 
Sl  JuIid'*,  CoMM>««r.  h  nek. 
■mad  tt^  DaipUlr  M  513/.  17* 
ir  wv  ailM  lo  tUa  tU  nilBiaaM 
of  fit.  Botolph'a  pioqr.  cIbh^ 
btkioclait  ta  iW  «Mw  M^W. 
I  t.i/.  I  u.  M..  a«4  tint  •#  «ka 
U^jCoM.  7/.;*.  UL,llM  «Wb 
■■Manl  wiU  be  64^.  lya-^A 
8L  M^'*.  Covwrtn,  b  ■« 
*  ia  tkia  Ikt.) 

BOOK  VI.  in  England,  331 

field  and  Speed,  both  subject  to  many  mistakes; 
those  standing  on  slippery  ground,  who  in  point  of 
computation  tread  only  on  figures,  and  not  on  num- 
bers at  length.  The  auditors  in  these  accounts  pre- 
tend to  much  exactness,  descending  to  the  fractions 
of  halfpence  and  farthings ;  though  much  partiality 
was  used  therein,  many  of  the  raters  at  the  dissolu- 
tion being  ranters  for  the  present,  proved  purchasers 
for  the  fiiture,  of  the  lands.  The  abbey  of  Ramsey, 
commonly  called  the  rich  *",  is  here  but  the  ninth  in 
number,  according  to  the  wealth  thereof;  whereby 
it  plainly  appears  that  much  favour  was  used  in  the 
undervaluing  of  that  foundation. 

13.  We  must  know  there  were  other  abbeys,  who,  Some  ab- 
though  not  so  high  in  dignity,  were  richer  in  endow-  baroM? 
ments  than   many  of  these  parliamentary  barons,  3^^^ 

1.  Fountains,  Richmondshire 

2.  Lewes,  Sussex 

3.  St.  Werburgh's,  Cheshire 

4.  Leicester 

5.  Morton,  Surrey 

6.  Fumes,  Richmondshire 

These  had  more  lands,  at  best  were  more  highly 
valued,  though  not  so  honourable  a  tenure,  as  hold- 
ing of  mean  landlords  in  frank-almonage ;  and  pro- 
bably the  parliamentary  barons  had  more  old  rents, 
though  these  (as  later  foundations)  greater  incomes 
by  improved  demeans. 

in  Sir  Robert  Cotton,  (under     Description    of    Iluntingdon- 
the   name  of  S|)eed,)   in   the     bhire. 



d.  ob.  q. 

.  1173 


7  10 

.  1691 


6  0  1 

.  1073 


7  10 

.  1062 


4  11 

.  1039 


3  0  0 



10  0 

TIm  Hulory  of  Jblifyi  nos  n. 

14.  Hicre  abo  wpre  nantieriM  oorrinl  in  reraaMi 
with  porlianitftitary  ablic)-«,  wbewwf  Shaftaubwy,  ik* 
cbicfcst.  valued  at  ISS9/.  iU.  M.;  m  that  tW 
coanti;  p>>o)ilt-  hail  a  jirurL'rb,  that  if  ibi*  abbi«t  of 
Glutoubury  Diiffbt  nuim-  the  abbew  of  ShafU^faafj. 
tlieir  hviT  wuiil<]  have  moiv  laud  tbon  the  klMf  of 
Eofrland.  Barkinjt  in  Mrnvx.  aud  Hion  in  UkMI^ 
Bex.  Tl-II  not  mtich  Bhort  of  ShoArabury.  bdof  fln»- 
mlly  endowfd  with  above  1000/.  [wr  annam. 

15.  or  all  coDntii>8  in  Kiiftland.  (ilooceatenUl* 
«H  uoM  peatvrrO  with  muulu.  ba%'in((  four 
ftbfMyi^  bolide  St.  A  ufpHFlincV  in  Bristol,  (who 
timei  jiummI  for  a  baruu.)  within  the 
thenxif;  vis.  Ghiticcnter,  Ti'wkoborT', 
and  NNivotitrumbe :  licnctt  tho  topiral  wicki 
rcrb,  dcacrving  to  bti  baiiiiiht'd  uut  of  that 
being  tho  profane  rhild  of  niperstitloiui  parvnU :  "  A* 
**  mro  M  God  i^  In  OlounwtfnJiin: ;"  a*  if  au  maaij 
eonvenu  had  certainly  batened  his  picioaa  fnmmBa 
to  that  place. 

16.  At  Glonnstatahire  wm  tho  foUoat  «C  m 
WeatnioreUiid  U>o  frvcst  from  nKkoaatcric*.  It 
aecmeth  the  monka  did  not  much  can?  for  thst 
cold  runntrr.  nevttinjf  thi'miflToa  but  in  oua  phe^ 
railed  Stiarjs  which  th<^j'  found  bo  amweriay  IW 
nanio,  that  Hwr  Kouglit  wannrr  place*  doovkanL 
Aa  fur  the  iNia^tlng  of  the  men  of  the  Ide  mt 
Wight,  that  ih^y  nevi-r  had  tioudeil  monks  thofvia"; 
wcrv  it  ao,  (their  aoil  btHng  m>  fnillful  and  plea«a^ 
it  would  merit  more  wonder  than  that  Ireland  halik 
no  venommu  rn-atum  tben-in.  Uut  ibi^ 
hath  more  of  mirth   than  truth   in   it. 

L  Brit,  in  iW  U«  of  Wi^fct.  [p  19S.] 

BOOK  Ti.  in  England,  838 

priory  at  Carisbrook  and  nunnery  at  Quarre  evidence 
them  sufficiently  stocked  with  such  cattle. 

17.   I   have   done   with   this   subject   of  mitred  Q"«re 

what  meant 

abbeys    when    we   have   observed   that   they  were  by  four 
called  Abbots-General,  alias  Abbots-Sovereign  ^'j  as  Jecuiiariy 
acknowledging  in  a  sort  no  superior,  because  ex-**^^*' 
empted  from  the  jurisdiction  of  any  diocesan,  having 
episcopal  power  in  themselves.     And  here  I  would 
be  thankful   to   any  who   would   inform   me,  that 
seeing  all  these  abbots  were  thus  privileged,  how  it 
came  to  pass   that  four  of  them   were   especially 
termed  Abbots  Exempti,  viz.  Bury,  Waltham,  St. 
Alban's,  and  Evesham  p.  I  say,  seeing  these  were  so 
called  KQT    e^o'xijVf  (exempt,  as  it  were,  out  of  the 
exempted,)  I  would  willingly  be  satisfied  what  extra- 
ordinary  privileges    these    enjoyed   by   themselves 
above  others  of  their  own  order. 


So  much  ttf  the  greatness,  somewhat  of  the  good-  owe  ab- 
ness  of  abbeys,  if  possibly  it  may  be  done  without  SSfc 
prejudice  to  truth.  Surely  some  pretences,  plausible 
at  least,  did  ingratiate  them  with  the  politicians  of 
that  age,  otherwise  prince  and  people  in  those  days 
(though  blinded  with  ignorant  «eal,  yet  worldly  wise) 
would  never  have  been  gulled  into  so  long  a  tolera- 
tion, yea,  veneration,  of  them. 

2.  They  were  an  easy  and  cheap  outlet  for  the  They  con- 
nobility  and  gentry  of  the  land  therein  to  dispose  dbjww*^ 
their  younger  children.     That  younger  son  who  had  J^^JS? in 

o  Sir  II.  Spelman  in  Glos-         p  Titles  of  Honour,  p.  727. 
sario  v.  Abbas. 

884  Th*  His*»n,«^AU^i  m«  «, 

Dot  meUlo  tnoagfa  lo  taaiiMgo  «  urnrd  miftfat  1m«» 
meokiKW  to  became  m  cowl ;  which  cowl,  in  flkoA 
Umc  miiHit  gmw  up  to  be  a  mitn>,  wbvu  hit  mcfito 
|)rc«cnti-<d  him  to  be  ibbut  of  his  cuovciit.  Cli|i  • 
vril  on  the  bead  of  a  ynunffrr  daugfalor,  (ti 
if  •>ho  wvK  8U{M'nuinuaUHl,  not  otci 
mclanrbiilj,  &c.)  oud  iustaiitlT  she  wu  proTided  I 
ill  a  nunni'tr.  when',  without  eml  or  care  of  t 
|)art>nt»,  nbe  liTiKl  in  all  outward  bappincaa,  i 
notbinj;,  uxrt'pt  [Krhnpn  it  werct  a  busbend.  TUi 
was  a  ffn>at  caUM'  of  tbo  Innjr  rnotinnaiicw  uf  the 
Etigliah  nobility  in  nicli  pomp  anil  jtowor,  a*  ban^f 
then  no  teniplution  to  torture  their  tnuuiu  with 
mckinR  of  r\-ntj»  to  nuiko  proriaioa  for  th<^r  j  iiiii%w 
cliiblrra.  Jnili>cil,  ftomi^timee  noblaaian  gave  Moall 
portions  with  tbdr  children  to  the  eonveat,  not  a 
■fl  would  prefer  them  in  marrtafTP  to  one  < 
own  qoalitj;  but  gcmtally  abbcj^s  wen  , 
accept  tb«n  with  notbitif;.  thtreby  to  ^ 
parent*  and  bnithcrv  of  imeh  jninng 
uaidena  to  \k'  the  ronttant  friends  to  their  c 
oo  all  Dccaaiomi  at  t*ourt,  and  rbieflf  in  all  pafw 
M  9.  Ono  emiitent  instance  bLTrof  wo  have  in 
Ralph  NcTil,  lirst  rari  of  WcaUttorelaud.  of  that 
hmUj  wbum  I  behold  as  the  happiest  mbrcet  of 
Engfamd  sinre  the  OitKitwit,  if  either  we  c 
e— bar  of  bb  children,  or  moanire  the  baf^  if  | 
the  honour  ttt<-;  aitAJned. 

lie  had  bjr  Margaret,  liis  fint  wife, 

i.  John,  his  cklcvt  ann,  liord  Nevil,  tee. 
ii.  Ilalidi,  in  tlw  rifffat  of  Mary  hb  wifr,  . 
Kerref*  ut  Uiuley. 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  836 

iii.  Maude,  married  to  Peter  Lord  Mauley. 

iv.  Alice,  married  to  Sir  Thomas  Gray. 

V.   Philip,  married  to  Thomas  Lord  Dacre,  of 

Gi  Island, 
vi.  Margaret,  married  to  the  Lord  Scrope,  of 

vii.  Anne,  married  to  Sir  Gilbert  Umfravile. 
viii.  Margery,  abbess  of  Barking, 
ix.  Elizabeth,  a  nun. 

He  had  by  Joan,  his  second  wife, 

i.  Richard,  earl  of  Salisbury. 

ii.  William,  in  the  right  of  Joan  his  wife.  Lord 

iii.  George,  Lord  Latimer. 

iv.  Edward,  Lord  Abergavenny. 

V.  Robert,  bishop  of  Durham. 

vi.  Thomas,  in  right  of  his  wife,  Lord  Sey- 

vii.  Katharine,  married  to  Thomas  duke  of 

viii.  Eleanor,  to  Henry  earl  of  Northumberland. 

ix.  Anne,  to  Humphrey  duke  of  Buckingham. 

X.  Jane,  a  nun. 

xi.  Cicely,  to  Richard  duke  of  York,  and  mother 
to  king  Edward  the  Fourth  \ 

See  we  here  the  policy  of  that  age  in  disposing  of 
their  numerous  issue.  More  than  the  tithe  of  them 
was  given  to  the  church ;  and  I  trow  the  nuns,  and 
abbess  especially,  were  as  good  madams  as  the  rest, 
and  conceived  themselves  to  go  in  equipage  with 
their  other  lady-sisters.     And  no  wonder  if  an  earl 

q  Mills,  p.  393. 

8t6  Tike  Hitiani  „/  Abbey*  maom.  ft. 

preTimd  hb  danghUn  to  be  dudk,  •oeiog  do  kiag 
of  Euglud  iince  the  Conqacvt  bad  four  dughlai 
lirin^  tn  womui'B  Mtato,  but  ho  dilpoMid  ona  af 
Ihcm  to  he  a  voiaxj ;  and  Bridfr(->t,  the  fouitb  dangli- 
ler  to  kiiift  E«lwanl  the  Fourth,  a  nun  at  Dardbnl 
in  Kent,  was  the  laNt  priiici-H  who  ent«nMl  into  • 
ri'li^ouB  order. 

4.  TlivT  were  ti^U^mble  tuton  for  the  edtMBtim 
of  youth,  thcTO  being  a  grvat  penury  of  other  pm 
mar-achools  In  that  a^ ;  and  vvory  coavent  had  a 
or  more  therein  who  (geoerallj  gratia)  I 
ehildmi   thereabouts :  joa,  tfaejr  who  wen  \ 
cnoogh  in  their  own  lirea  wen  nn 
to  their  diadjdino  oror  otben.     Gmmioar  wm  I 
taqgfat,  and  mnak*  whieh  in  tome  tort  an;  har^j 
dirige  (ai  to  the  general  uie  thereof)  at  the  i 
lotion  of  abbeys. 

5.  NnaneriH  alio  won  good  ■bfreebooli.  whcnfa 
the  girU  and  mddi  of  the  Dcigfaboiirfaood  wvav 
tangbt  to  read  and  work :  and  fometimc*  a  little 
Latin  wa«  taoght  ttii>ni  thfreiu.  Ym.  give  mv  leave 
to  aaj.  if  Mich  fi-niinine  foundatioiH  bad  itill  con- 
tinued, provide*!  no  vow  wen  <»bcnidad  apoo  tbaai, 
(virginity  tit  least  kuju  wbeni  It  bi  notl  c 
bspty  the  wcaki-r  wx,  b«ide«  the  avoiding  ) 
iorofiveuienceA,  miglit  be  hrigbteucd  to  a  1 
peifectioa  tlian  hitherto  bath  been  attatna 
Aarpneaa  of  thHr  wiu  and  nddeiUMM  of  t 
eelti.  which  tbcir  cneniiet  miiat  allow  nB 
might  by  ptIui'fttiiMi  he  impnived  into  a 
•olidity,  and  that  vloniml  with  art*  whirh  i 
want,  not  becauw  they  cannot  Irarn,  Uit  i 
laagfat  them.  I  My  if  tuch  fmiimne  fount 
wen  extant  Dow-of-dayi,  bajily  aome  ' 

BOOK  vj.  in  England.  387 

highest  birth  would  be  glad  of  such  places ;  and  I 
am  sure  their  fathers  and  elder  brothers  would  not 
be  sorry  for  the  same. 

6.  They  were  the  sole  historians,  in  writing,  toMonkithe 
preserve  the   remarkable    passages    of  church  and  nans,  and 
commonwealth.     I  confess  I  had  rather  any  than^**^' 
monks  had  written  the  histories  of  our  land ;   yet 
rather  than  the  same  should  be  unwritten,  I  am 
heartily  glad  the  monks  undertook  the  performance 
thereof.     Indeed,  in  all  their  chronicles   one   may 

feel  a  rag  of  a  monk's  cowl :  I  mean,  they  are  partial 
to  their  own  interest.  But  in  that  age  there  was  a 
choiceless  choice,  that  monks  or  none  at  all  should 
write  our  English  histories.  Swordmen  lacked  learn- 
ing, statesmen  leisure  to  do  it :  it  was  therefore 
devolved  to  monks  and  friars,  who  had  store  of  time 
and  no  want  of  intelligence  to  take  that  task  upon 
them.  And  surely  that  industrious  Bee  ^  hath  in 
our  age  merited  much  of  posterity,  having  lately, 
with  great  cost  and  care,  enlarged  many  manuscripts 
of  monks,  (formerly  confined  to  private  libraries,) 
that  now  they  may  take  the  free  air,  and,  being 
printed,  publicly  walk  abroad.  Meantime,  whilst 
monks'  pens  were  thus  employed,  nuns  with  their 
needles  wrote  histories  also:  that  of  Christ  his  passion 
for  their  altar-clothes,  and  other  Scripture-  (and  moe 
legend-)  stories,  in  hangings  to  adorn  their  houses. 

7.  They  were  most  admirable  good  landlords ;  and  Abbou  ex- 
well  might  they  let  and  set  good  pennyworths,  whoundiords. 
bad  good  pounds'-worths  freely  given  unto  them. 
Their  yearly  rent  was  so  low,  as  an  acknowledgment 

'  An  able  stationer,  in  Little     lished  Twysden's  Decern  Scri(>* 
Britain,   London.     [He    pnb-     tores.] 



rf.t  llulA^  uf  Jhhryi 

rather  than  a  n>iit.  only  to  dirtinguith  Um  (cm 
feim  tlie  lAiitllonl.  TYicxr  finc«  aim  were  Mqr;  1 
llxmgli  i>v[-rT  rtiiivftit,  oft  a  InmIv  politic, 
tal,  rut  licrmisp  tb«  nme  eottiuted  of  otortal  > 
for  tliHr  mpiuben,  Ktiil  tn  old  abliot  for  the  1 
thf^rLHif,  t\\vy  wfrt'  glut  to  niaki'  nM>  of  the  | 
tttnc  for  ihf'ir  pnilit,  taking  little  fini-*  hx  ^"""9 
Xvtaxn.  A<i  for  rt-nt-bccvoi,  ^iM-ep,  pulleu.  Ate.  n^ 
lerve*!  till  tlirir  l<>*sca,  t«>nant»  both  paid  I 
more  i-iuily,  u  gruvin^c  on  the  nuiic,  a&d  tbe  i 
rhm.<rfully,  Iwraiot-  at  any  lime  tlipy  might  ' 
eat  their  full  sliar^*  thvrvof,  wht-n  rvpairinn  to  thtir 
hutdlonl'a  bountiful  taltlo  ;  iiuomurh  that  Umg  \tmm 
from  abb(7«  were  prefemMl  by  niany  hefoie  i 
tcnurca  of  fn.<vb<4(fa,  h  \tm  wbjcct  lu  tmxM  | 
troublefoniB  atteodanev. 

8.  Thdr  hospitality  wan  beyond 
much  that  Ovid.  <if  liring  in  that  age.)  who  % 
Famino  to  dwvll  In  Seytfaia,  would  hsvc 
FnaUnf  an  inhabitant  of  Eng Ibh  sUmti  ; 
in  Chriatinaa  time,  tbvy  kept  moat  bcmntifti]  1 
Whotoorer  bmagfat  the  (arc  of  a  man,  brought  wilfc 
kfan  a  patent  for  bla  free  wplromi*  till  bu  )>laaed  to 
depart.  This  wan  the  methml :  where  he  brake  Ui 
feat*  tbcrr  be  dim*d  :  when'  be  dined,  there  ha 
rapped ;  where  he  nipped,  thm  he  brake  bb  faft 
next  mnndng :  and  n  in  a  rirvU'.  Alwan  f 
that  hv  prorided  lodging  for  himielfat  night; 
harinf  gnmt  balla  and  rcfnrtoriea.  But  fr 
ben  and   donnltaric^  «n   for  vurh   of  t 

* :  At  tU  iMtaOMim  «r  fUliifc 

BOOK  VI.  tit  England.  339 

9.  Some  will  object  that  this  their  hospitality  Objection 
was  but  charity  mistaken,  promiscuously  entertain-  their  hoe. 
ing  some  who  did  not  need  and  moe  who  did  not^*   *^' 
deserve  it.     Yea,  these  abbeys  did  but  maintain  the 

poor  which  they  made ;  for  some  vagrants,  account- 
ing the  abbey-alms  their  own  inheritance,  served  an 
apprenticeship,  and  afterwards  wrought  joumeywork 
to  no  other  trade  than  begging ;  all  whose  children 
were,  by  their  fathers'  copy,  made  free  of  the  same 
company.  Yea,  we  may  observe,  that  generally  such 
places  wherein  the  great  abbeys  were  seated  (some 
few  excepted,  where  clothing  began  when  their  con- 
vent did  end)  swarm  most  with  poor  people  at  this 
day ;  as  if  beggary  were  entailed  on  them,  and  that 
laziness  not  as  yet  got  out  of  their  flesh,  which  so 
long  since  was  bred  in  their  bones. 

10.  All  this  is  confessed;  yet  by  their  hospitality  The  same 
many  an  honest  and  hungry  soul  had   his  bowels 
refreshed,  which  otherwise  would  have  been  starved; 

and  better  it  is  two  drones  should  be  fed  than  one 
bee  famished.  We  see  the  heavens  themselves,  in 
dispensing  their  rain,  often  water  many  stinking 
bogs  and  noisome  lakes,  which  moisture  is  not 
needed  by  them,  yea,  they  the  worse  for  it,  only 
l)ecause  much  good  ground  lies  inseparably  inter- 
mingled with  them ;  so  that  either  the  bad  with 
the  good  must  be  watered,  or  the  good  with  the 
bad  must  be  parched  away. 

11.  Of  all  abbeys  in  England,  Ely  bare  away  the£]yputaaii 
hell  for  bountiful  feast-making;  the  vicinity  of  theao^for 


election  of  Michael,  abbot  of  St.     an  enormous  sum  for  those  days. 
Augustine's, in  i375,wasiooo/..     See  Reyner,  p.  aiS.] 


firiu  nflcirtling  thctn  jiliTDtr  of  Seth.  fiib.  uid  fowt 
nt  low  rate*.     Ilenriipon  tfai'  poet: 

£W,  f  Mui  /irirnM  mw<«,  vtJWv  rfJii. 

Whoc  other  rc«>U  bofon  ban  been, 
ir  Ukmo  of  Ely  iMt  bo  Mm, 
*ru  liku  to  one  who  h»Ui  Mm  d^tf. 
And  then  bobulda  tbe  day  «»  bri^l. 

But,  with  tlic  loavo  of  tht*  poet'ii  brp 
b1>>k>t»  <m  Oliutonbnry,  St.  Alhui\  Riwlinf )  ^ 
up  rliiw  to  EIr,  wbirb.  thou^b  (dtrt>«.<dhlg  I 
fem»t»,lthe  i-Tiilenw  oft  iifn  miMT.)  ^rt  there 
Etf  hi  the  ctiiutant  l*atot  of  bi)iiaekc«.<iiing.  Thm 
ntfwtlon  of  Reading  tnittdii  mc  of  «  plc«j«nt  Mid 
trut>  Mnnr.  whk-h,  to  nrfn-nh  my  wwicd  mU  lad 
iviuler,  afu-r  lunfr  |«inft,  I  here  intend  tn  r 
AfiMMM  12.  Kin;;  lli-nnr  the  Kightb.  m  he  wm  1 
UMHwin  Winitmr  foivst,  cither  cmmull^  loiC,  or,  more  |mo> 
boblp.  wilfullr  loajng  bhniclf,  struck  du«m  tbtnt 
duum-tiiDe  to  the  abbo^  of  Rndin]^:  wb<*n%  di*. 
giMag  hfatuwir,  (much  ft»r  doti^t.  more  f<fr  dim^ 
•vttrj,  to  tee  tuween.)  be  «ii  iDTite<l  to  the  ahfaoi'*  ■ 
iMe,  and  paawd  for  one  of  the  king*!  ; 
|iIM0  to  which  the  profKirtton  of  hii  | 
properly  entitle  him.  A  sirioio  of  I 
hrfore  him,  (w  knifrlitcd,  auth  traditioa,  hj  tU» 
kiog  llcnty.)  on  which  the  king  laid  on  liHtiljr*  i 
di«gnicing  nnr  of  that  plan'  for  whom  bo  waa  aw* 
Uki*a.  "  Well  iuv  thy  hi-ait '  "  .itwith  the*  abl 
"  and  ht-rv  in  a  cup  of  nark  I  romciiibcr  the  be 
**  of  hu  gr««e  your  muter.  I  would  give  an  1 
"  drvd  potindt    on    the  eoodition  1  cook)  fe«l  ■»  I 

BOOK  VI.  m  England,  341 



heartily  on  beef  as  you  do.  Alas !  my  weak  and 
squeazy  stomach  will  hardly  digest  the  wing  of 
"  a  small  rabbit  or  chicken."  The  king  pleasantly 
pledged  him,  and,  heartily  thanking  him  for  his  good 
cheer,  after  dinner  departed  as  undiscovered  as  he 
came  thither. 

13.  Some  weeks  after  the  abbot  was  sent  for  by  aHeprwei 
pursuivant,  brought  up  to  London,  clapped  in  the  phyridan. 
Tower,  kept  close  prisoner,  fed  for  a  short  time  with 
bread  and  water ;  yet  not  so  empty  his  body  of  food 
as  his  mind  was  filled  with  fears,  creating  many  sus- 
picions to  himself  when  and  how  he  had  incurred  the 
king's  displeasure.  At  last  a  sirloin  of  beef  was  set 
before  him,  on  which  the  abbot  fed  as  the  farmer  of 
his  grange,  and  verified  the  proverb  that  "Two  hungry 
"  meals  makes  the  third  a  glutton."  In  springs  king 
Henry  out  of  a  private  lobby,  where  he  had  placed 
himself,  the  invisible  spectator  of  the  abbot's  beha- 
viour. "  My  lord,"  quoth  the  king,  "  presently 
"  deposit  your  hundred  pounds  in  gold,  or  else  no 
^*  going  hence  all  the  days  of  your  life,  I  have 
"  been  your  physician,  to  cure  you  of  your  squeazy 
"  stomach ;  and  here,  as  I  deserve,  I  demand  my 
"  fee  for  the  same."  The  abbot  down  with  his  dust, 
and,  glad  he  had  escaped  so,  returned  to  Reading, 
as  somewhat  lighter  in  purse,  so  much  more  merrier 
in  heart  than  when  he  came  thence. 



The  wisest  and  most  religious  amongst  the  Ro-oidham*a 
manists  presaged  and  suspected  a  downfall  of  these  5b?fHi«'^ 
convents  some  years  before  it  came  to  pass;  for*^ 


IMS  Tkt  Hittary  t,/ Abl^»  »«•■  *i. 

when  it  nn»  in  the  intention  uiil  dtMfrn  of  RidHtid 
Fux.  Iil'^liu))  of  Winrhc«t«r.  to  luw  built  a  iiiiim 
Ivnr.  Iliiffh  OMIum,  Irisbnp  nt  Kxptcr.  dn 
him.  nffimiinfi  tint  «ucb  ronvcntJi  po« 
alrviidr  tlmii  thcv  uoiiM  Inriff  eiijo;' '.  He  i 
him  rather  to  W-mtow  his  bcmntj  on  foutulltig'  i 
<vlloj^  in  the  nnircmity,  a*  which  wiu  liki^r  le 
last  lonfTCT  Biiii  ivrtjiin  to  do  mem-  )^Nid,  ptomiHOf 
mlao  fats  own  utmoBt  BniiftmtMw  in  to  {iluiw  an  tm> 
dertaklnjf.  TIiIr  wan  done  aecordingljr,  Pox  befaig 
the  firtl  ri>uiitli.>r  (if,  and  Oldfaani  a  tibenl  benebcCor 
to,  Coqm«  Chriati  C'olh'frc  in  Oxfonl. 
^■.  ,-  ».  Add    to   this   a    ^jH-orh    of  Itobcrt  \^liitgift". 

wMiiiA.  (ibbnt  of  Wcllow,  niffh  Crimnbr,  in  LiueolnAiTC^) 
ancle  to  nirhbi^hop  Whitgift,  who  waa  woot  to 
mj, "  That  th«r  aiitl  their  reUjfioo"  {ehMij  in  nk^ 
Uoo  to  tnonaatericn)  "  could  not  Umg  eoatiniw :  h^ 
"  caiuici,'*  nid  he,  "  I  haTo  read  the  whole  acriplMrp 
*  oTcr  aiid  oTpr,  and  mild  nen-r  And  therein  tlMl 
"  our  rclipinn  wan  foundwl  lir  Ood."  And.  for  praof 
of  hix  opinion,  the  ahbot  would  allefre  that  i 
our  Saviour,  Krrty  fJ/intitui  tcAirA  uijf 
Father  ka(h  iint  /t/antt^  tkaU  /v  rrmfW  «) 
that  he  pfvvcd  a  tnie  pn>ph(t  herrin  the  next  I 
will  mfKrientlr  fvidciiri'. 
^Jr»  8.  Wf  will  rancludf  with  Ibt'lr  olm-rtatioo,  a 
rfitf^  (Rniaotw  pma^  of  ahbe^ii'  ruin,  that  there  «■■ 
f^irtij  aearee  a  freat  abhor  in  Knj^and  which,  once  at  tile 
laaat,   was   not    btimt   down    with    lightninjf    from 

0«Jwta.fanhaHlilinpiof        ■  INr  Omg*  Pwl.  h 


in  England 


i.  Tlie   monastery  of  Canterbury  burnt   anno 

1145  '^.     And  afterward  again  burnt,  anno 

1174  y. 
ii.  The  abbey  of  Croyland,  twice  burnt  *. 
iii.  The   abbey  of  Peterborough,  twice  set  on 

iv.  The  abbey  of  St.  Mary's,  in  York,  burnt  ^ 
V.  The  abbey  of  Norwich,  burnt  ^. 
vi.  The  abbey  of  St.  Edmunds-Bury,  burnt  and 

destroyed  **. 
vii.  The  abbey  of  Worcester,  burnt, 
viii.  The  abbey  of  Gloucester  was  also  burnt, 

[in  1122]  e. 
ix.  The  abbey  of  Chichester,  burnt. 
X.  The  abbey  of  Glastonbury,  burnt, 
xi.  The    abbey   of    St.  Mary,   in    Southwark, 

xii.  The   church    of   the   abbey   of   Beverley, 

xiii.  The   steeple   of  the  abbey  of  Evesham, 


^  [This  ought,  I  think,  ra- 
ther to  be  referred  to  the  year 
1 130.  See  Parker's  Antiq.  193. 
I  can  find  no  mention  among 
the  early  writers  of  Canterbury 
being  burnt  in  1 145.]       ^ 

y  Ex  Hist.  Geryasii,  [in 
Twysden,  p.  1428.] 

2  Ex  Histor.lngulphi.  [Once 
by  the  Danes,  in  870 ;  then  by 
the  carelessness  of  a  workman, 
in  1091  ;  and  again  in  11 70. 
See  Ingulph.  pp.  22,  96,  45a, 
ed.  Oxford.] 

■  Ex  Chron.  Peterb.  [quoted 
in   Dugdale,    i.  68],   Walteri 

Weeks.,  Hovedeni,  Oualteri 
Coventr.,  Fabiani.  [These  re- 
ferences  are  from  Fox,  ii.  501, 
and  I  have  not  been  able  to 
verify  them  ;  they  are  very 
carelessly  cited,  and  most  erro- 
neously printed  in  the  previous 

^  [A.  D.  741.  Symeon  Du- 

c  [In  1 266,  see  Wykes,  p. 
77;  and  subsequently,  at  va- 
rious times.] 

^  Ex  Chron.  S.  Edmond., 
Guil.  Malmesb. 

«  [Florent.  Wigom.  in  an.] 

z  4 

844  Tht  Hufmi  of  Ahhty*  mm  *t. 

I  will  not.  with  ^fl^.'4t^■r  Fox,  inft^  from  mwh  rwmt 
altiM  thdl  (ioti  wiu  mon-  tiRi-nilM  ntth  attU'rs  iVacm 
otbvr  buililiiign ;  a  natural  rauM*  |in«cutiiif;  ilarlfof 
such  acri<lpnt8,  niuiielT.  bocauw  tbi>  blgbast  ^timt- 
turvfi  (wliatt'rer  thoy  niv)  are  the  fnirevt  BMllw  lor 
ligbtning  anil  tbumler;  m  if  those  active  me^ttm 
took  the  usurpation  of  surb  a«{nring  buildiag*  in 
distaste  for  entering  ttieir  tiTritorr,  and  for  uftntn^ 
witbout  It-ttvo,  to  iiiradv  tbe  mairbeM  of  tbc  middte 
rc^on  of  the  air.  And  if  mountaimi  of  God's  ova 
advancing  tbitber  and  plarinj;  there  paf  *\t»i  for 
their  honour,  and  freiiuenttj  feel  tbu  wHpbt  of  tfann* 
derboltH  falling  u[Min  theiii,  /eriant  nimmtu  Jkimn^ 
■um/m,  do  wonder  if  anificial  buildings  of  bmoIi 
makiiig  (wbataocTcr  thi7  be.  palactn.  or  « 
charrbes.  or  convi-nts)  have  Ibeir  aniblUaa  i 
bumbled  with  thunder  and  lightning,  which  < 
melt  ami  eonsunio  ibem. 
B*M  4.  Only  we  will  add,  that  nurb  frgqacat  I 
«ten«  of  abbey  eburrbes  by  lightning  ronfutetb  tb»  | 
{fi^HL.  motto,  cftrnmonly  written  on  the  ItdU  ia  I 

plot,  wfaerdn  each  bell  entitled  itaelT  to  a|i 

1.  Fmtttnphm^ 

Mm**  deUhs  I  toU 



BOOK  VI.  in  England.  345 

4.  Exdto  lentos^ 

The  sleepy  head 
I  raise  from  bed. 

5.  Dissipo  ventos^ 

The  winds  so  fierce 
I  do  disperse. 

6.  Paco  cruentosy 

Men'*s  cruel  rage 
I  do  assuage  f . 

Whereas  it  plainly  appears  that  these  abbey  steeples, 
though  quilted  with  bells  almost  cap^-pie^  were  not 
of  proof  against  the  sword  of  God's  lightning ;  yea, 
generally,  when  the  heavens  in  tempests  did  strike 
fire,  the  steeples  of  abbeys  proved  often  their  tinder, 
whose  frequent  burning  portended  their  final  de- 
struction ;  which  now,  God  willing,  we  come  to 


Great  buildings  commonly  crack  before  they  fall.  Orders  of 
to  give  the  dwellers  therein  warning  to  depart:  so  able  acomi- 
was  it  here  in  abbeys.     But  may  we  here  first  pre-  p^uns  of 
mise,  as  an  introduction,  that  it  was  placed  in  the^^^^^ 
power  and  pleasure  of  princes  and  great  persons, 
their  founders,  to  displace  and  exchange  particular 
orders,  as  sometimes  monks  for  nuns,  and  recipro- 
cally nuns  for  monks ;  white   for  grey  friars,  and 
grey  for  white,  as  their  fimcy  directed  them :  whereof 
we  have  plenty  of  instances.      But  all  this  made 
nothing  to  the  loss  of  monkery  in  general ;  though 

'  [From  Weever's  Fun.  Mo-     reader  will  find  several  other 
numents,   p.    122,   where  the     inscriptions  of  the  same  kind.] 


Thr  /fiMlory  nf  AkUfi 

MXM  or  cnloun  of  fnan  wtrre  altered,  thm  i 
belli  dill  liftnj;  still  in  the  itoeple,  thotigfa  niaf  tm 
tiunge*  tft  cuiitoiit  hc'vpiuI  [icople. 

2.  Secondir,  particular  convent*  i 
dissolred  d|k»d  thi>ir  niisdcmo&nrmr,  u  in  Berklej  , 
,.  nvamerj :  here  a  foun;;  nun  (left  out  of  c 
Earl  Godwin)  diMembled  lumtelf  to  be  i 
in  ibort  apace,  m>  acquitted  himiwlf  i 
TotaricM  tbcrc,  that  all  or  tliem.  witb  I 
(wbo§o  iigf>  inij{lit  bave  het'n  picvumed  a  fi 
for  bur  bonentf ,)  wen-  gut  witb  child  > : 
plaint  and  proof  wbereor  unto  king  Edward  thm 
Coofcaaor,  tbc}-  wuro  all  driven  out,  and  tbdr  t 
ncTj,  with  large  revenueo,  bestowed  upoii  Eart  God- 
win by  the  arorcNiid  king,  who  waa  then  acooiuil«l 
patron  of  all  abbevw.  wbtcb,  now  fiUten  Into  bb 
hands  by  thi«  foul  bt|i««>,  be  bealowed,  a*  a  lav  fre. 
upon  this  new  owtK?r.  wbolljr  altering  tJie  proprrtj 
w^  3.  Thirdly,  wbole  itbgiixm  onlen  might,  by  order 

MuMriiHi  fmm  the  ih>|m,  be  totally  arwl   finally 
£lSir^Hcre  I  |MUM  by  the  Vntn-*  Flagelliferi.  or  a 
*■**        frion;  rvligiims  tHHllanift.  kIiimi^.-i!  jmblicly  t 
tbomrlva  in  tbc  market-pla4.v,  nwklt^  i 
their  own  tldni,  tbcrcon  to  write  tbnir  ! 
l^ble  cbaracten:    I  my  I  omit   tbetn.  i 
pat  down  by  the  \tn\yv  hlnuetf.  the  rather  I 
I  find  them  not  ill   Knglaitd  or  elvewhere  < 
with  onnsidcrable  rovenuca.      I  will   innat  < 
Templan,  wboae  nnineimu  and  wealthy  ftalcndtj 
waa  lor  their  ncioiuDcat.  by  the  pope  tn  the  cwoadl 

t  ••  Df  hHMlia  MMM—     fj>.i5{.lMt«rW«)tarMMa. 

»a  wamtU  ia  lajwi."  C^M'     [1  wrilar  of  nry  n^miH 
I  Brit,  ia  atammlMikin.     wtkority] 


in  England. 


of  Vienna,  dissolved  all  over  Europe ;  and  in  Eng- 
land all  or  most  of  their  land  was  given  to  the 
Knights  Hospitallers^.  This  was  a  great  shaking 
of  all  religious  orders ;  the  plucking  out  of  these 
chief  threads  made  a  rent  in  the  whole  cloth,  men 
conceiving  that  in  process  of  time  the  whole  sheaf 
may  be  broken  as  well  as  the  single  arrows,  seeing, 
perchance,  other  societies  led  lives  not  more  reli- 
gious but  less  examined. 

4.  But  the  first  terrible  blow  in  England  given  The  fim 
generally  to  all  orders  was  in  the  lay  parliament,  as  SJIe^ron'of 
it  is  called,  which  did  wholly  Wickliffize,  kept  in**'**^^ 
the  twelfth  year  of  king  Henry  the  Fourth ;  wherein 
the  nobles  and  commons  assembled  signified  to  the 
king  that  the  temporal  possessions  of  abbots,  priors, 
&c.  lewdly  spent  within  the  realm  would  suflfice  to 
find  and  sustain  150  earls,  1500  knights,  6200 
esquires,  100  hospitals,  more  than  there  were  *.  But 
this  motion  was  mauled  with  the  king's  own  hand, 
who  dashed  it,  personally  interposing  himself,  con- 
trary to  that  character  which  the  jealous  clergy  had 
conceived  of  him,  that,  coming  to  the  crown,  he 
would  be  a  great  enemy  to  the  church*'.  But 
though  Henry  Plantagenet,  duke  of  Lancaster,  was 
no  friend  to  the  clergy,  perchance  to  ingratiate  him- 

^  See  Supplement  of  the 
Holy  Warre,  chap,  i,  2,  3. 
[where  Fuller  has  treated  this 
question  with  ability  and  im- 
partiality. The  decree  against 
the  Templars  was  passed  in 
1307.  Jacques  des  Moulins, 
the  grand  master  of  the  order, 
was  executed  at  Paris,  March 
II,  1313,  being  roasted  over  a 
slow    fire.      The    reader   may 

consult  a  dissertation  by  Alex, 
ander  Natalis,  and  another  in 
French  by  Pierre  du  Puy,  on 
this  greatly  disputed  subject.] 

^  Thomas  Walsingham,  [in 
anno  1410,  p.  379.] 

^  Being  heard  to  say  that 
princes  had  too  little,  and  reli- 
gious men  too  much.  Hollin- 
shed,  p.  514. 

Tht  Hutwy  ofAhittft  MOB  n. 

wif  wfUi  the  [>oo|tlo,  yet  ttio  nnw  Henry,  ktnf  of 

EnffUuid,  hifi  interest   beinft  altvn>«l.  t«  itn  r^gthi 

him   with    the    oonttidernblo    |H>wer   of  tbv>  cUwgf, 

proved  ■  (mtroii,  rt«,  a  cluun}iiDD  to  defend  Umi 

Howorer,  we  may  my  tliat  now  tbe  axe  b  bid  1 

the  root  of  the  trvv  <if  abbcTs;  and  tbb  i 

the  [tfcwent,  thou^rh  it  was  m  fiu  from  hui 

body  that   it  scarce  ptcrrfd  the  bark  ihi 

baro  att«>m)>t8  in  mrh  mattcm  are  importamt,  ai  ' 

putting  into  people's  bead*  a  feasibility  of  tbe  pn»- 

Jift,  fonaerly  coaceived  altofcther  impo«Ue. 

TWhi^      3-  ^*^^  yeafH  after,  Damely,  in  the  aeeoDd  fnr 

JJ^^J^  of  king  Henry  the  Fifth,  another  ibrewd  throat  wm 

■p*"**      made  at    Kngliah    abbey* ;   bat    it    waa  liaefy  i 

-^-^M  cIcTcrly  put  a»iile  by  titat  tkilful  atato  fencer  llaii^ 

ii  bf  Chichelc,  arrhbtihop  of  ('anterbufy ;  for  tlw  I 

'  bill  against  ablieyn.  in  full  parliament. 

when   the  archbiahop    miDded   kinf;    Heiuj  i 

nndoubtiid  title  to  the  fair  and  fluuriBbing  1 

of  Pra&oe.     Hen-at  that   kint;.  vho  wax  a  • 

himselC  «**  inflamed  to  that  desif^u  by  this  ( 

penuaikm;  and  hia  native  couragi-  ran  flemitj  ob 

the  pn^eet,  oqieclally  when  rlajiped  un   with  cm«- 

■eienoe  and  oncoura^mral  from  a  rhurdunui  !■ 

the  lawfutoifa  thervttf.      An  Dndcrtakiiig  of  iImm  I 

Taat  dinieiwion*  tliat  the  ffrfat««4  eoveto 

qiread  and  highest  ambition  rrarh  itwlf  within  the 

bound*    ihercof:   if,   to    promote    thin   pn^cct.   tW 

abbeyi  adnnced  not  only  large  and  liberal  bqt  «iat 

■nd  laandible  ruiib  of  money,  it  is  no  woiiJer  if  | 

they  were  eootrated  to  hare  tlietr  naili  pared  t 

to  the  quick.  thcn4iy  to  Hare  their  Hogen.    Oviv 

goea  king  Henry  into  Franee,  with  many  naitU 

t  attewling  him  ;  *n  that  putting  the  king  % 


in  England. 


the  seeking  of  a  new  crown  kept  the  abbots'  old 
mitres  upon  their  heads ;  and  monasteries,  tottering 
at  this  time,  were  (thank  a  politic  archbishop)  re- 
fixed  on  the  firm  foundations,  though  this  proved 
rather  a  reprieve  than  a  pardon  unto  them,  as  will 
afterwards  appear. 


Next  followed  the  dissolving  of  alien  priories,  of  The  on- 
whose  first  founding   and  several  sorts   something  Tories 
must  be  observed.     When  the  kings  of  England,  by*"*^ 
conquest  or  inheritance,  were  possessed  of  many  and 
great  territories  in  France,  (Normandy,  Aquitaine, 
Picardy,  &c.)  many   French  monasteries  were  en- 
dowed   with    lands   in    England ;    for   an   English 
kitchen    or  larder   doth    excellently   well    with    a 
French  hall ;  and  whilst  foreigners'  tongues  slighted 
our  island,  as  barren  in  comparison   of  their  own 
country,  at  the  same  time  they  would  lick  their 
lips  after  the  full  fare  which  our  kingdom  afforded. 

2.  Very  numerous  were  these  cells  in  England 
relating  to  foreign  abbeys  scattered  all  over  the 
kingdom.  One  John  Norbury  erected  two  for  his 
part,  the  one  at  Greenwich,  the  other  at  Lewisham 
in  Kent  * ;  yea,  Roger  de  Poictiers  "  founded  one 

1  [Weever,  in  his  account  of 
the  funeral  monument  in  the 
diocese  of  Rochester,  has  the 
following  observations :  "John 
"  Norbury  founded  a  priory 'in 
**  th  i  s  town  of  Lewisham , which 
"  he  replenished  with  black 
"  monks  aliens,  belonging  to 
•'  the  abbey  of  Ghent,  in  Flan- 
"  ders,  and  thereupon  called 
'•  aliens,    because    they   were 

"  cells  to  some  monastery  or 
'*  other  beyond  the  seas.  The 
*'  first  foundation  of  these 
"  houses  I  do  not  find ;  but  in 
"  the  reign  of  king  Ed  ward  III. 
"  they  were  increased  to  the 
"  number  of  no  in  England, 
"  besides  those  in  Ireland, 
'*  Aquitaine,  and  Normandy. 
*'  The  goods  of  all  which  prio- 
"  ries  die  said  king,  anno  reg. 


TAe  i 

ia  the  mnutnt  comer  of  tlw  biul,  in  the  town  of 
LtncMter.  Hip  riclH«t  of  ihcni  nil.  Tor  atuioal  i»> 
Donie,  wu  tbiit  whirh  YvoTajlhnTn  Imilt  mt  SfwMiaf 
tn  Utiooliuhirc  °.  (giving  it  to  tho  monks  of  Aq^ 
ia  Fnncf*.  vnlavt)  ftl  no  InM  than  878/-  ISiu  Sd. 
of  vfarlj  rvveniie".  And  it  ia  R-markable,  that  m 
one  of  tlK*<H-  )»riorie«  ww  f^nnttvd  bcroiv  the  kta^ 
of  Kn^bind  vrcn>  inrcviofl  «-itb  mnr  dominiaa  ia 
Fmnri',  (nann-'lv,  lK>«.Tiiurirt  in  (iluan'Ktpnhire^  a*- 
HfTiKil  1)^  the  tOHlamcnt  itf  Kilwanl  the  CoafeMor  l» 
the  innniurtcrr  of  St.  lk-ni«  tivar  Puix.)  tu  tamm 
wen*  Imrtowed  on  tl]os4>  (ilarM  in  fnirign  pHtt 
where  nnr  Enjclinb  kinfpt  ocTer  bml  fin^<r  of  |wnP9 
or  foot  nf  iNtrnfMion.  'Pius  wt>  ntu\  htiw  Ifeoiy 
the  Tliinl  annoxn^l  n  oeii  in  TlirwuImtHlle  Stfyct,  in 
London,  to  St.  Anihonv  in  Vienna  i ;  anil  Dear 
CbarinjK  Cmm  then*  «-■»  another  annt-'xw)  to  At 
Uft,r  Itunccvd  in  Navarre.  Ht'likf  men'*  ileTotloa. 
in  that  agf,  I<x>ke4l  on  the  world  aa  it  iay  in  mm- 
mon.  takinfc  no  notirf  Iiow  it  wb»  ftubdividea]  iolA 
private  |irinci|ni]itie«,  bnt  prrxveded  on  that  mlr, 
n^  emii  u  Ike  Lard'M,  and  iJu  fulm 

"  II,  bockitM  of  hU  w«n  tritli  EAwsrd  III..  w9t  tm  tmmd  fa 

"  Franc*,  enuxi  Iw  W  nmfU.  Rvfavrk  AfmL  BcanL  Afif^ 

"  Mtad  tn  ki*  owa  um.  kilinf;  ti.  p.  7 1 .] 

*'  oM   Utah   Imbhb    Io    &rm.  -  CmmlL  Brit,  tn  t^sa^Mk 

•■  witk kU tlwir  Unb  rad  inw-  [f-tij.} 

"■irati.fcrllktipKaafllwM  •  Maa  ri  TJinilaifclirL  Ip. 

"  md  twMtr  ymn  t   at    the  400.    Di^Mi,  L  106.] 

'•  rad  of  wfcidi  Mw  (p«M  •  H«~Md  LH1«-  BmL) 

"  Wiag  Biinrlii Ji J  Wlw—  tfa  '    "  '  '      '  i'              ""  1  _ 

"  twH "— tJwQ  ha  n*mri  m  |l  761. 

•*  llMprknaMaathdrhn«Bi,        r  Cm 

"  ba^  »ai  lie— law.  awn  knlaf*.  (p.  it*.] 

"  ncM  35.  «  W  Ua  paUBtt        *  llBrpOria,  ai  f 

"mmtmfftmt.-  Ahandtktm  76J. 

BOOK  VI.  in  England,  351 

and  charity,  though  wandering  in  foreign  parts, 
counted  itself  still  at  home,  because  dwelling  on  its 
proper  pious  uses. 

3.  These    alien   priories   were    of  two   natures :  4^«n  p"<>- 
some  had  monks,  with  a  prior  resident  in  them,  yet  naturw. 
not  conventual,  but  dative  and  removable  ad  nutum 

of  the  foreign  abbey,  to  which  they  were  subser- 
vient ;  others  were  absolute  in  themselves,  who, 
though  having  an  honorary  dependance  on,  and 
bearing  a  subordination  of  respect  unto  French 
abbeys,  yet  had  a  prior  of  their  own,  being  an 
entire  body  of  themselves  to  all  purposes  and  in- 
tents: the  former  not  unlike  stewards  managing 
profits  for  the  behoof  of  their  master,  to  whom 
they  were  responsible;  the  latter  resembling  re- 
tainers at  large,  acknowledging  a  general  reference, 
but  not  accountable  unto  them  for  the  revenues 
they  received.  Now  both  these  kinds  of  priories 
peaceably  enjoyed  their  possessions  here,  even  after 
the  revolt  of  those  principalities  from  the  crown 
of  England ;  yet  so  that  during  open  hostility  and 
actual  war  betwixt  England  and  France  their  reve- 
nues were  seized  and  taken  by  the  king,  and  restored 
again  when  amity  was  settled. 

4.  But  king  Richard  the  Second  and  king  Henry 
the  Fourth,  not  so  fair  as  their  predecessors  herein, 
not  only  detained  those  revenues  in  time  of  peace, 
but  also  diverted  them  from  their  proper  use,  and 
bestowed  them  on  some  of  their  lay-servants;  so 
that  the  crown  was  little  enriched  therewith,  espe- 
cially if  it  be  true  what  Arundel  archbishop  of 
Canterbury  averred  in  the  house  of  commons  to  the 
face  of  the  speaker,  that  these  kings  were  not  half 
a  mark  the  wealthier  for  those  rents  thus  assumed 

StoHiuir  hanfia*.  And  a  ivnod  of  ihs  dojy,  fa 
tlH>  livt  of  Ili'iinr  tlM>  Foarti),  pcCitiooed  the  U^f 
that  Inynic-ii  niij^lit  nii(  tiiradtr  tbe  posMMioas  af  J 
alifti  priorive,  but  thoae  foundolioiu  mi|ftit  be  f 
uifthod,  native  EtifclUh  ttub«titut«I  in  their  nooi 
wlifHC  n><)U4wt,  br  rrawn  of  the  kinfr'n  death  oa 
in^.  t'Kik  no  ufTcf  t.  Dut  thin  iloth  iotimato  (tb<M|^ 
I  hail  mther  leam  tliaii  tcarb  in  to  dark  a  | 
that  UuM0  alira  priorie*  atill  stood  i 
set  of  itate.  with  a  {loariUIitj  to  ivrert  to| 
bnner  m»;  and  tboufth  the  Idng  had  f 
their  pro6ta  bj  hi*  abaolotc  pow«r,  yt<  at  j 
were  not  wttled  and  catabUihed  in  the  ■ 
act  of  {wriianu'nt. 

5.  But  in  the  fourth  jrear  of  king  Hemyl 
Fiftk  in  tht'  hi-at  and  hi'ight  nf  bis  wan  i 
Fnincr,  all  mich  prioric*  ali<*n  t»  were  not  coeva^^ 
tual  were  by  act  of  jiarltanicnt  dhaolved  ",  and  be- 
•towed  on  the  king  * ;  it  l>eing  concflTcd 
that  men  moving  according  to  a  fiireiga  : 
haviaf  thsir  afllNrtimu  h-nding  thrm 
■ea^  and  their  actions  following,  when  1 
wHh  aeenajr.  ibould  be  maintained  in  thb  I 
Bealdes,  h  tended  to  thv  manifval  detriment  i 
■tate  that  mch  tbould  tran9|)ort  oar  roin  a 
moditic*  into  an  cnemy'i  conntrj^,  without  r 
a  [mftortfoaahie  profit  to  the  commonwealth.  ( 
alien  priocita,  whirh  wcru  conTcatoal.  Ktrrived  J 
the  geneiml  mortality  of  EugUsb  moaaatcfiei; 

•  [Phrhv'a]  Aattf.  BriL  p.  nT  Um  8mm«,]  tit.  1 

t74.  tofki. 

tHw^«ey.HbLAaf.M&  ■  [T*  iJm  mmW  of  %tm. 

telWM  niala  mm.  adno.  Bn  Stow**  Ouoa.  p- 14$-  IWw 

■  Pwftiwirt  RJ».  IB.  461.  Mn  db>ol««d  b«  Hmit  nr. 

K.  179.    Ilaadh  [riiHalliii  aad  wtmi  la  Utmrj  VL] 

BOOK  VI.  in  Engkmd.  853 

alien  priories  were  not  conceived  to  have  such  a 
temptation  to  disloyalty  as  the  others,  having  their 
absolute  subsistence  here ;  and  though  the  monks 
therein  were  strangers  in  respect  of  their  birth,  they 
were  counted  naturalized  in  a  manner  in  regard  of 
their  education  and  livelihood. 

6.  The  dissolving  of  these  priories  made  a  dan- The  dan. 
gerous  impression  on  all  the  rest.  Say  not  thata^^'Sr" 
English  abbeys  were  unconcerned;  because  these ^J^"*^ 
strangers,  being  rather  suckers  than  branches  of 
their  tree,  their  growing  was  a  burthen,  and  their 
pruning  off  a  benefit  thereunto ;  for  though  aliens 
in  their  country,  they  were  allies  in  their  cause, 
there  being  an  affinity  betwixt  all  religious  foun- 
dations. And  now  here  was  an  act  of  state  for 
precedent;  that  without  sin  of  sacrilege  such  dona- 
tions might  be  dissolved.  Use  was  made  hereof 
beyond  the  king's  intention,  who,  (in  this  act  not 
covetous,  but  politic,)  aiming  rather  to  secure  than 
enrich  himself ;  whereas  now  some  courtiers  by  his 
bounty,  tasting  on  the  sweet  of  abbey  lands,  made 
their  breakfasts  thereon  in  the  time  of  Henry  the 
Fifth,  which  increased  their  appetites  to  dine  on 
the  same  in  the  days  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth, 
not  so  glutted  but  they  could  sup  on  the  reversions 
left  in  the  reign  of  king  Edward  the  Sixth. 

FIIT.LKR,  VOL.  UI.  A  a 




TVuHfji  momr  rutm  txptei  tuurfMp,  many  irt//  rmptirt 

/rum  Me,     ShcA  9riU  r^tnjt   mm?  ¥*UA  a  tfrrui  %mgt0\fr%tif 

/or  tU^litatimtj  a  ili^iOMHu  o/  mumls  and/ruurt  iv  fvur  laJf* 

jUi^i,  wAi  re  A/iM«'  ifUMinr$  u/  (At'ir  trniiUvmit^Ag  m»ty  o^^tmtm 

^titr  UMtAino  fur  tkrm^  9rAo  mtrrr  Umsktti  fur  iirmurir>t^. 

It  Hi  km»tr  it  tloHt-  hjf  (A#i</ii,  tL^t  yuH  may  ^•Aiin'r  f>tmnr0 

lutw/itr  iHttri'iiHH''<Atutity  tram$e%*HiUd  /vrrtd  uhmI  yrtitwd^ 

rinfimity ;  or,  {fjf^  fJ^usr,  iow  mmck  a  f/»rimpim^ /ummtmm 

is  Utter  tkam  a  ttinulimt  fwJ^  9uum  tmkjtri  to  jmirr/mrtiom, 

YoHr  /iiiiiiy,  thouffk  mitt  a  Hunm^ty,  may  he  a  rtiipiums  knmm^ 

lutihlt  ttvti  hath  mttitiplitd you  imto  a  trAofs  etrntrni,  /«M«a 

fA'  /rirt'eu  r/tildnn  irAiVA  you  in  re  *it  tMs  fn-^mt     /  My 

A<fr. ,  /,r  thijf  rntpm   is  rtHd^red^  *rky  tkf  rkihirrn  o/JtA^ 

tifhr  ki*  nitfif**tnfH,  trer*  h*4  dotMeJ  unto  kim  a$  kis  ASlffa 

^   [I  havt*  fii(lt*Mvi*un-c),  dtit  rvf  thi«  *hrrt  |f  >iO|g  t«>  the  prf  f 

withi'Ut    *ucct«».    to     ditciivrr  hr  had  not  tuccrr<irtl  in  i«!«m. 

M>iii«*   trarf%  <if   thi«   Uiiv  and  tiff  inft  this  Udf  with  any  p«<iii* 

hfr  famil\      Sir  llarrift  Nich(».  jfrre  «>f  thr  umr  naair.    Ifmmj 

laA  4l*«i  dill   i!'.t*  thi*  kimint*»«  in  format  i«»n    »lKiuM  rfttch    >*• 

to  I'ljii.inr   xhv   MSS    in   the 

llrmld'*  Colli'i'r  f«»r  the  tanu*  thall  lie  in«rrtcd  in  the 

purpuM.* .   \iiiX   up   til  tht*  time  indct.l 

BOOK  VI.     The  History  ofAbbtyt  in  England.  355 

«wre,  beeauie  thejf  were  utterly  /oreyons,  Ma  children  onfy 
gone  before ;  on  wihich  aecouni  thote  tin  removed  from  you 
into  a  better  viorld  itUl  remain  yours.  God  in  due  time 
translate  you  and  your  ttorthy  hitband,  in  a  good  old  age, 
into  the  tame  place  of  kappinees ! 


I  AST   were   the    revenues    of    cardinal  WoiMy-. 

Wolsey,  if  we  account  both  his  wivei  wut. 

and  concubines :  I  mean,  the  place 
'  whereon  he  resided,  and  churches  he 

held  in  commendam ;  being  at  the 
same  time  the  pope's  legate  a  latere,  archbishop  of 
York,  chancellor  of  England,  bishop  of  Winchester* 
abbot  of  St.  Alban'a,  besides  other  meaner  prefer- 
ments. Yet  he  found  Solomon's  observation  true, 
IV/itm  goods  increase,  ihey  are  mcreased  thai  eai 
(hem ''.  Insomuch  that  bis  magnificent  mind  was 
jioor  in  his  plenty,  and  in  the  midst  of  bis  wealth 
wanted  means  to  compass  his  vast  designs.  "Where- 
fore, intending  to  erect  two  feir  colleges,  one  where 
he  was  bom,  in  Ipswich,  the  other  where  ho  was 
bred,  in  Oxford,  and  finding  himself  unable  to  endow 
them  at  his  own  charges,  he  obtained  license  of 
pope  Clement  VII.,  anno  1525,  to  suppress  forty 
smaller  monasteries  in  England,  and  to  lay  their  old 
land  to  his  new  foundations,  which  was  done  accord- 
ingly ;  for  the  cardinal  thought  that  these  petty 
liouses,  like  little  sparks  of  diamonds,  were  incoD' 
siderable  in  themselves,  whereas  they  would  make  a 

^  Eccles.  T.  1 1. 
A  a  2 


1%t  ilutarjf  ofjbheyi  mkml  n- 

fUr  idiow  if  all  were  put  togrlhrr  into  two  jcnralt 
onlr.  (his  two  rolU-gm,)  tad  be  ranj  awmy  all  the 
credit  tliercof. 

S.  An  artion  eomlpmaffd  bj  the  oocsrtpntiiiu*  in 
that  age,  MitHtuntitig  it  cflK<iitial  to  cfaaritj  that  the 
thing  gircn  be  the  proper  goodt  of  the  donor.  CWf 
<&y  6read  (aaith  Solotaoa)  i^pon  tke  iMttr'.  It  moat 
be  dky  tread,  otbenriM,  though  tkiat  bread*  wtcj 
be  pleasant  to  roon,  it  ii  naoseous  and  dutMtoAll  to 
the  God  of  lieaven,  who  in  such  raaoa  will  doC  ta 
the  receiTsr,  thoagfa  man  be  the  thief;  uAaaadf 
diaavowiog  the  acoeptanoe  of  luch  donatioM :  viU 
neai    hb    own    words,    /  kttie  rtAbery  for 

8.  Plead  not  in  the  rardmaJ'f  oxniie, 
faonaea  bj  him  ra|>prvWL*d  were  of  HmaU 
being  as  great,  jtn,  greater  Mcrilege  to  iuvade  the 
widow*!  mite  than  the  large  gift*  which  the  nA 
pciesta  cart  into  C^rban;  becauao  their 
were  but  mpcrfluoas  wens,  wbilft  ben  waa  ao ' 
tial  limb;  yea.  a«  our  SaTiour  obaprrea,  the 
to4jf  of  her  eatate '.  Aa  probably  aome  at 
poor  fbaodatioiu  were  erected  by  fooDden  IQw' 
of  Maoedonla,  to  dteir  /lutper,  mmd  iegm 
wUiimy  f^lArmtekt*'.  Ai  for  the  po( 
mecly  living  b  theae  then  diaolved 
nay  be  jweeumed  nore  rellgiona  then 
wen  richer;  poverty  being  a  praCcdSaa 
piety,  and  they  onoblc  to  go  to  the  eoit  of 
extra viganNa.  I  find  not  what  proririoa  «M' 
afterword  made  fur  tbcee  helpleai  mala,  ihraol  oat 

a*,  b.  1 7- 

'  tCar.wVLy 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  367 

of  house  and  home ;  so  that  it  is  suspicious  that  the 
cardinal,  notwithstanding  his  prodigious  hospitality, 
made  moo  beggars  than  ever  he  relieved  **. 

4.  Others  allege  that  these  houses  were  still  con-  The  miser- 
tinued  to  the  general  end  of  pious  uses  ;  however  it  ^^^iraa-- 
was  not  fair  to  alienate  them  from  the  primitive  *^**'"  *'^- 

^  struments 

intention  of  the  founders;  yea,  God  himself  seemed i^erein- 
not  well  pleased  therewith.  I  know  that  no  man 
knoweth  either  love  or  hatred  by  all  tliat  is  before 
them.  All  things  come  alike  to  ally  there  is  one  event 
to  the  righteous  and  to  the  wicked  *,  &c.  However, 
God's  exemplary  hand  ought  to  be  heeded  in  the 
signal  fatality  of  such  as  by  the  cardinal  were  em- 
ployed in  this  service :  five  they  were  in  number, 
two  whereof  challenging  the  field  of  each  other, 
one  was  slain,  and  the  other  hanged  for  it.  A  third, 
throwing  himself  headlong  into  a  well,  perished  wil- 
fully. A  fourth,  formerly  wealthy,  grew  so  poor 
that  he  begged  his  bread.  The  fifth.  Dr.  Allen,  one 
of  especial  note,  afterward  archbishop  of  Dublin,  was 

h  ['*  This  season  the  cardi-  "  then  he  caused  the  escheator 

"  nal,    being    in    the    king's  "  to  sit  and  to  find  the  houses 

"  favour,  obtained   license   to  "  void,   as    relinquished,    and 

"make  a  college   at   Oxford,  "  found  the  king  founder  where 

**  and  another  at  Ipswich  ;  and  "  other   men  were   founders ; 

'*  because  he   would  give   no  '*  and  with  these  lands  he  en- 

"  lands  to  the  said  colleges,  he  "  dowed  withal   his  colleges ; 

"  obtained   of  the   bishop    of  "  which  he  began  so  sumptu- 

"  Rome    license    to    suppress  "  ou8>  and  the  scholars  were 

**  and  put  down  divers  abbeys,  **  so  proud,  that  every  person 

'*  priories,  and  monasteries,  to  "  judged  that  the  end  would 

**  the  number  of  [40].  Where-  "  not  be  good,  as   you   shall 

*'  fore  he  suddenly  entered  by  *'  hear   live    years   hereafter." 

''his  commissioners  into   the  Hall's  Chron.   16  Hen.  VIII. 

''  said  houses,  and  put  out  the  p.  694.  ed.  1809.     See  also  in 

**  religious  and  took  all  their  Stow's   Chronicle    a    detailed 

'*  goods^  movables,  and  scarce-  account  of  their  mode  of  sup- 

"  ly  gave  to  the  poor  wretches  pressing  the  monastery  of  Dein- 

**  any  thing,  except  it  were  to  try,  p.  52a.] 
"  the  heads  of  the  house;  and         >  Ecdes.  ix.  i,  2. 


flloin  in  In-'lnitd  >.  Wliat  Iwcane  of  the  rrHhwl 
himself  ii>  notnrifraiily  known;  uwl  m  for  Ua  two 
collugvs,  tlua  ill  I)»wich  (the  emMpm  of  iu  I 
soon  up,  1000  down)  pnvnntlj  TantsbMl  into  ] 
bouse* ;  whiht  thu  othvr,  Cbrirt  Cburrli  in  <>] 
was  ftjn  to  dlMlftim  itji  fminder,  and  (IteJa;  ■ 
tlK>  \mne  of  tliu  bounty  of  kinjF  llcnnr  tbe  Eighth) 
at  this  dajr  owns  not  him  ftir  father  who  firrt  gave  It 
life,  but  who  afterwards  kept  It  from  drin|f.  In  a 
word,  thill  diMotntion  of  forty  nnall  Ikmum  ouMsd 
by  the  rardinal  mndt^  all  the  fomtt  of  roliglnuB  faiui- 
datioru  in  l-Iiifrland  to  ebakv,  jiutty  fcarioff  the  Idiif 
would  fini>>li  to  fell  tbo  oaks,  sodBg  tho  cwdiaBl 
began  to  cut  the  undprwood  ^. 


Some  six  yean  afLor.  whilit  as  ypt  all  other  abbe^ 
flonriabed  Id  their  bdght  and  hajiifaDeH,  as  afc  taA 

i       JOodwiRkbAuMliaf  n«a.  "  acuut    It,  u 

tb>Ei^ttli.CfinnSto».p.sts-  "far  th«y  ww  ihaaii'^ 

or  Dr.  Albn.  HaU  Ihm  gimi  »  oM  mm  of  woair  l' 

aa  HMuiag  tksu^  ■n&vaor.  "  kiag.    AadaaviUa^ 

■Uf  niMMi  ia  kit  ChfMBid*.  "  vwtibaa  •«  pndMfaa^ 

Hc«ip:'*Tk*nnltiulBlnnl  "  iImtm) thn*.    TWMa_^ 

*■  tUi    WMWI.   by    kb   paw«t  "  pni|d*  mlu  Mack  apia* 

**  knlia*.  Mat  a  itepUia  of  '•  tkb ;  >bJ  ilw  tWr  wd  lh« 

»  uTcwIM  Dr.  JaU  Allw.  ■  »  tU  nntiMl.  h^    iiiiiHi»fc 

*■  Man  af  UM  bamiag  Ikui  ••  anki^  af  akMa,  ym^tm 

**  virtaa  av  mmA  ■naMiBcii.  lu  "  af  taMBOtt^  <n>t^  ^ 

-vWl    all    nlMW    rillatwii      *•  fciaM^  111 mAti^m 

-nb^riMnaainkkpn  -  poOfaip  ia  kb  onrto  1^. 

**  af  vrivai.  widi  a  gnaU  tntn.  "  Una,  kad  SHda  Ut  UvHaas 

•*  aai  waa  iwaltaj  laut  e*«rj  "  i^ttil  wiik  tka  kiag**,  aai 

"  Ralifiaa  whk  fmtmtitm,  m  "  ji^  wtmjjmr  ka  teal  «M 

"  tkoagk  tka  lagiM  kad  bMa  -  Mna  u»  RioaM."  ».  m^ 

» tkm.  Md  taMk  wa  gicai  k  Vh  Mr.  Pai  Mkath  iha 

"  waM  fcr  kk  vWiadaa.  t^  lard   CnwWt    tka   |   I    ill  I 

"  tka      rrlifinu     w««     wta  pvnoa  >M|iuy«J  by  tka  CMaU 

"  ftMTad  aad  Mamiuad  mvA  lul  ibaiais. 


in  England. 


secure  as  ever  before,  king  Henry  the  Eighth,  for 
reasons  best  known  to  himself,  singled  out  the  priory 
of  Christ  Church,  nigh  Aldgate  in  London,  and  dis- 
solved the  same  K  This  he  bestowed  as  a  boon  on 
Thomas  Audley,  speaker  in  the  parliament ;  and 
indeed  it  was  an  excellent  receipt  to  clear  his  voice, 
to  make  him  speak  shrill  and  loud  for  his  master  ^. 
This  shrewdly  shook  the  freehold  of  all  abbeys, 
seeing  now  two  such  great  men,  Wolsey  and  Audley, 
both  in  their  times  lord-chancellors  of  England, 
(and  therefore  presumed  well  versed  in  cases  of 
conscience,)  the  one  a  divine  first  took,  the  other  a 
common-lawyer  first  received,  such  lands  into  their 

2.  A  word  of  the  antiquity,  wealth,  and  dignity  of  The  and- 


wealth,  and 
est  satires,  "  Sir  Thomas  fol-  thereof. 

'  [•*  The  priory  of  the  Holy 
*•  Trinity,  commonly  called 
"  Christ  Church."  Stow's 
Chron.  p.  560.  The  same 
UTiter  dates  this  suppression 
in  the  year  1532.] 

^    Hall's    Chronicle,    anno 

'5^5'  [^^6  ^^^  spoken  loud 
enough  already,  as  Lloyd  be- 
speaks him  :  "  His  reading 
**  upon  the  statutes  of  privi- 
"  leges  commended  him  to  the 
'*  king's  service  ;  his  speaking 
**  for  the  prorogation  in  par- 
"  liament  brought  him  to  the 
*'  king's  favour.*'  And  as  he 
had  thus  unscrupulously 
wormed  himself  into  favour, 
so  he  secured  his  popularity 
by  most  abject  sycophancy, 
courting  alternately  the  king 
and  the  people,  and  turning 
with  every  tide ;  for  according 
to  the  same  biographer,  whose 
panegyrics  are  truly  the  keen- 

"  lowed  the  most  passable  ra- 
"  ther  than  the  most  able  men 
**  living,  in  a  time  when  active 
•*  men  were  more  useful  than 
"  virtuous."  And  in  this  hu- 
mour, to  gratify  both  king  and 
commons,  he  preferred  six  bills 
against  the  clergy,  bringing 
them  into  a  pramunire  to  awe 
them.  When  sir  Thomas  More 
could  not  act  with  the  times, 
Audley  could  :  he  took  the 
seals  when  More  resigned  them. 
To  conclude  his  character  in 
the  words  of  his  strange  bio* 
grapher  :  ••  The  king  might 
**  well  trust  him  with  his  con- 
"  science,  when  he  trusted  the 
'•  king  with  his;  owning  no 
*'  doctrine  but  what  was  esta- 
"  Wished,  ever  judging  the 
"  church  and  state  wiser  than 
"  himself.  (!)"  Lloyd's  Wor- 
thies,  I.  85.] 

A  a  4 

860  Th$  History  ^  AUtft 

thin  ronvi'Dt,  bccaiuc  In  each  rMpect  U  i 
nUe.  It  WW  TuuiHled  uiiiu  1108.  b^  queen  Matilda  ". 
(wife  to  king  I{eur7  tlio  Mnt.)  tlc<ll«st4^  to  iko 
Holy  Trinity,  for  bUck  nuMtw,  nr  ranons-rvgalv; 
luid  iiiiu  Noruuui  (by  tunw  anl  nation)  wm  in* 
prior  thereof.  lo  prooeM  of  time  it  beouno  ridi  ti 
jiui<)  luiii  uniiunent^  »uA  ftmnd  all  tlw  priorioi  fa 
l^ixlim  or  MiddleKZ,  especfaUly  in  thia  iNUticvlat; 
tliBt  tbt'  |>riur  iboroof  mw  •Ivsyn  ui  klilcmiaa  td 
Ltindon ",  namely,  of  Poittoken  Wanl.  {tboogfa 
utliemuo  tbfir  coareat  ituwletb  in  Ealgsio  Wai 
tod  lucd  to  ridu  Muaagtt  the  kldenaeii  In  ■  I 
like  tbe  rot,  mvo  that  hia  haUt  vm  in  the  | 
of  a  qrirltnal  tNinoii.  In  the  year  196i,  I 
the  e^th  prior  of  tius  eoanait.  t 
wai  loath  to  deal  in  temporal  i 
Tbcoliald  FiIx-Ito  aldcmuui  fn  bis  plare.  Thtf 
Vetv  moiC  bountiful  bouielttv|M>n,  relieving  all 
eowmi  and  gocn,  and  got  tbenMlvca  mueh  lepot^ 
tioa  for  tbcir  boi^tjUity. 
AgMiM  s.  Some  ro^leeturo  thli  waa  Ung  HaniT^  d 
fft  ^rifk.  in  diMcilvin;;  tbit  prioiy.  thereliy  lo  nake  a  d*-" 
in  |HH>|ili-'»>  olTootioaa,  bow  tboy  raaented  I 
lie  db>imlrbi-«I  thia  convrnt  firit,  as  the  f 
|>  Mmt  out  boreni  the  ImmIv  of  tbo  army,  wU 
meeting  nith  atLiniffiicctfi)  danpon,  may  give  I 
iH>tin.>  to  tbv  rvst  to  ndvaiiee  no  fiuther; 
hwl  found  ttie  people  much  itartled 
rauld  quirkly  knock  olC  rotmodi  lib 
and  (dexteioiu  to  decline  envy  for  hiaMeU)  I 

•  llarfJUU.  in  hii  CaU>     hj  SuTpc] 
Viva*  of  AbbrTk.  [Sbnr'a  5laf  ■         •  S 
-  ■- 1>-  ni.nUtfaNi        P  li 

Try,  p.  I4f.  l-p- »!. 


BOOK  VI.  in  England.  S61 

somely  cast  the  same  on  his  instruments  employed 
therein.  Others  think  the  king  as  yet  had  no  such 
project  in  intention,  but  did  it  merely  to  gratify  Sir 
Thomas  Audley,  whom  he  loved  the  better  for 
hating  Cardinal  Wolsey,  now  beginning  to  fell, 
against  whom  he  had  bitterly  inveighed  in  the  par- 

4.  As  for  the  manner  of  the  dissolvinsf  thereof,  Tbe  pnoT 

®  taken  by 

whereas  all  other  abbeys  afterwards  were  stormed  oomposi. 
by  violence,  (whatsoever  is  plausibly  pretended  to***^ 
the  contrary,)  this  only  was  fairly  taken  by  composi- 
tion ;  for  [Nicholas  Hancock]  p,  the  prior  thereof,  was 
sent  for  by  the  king,  commended  for  his  hospitality, 
promised  preferment  as  a  man  worthy  greater  dig- 
nity, which  promise  surely  he  performed,  though  the 
particulars  of  the  agreement  are  not  to  be  knovra. 
Whereupon,  anno  1531,  the  twenty-third  year  of 
the  king's  reign,  in  the  month  of  July,  he  surren- 
dered the  same  to  the  king's  use.  As  for  the  canons, 
they  were  sent  to  other  houses  of  the  same  order, 
who  now,  being  severally  disposed  in  other  convents, 
they  might  serve  them  as  monitors  to  warn  all  the 
rest,  seasonably  to  prepare  for  the  time  of  their 

5.  The   rooting  out   of  this  priory  wrought  a  The  effect 
middle  effect  in  people,  for  they  were  neither  dumb^pon 
nor  clamorous  thereat,  but  grumbled  out  their  dis-^^P**^^ 
contentment  for  a  time,  and  then  returned  to  their 
former   temper.     However,    at   first   they  were  so 
al)stemious,  that   whereas   the  priory,  church,  and 
steeple  was  proffered  to  whomsoever  would  take  it 
down  %  no  man  would  undertake  the  offer.    Where- 

P  [Stuw,  ib.  p.  394.    Monasticon  VI.  i.  p.  151,  new  edition.] 
^  Stow,  ib. 

TMt  Hulory  of  AtA€yt 

I^MHI  Mr   TblHBU 

1  bo 

Aaclley  WW  fiun   to   be  at  mora 

MiiM  make  or  tltc  niat4>riab ;  tke 

workmeo  wiUi  great  bbour  bi>^nninfr  at  the  lop, 

looaed  Moiie  ttom  ttonp,  and,  tbrowinf^  ibum  down, 

moat  part  of  tiwm  wpk  bn>kvu  in  tbo  &1L  aad 

nnDaliuHl  uMflvva. 

nfadw         6.  ANIint    ml^ht    movo  the  kio^   to   ria^  dito 

^^  ^10.  prinnr  (lut  of  all  the  rest,  to  load  tbU  ml  daneaw  ia 

'*^         varioiuly  roi^jcctuml.     IndcoH  thta  waa  the  aneieat- 

eat  of  all  tJigUuid  of  that  unlcr  rioee  tbe  Conqiwit : 

I  mean,  of  canoa-regnlata,  ai  our  antlior  taUcCh  na'; 

and  tbenrforo  it  waa  Imt  reaaonabto  tlM  oldeatdMiM 

f^  fim,  tbL>  fint  born  iftioald  b«  lint  bmM.    But 

■unljr  no  aneh  ooniidenition  moved  kbi|r  flony  !• 

tfaia  efaoice,  who  waa  not  to  methodical  In  hb  daadi 

of  irodohig. 

Atihb^     7>  As  for  tfao  loni  Aodlej,  on  whom  thu  priocy 

Daka'i      waa  beatowcd,  Manruot,  hla  aole  dan^tirr  and  Itcir, 

^"^       waa  married  to  Tbomaa  Howard,  duke  of  Norfollc, 

who  dwvlt  thenin,  and  whiefa  fnim  him  waa  calM 

the  l>uk(''t  V\mre.     No  ioffcniKnu  wiul  will  env^  •■ 

bonoBiable  a  {wraon  the  anronunodation  of  fo  ba»^ 

•ome  an  habitation;  onlv  ionic  perrhance  wlU  be> 

moan  that   thi'    Lord'o   plftct^  (fur  bo  in   tbafa*  aad 

Jamb*  lan>fuiij^>  tbcv  mllotl  the  rhnrrh ',)  wUlhar 

alouo  the  namerouf  nt'iphbour-inhabitants  it^mbvd 

for  pnblie  aerrioe,  ihoolil  bv  to  de»trr>Ted.  that  the 

people  wef«  for  many  yean  U>ft  ebitrrhb'm.  till  iheir 

want*  Tcwy  latolj  wen  Mipplied  *  hj  the  nsodUytng 

tbOTBof  out  of  the  rvina.  bj  the  chaiitjr  of  oUwia] 

I  am  aim  nooe  of  lb*  bain  of  hfan  wbe  rliwintlitrf  j 


f  «MW.  th.  <  VU.  Amm* 

•  Ofa.  snrriB.  *y. 


in  England* 




It  is  the  practice  of  advised  physicians,  in  purging  Obiervant 
of  long  corrupted  bodies,  (where  the  ill  humours  fim^ng 
may  prescribe  peaceable  possession  for  many  years,)  S^-!;«-« 
to  proceed  not  violently  all  at  once,  but  gently  by  ^^'"p'*^ 
degrees.  The  same  course  was  embraced  by  king 
Henry  in  dissolving  of  abbeys,  gradually,  and  there- 
fore the  less  visibly,  to  work  their  subversion,  so  to 
avoid  the  danger  of  a  sudden  and  extreme  alteration. 
And  first  he  began  with  the  Minorites,  or  Franciscan 
Observant  Friars,  whose  chief  seats  were  Greenwich 
and  Canterbury".  Two  motives  mainly  incensed 
him  against  this  order :  one,  because  two  of  their 
most  eminent  fathers,  Hugh  Rich,  prior  of  a  con- 
vent in  Canterbury,  and  Richard  Risby,  had  tam- 
pered with  EUzabeth  Barton,  alias  the  holy  maid  of 
Kent,  and  were  convicted  and  executed  with  her 
for  high  treason  * ;  a  second,  because  this  order 
generally  manifested  most  contumacy  and  contempt 
against  the  king  in  the  matter  of  queen  Katherine's 
divorce,  inveighing  both  in  their  sermons  and  dis- 
putations ^  against  the  unlawfulness  thereof,  espe- 

^  [^Wolsey  had  attempted, 
in  the  year  1525,  to  subject 
this  order  to  a  visitation,  but 
without  success.  '*  In  this 
**  month  (January)  the  cardi- 
"  nal,  as  legate,"  says  Hail, 
**  would  have  visited  the  Friars 
"  Observants,  but  they  in  no- 
**  wise  would  therein  conde. 
'•  scend  ;  wherefore  nineteen 
"  of  the  same  religion  were 
*'  accused  at  Paul's  Cross  by 

"  one  of  the  same  religion. 
•*  called  Friar  Forest."  Chron. 
p.  691.  '*  This  man  was  after- 
•*  wards  executed,  in  1538,  for 
**  speaking  against  the  king's 
"  supremacy,  having  before 
'*  sworn  to  the  contrary."  lb. 
p.  825.] 

X  [HaU,  ib.  p.  812.] 
y  Sanders  de  Schis.  Anglic, 
p.  81=86. 

«t  TU  Uittmy  ^AIAtf$  mo*  «i. 

daily  Elatoa  uul  PiBjrbm,  two  finnooi  trian  in  Lod- 
doo.  A  great  [N^nft  *  bdiohli  it  M  aminoaa,  and  a 
profDottlc  of  Md  «Deee«^  tluU  tho  lulj  (■ftarwl 
qoeen)  Rllabath,  jtiit  elmm  mmuhi  befanv  hid 
been  diristeoed  in  than  fHanTehurdi  inOraawrieh; 
as  if  bur  lioptliing  therein  portended  tluU  tbiNo  friai* 
sboulil  toon  aA*!r  bv  muibvd  away  fnta  tbii  tbrir 

COIlTCUt  '. 

•  Umm.  p.  fta>8s.  "  JM  bMUM  Mr  Lord  k^ 

•rrWaiciwMUMtowU^  "  pu  il  iun    n*  MMlfc.  I 

Fdbr  hH  tb»  Ividir  klfatiUd  '•  niMl  MMk   k-     Aid  »|M 

b i^tri  M  giMlOT invilt  bjr  ••  Im  ImJ  mmm^   In  i%>il 

0IUW.  Hid  h  altBgllMf  u  w-  "  ■(■»««    lh«    Kiag'i    MHad 

rfcwM.  and  dRwda  mdi  a  r»-  "  M•rT^[r.  to   ^— t^  hfa 

■■rkahli  ptotan  of  Uw  na»-  "  fran  h.  U  bIm  «U,  *  Jhmm 

■•B  of  Um  Ums.  Iliit  I  iImII  -*  in    nmn;  dOot    |nnfcii». 

■mIm  sa  'poloKj  for  Mtllag  it  "  j«l.  tcu  mujr,  wlucfc  p*«Hfc 

dowB'is  ■  not* :  "  »mA  onMuda  Um*  iilliiBaha 

-  Um  «nt  tku  mmIt  (*■  **  «Md»|t  Ui/  fbHf  vd  M 

■irtid.''  wn   tU  dtmalcbr.  "  ftStMioai  ipoi  Lii|»  «f  ifak 

"  Mf    itpMliBBiliJ    tiM    Uu  **  own  wwUlf  pfiiMdaa  t  Md 

*  (omIHw  kk  Mfriit*  witE  -  br  thtt  mmm  thvy  feMW 
**  Abm  Balar*.  wm  cm  friar  "  Uj  nd,  tlij  Imwmt,  Md 
**  his,  a  riaifte  HiaB,  jat  nrj  "  Mtarity,  !■  oton  te  ha*- 
"  diMBt  uT  Ifca  ovdw  af  Ob.  »  kn.  to  faMw*  fkk  altaa^ 

»!■ TUlBan.|N«Ml»-  "fdgrtlldMWWljllirillMtlB 

"  bf  a  OfMowldi  ii|NMi  Iba  "  Hd  atUr  Md«nM)Hl  db> 

**  t*a  nd  twitltfc   tliiHiT  "  bHSm.   IWw^  I  m,  «•  Ma 

••  cf  IW  tUrd  k>«k  of  Um  "  low  Imadnd  iri.tifc,  «U 

"  Ki^  rii.  tW  hM   i«rt  of  "  m  tW  aiMt  oC  tjt^  Hifc  •• 

*'  the  man  al  AAA.  Mviag.  "  dtoRTW  iWi  {  bat  iak»  mhI 

»  Cm*  oirrr  l*r  dqcf  /IrM  "  haad  Urt  yn  W^       TimI 

-tkthlmd^Smt^k.nntktrt  "  ^mt    tmS.    AAA*    mi  III 

«  •4*0  UU  ^  firi  %  Und  -  mm.  iriudi  «n  I*  b««  Ui 

••ate,04M|.Mdtlwn«itlMl  "  blood  tMk«l«p  of  tlMdi^i' 

■*  Mika  of  Uw  trbc  mmbMa  '•  Hrbw  it  wm  tW  ■mM 

-irUcfcibiMdtkaUaif '^^  -  mUm    m    priMH   •«  W 

-••lrai.'qB»tbk.'tfcM  MI-  »^iy  AamA   hf   iillii»» 

*  dMM  wbMB  iIkm  «iU  bat*.  "  4c.    I^m  fci^  bM^  tbw 

>n  1^    "  Pmo;  botlfeaB 
"  tW  W^  iir  aflklka  Md    "bMMtbMMKbtbMrMaj.lJ*. 
-df^  tka  ««!»«#  Mivwi    "CarwfaipMdMdbibai^ 


in  England. 


2.  Hereupon,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord  1534,  thoTotaUyand 
aforesaid  whole  order  of  Friars  Observant  were  sup-g^veZ 
pressed,  and  Augustine  Friars  substituted  in  their 


•  < 

place,  who  most  sharply 
reprehended  Peto  and  his 
preachings  and  called  him 
dog,  slanderer^  base  beggarly 
friar,  closeman,  rebel,  and 
traitor,  saying  that  no  sub- 
ject should  speak  so  auda- 
ciously  to  princes.  And 
having  spoke  much  to  that 
effect,  and  in  commendation 
of  the  king's  marriage,  there- 
by to  establish  his  seed  in  his 
seat  for  ever,  &c.,  he  then 
supposing  to  have  utterly 
suppressed  Peto  and  his  par- 
takers,  he  lift  up  his  voice 
and  said,  '  I  speak  to  thee, 
Peto,  which  makest  thyself 
Micheas,  that  thou  mayest 
speak  evil  of  kings  ;  but 
now  thou  art  not  to  be  founds 
being  fled  for  fear  of  shame, 
as  being  unable  to  answer 
my  arguments/  But  whilst 
he  thus  spake,  there  was  one 
Elstow,  a  fellow  friar  to  Peto, 
standing  in  the  rood-loft,who 
with  a  bold  voice  said  to  Dr. 
Curwin, '  Good  sir,  you  know 
that  father  Peto,  as  he  was 
commanded,  is  now  gone  to 
a  provincial  council  holden 
at  Canterbury,  and  not  fled 
for  fear  of  you,  for  to-morrow 
he  will  return  again.  In  the 
mean  time  I  am  here  as  an- 
other Micheas,  and  will  lay 
down  my  life  to  prove  all 
those  things  true  which  he 
hath  taught  out  of  holy 
scripture;  and  to  this  combat 
I  challenge  thee  before  God 
and  all  equal  judges.     Even 


unto  thee,  Curwin,  I  say, 
which  are  one  of  the  four 
hundred  prophets  into  whom 
the  spirit  of  lying  is  entered, 
and  seekest  by  adultery  to 
establish  succession,  betray- 
ing the  king  unto  endless 
perdition,  more  for  thy  own 
vain-glory  and  hope  of  pro. 
motion  than  for  discharge  of 
thy  clogged  conscience  and 
the  king's  salvation.'  [On] 
this  Elstow  waxed  hot  and 
spake  very  earnestly,  so  as 
they  could  not  make  him 
cease  his  speech,  until  the 
king  himself  bade  him  hold 
his  peace,  and  gave  order 
that  ne  and  Peto  should  be 
convented  before  the  council, 
which  was  done  the  next 
day.  And  when  the  lords 
had  rebuked  them,  then  the 
earl  of  Essex  told  them  that 
they  had  deserved  to  be  put 
into  a  sack  and  cast  into  the 
Thames.  Whereunto  Elstow, 
smiling,  said, 'Threaten  these 
things  to  rich  and  dainty  folk, 
which  are  clothed  in  purple, 
fare  deliciously,  and  have 
their  chiefest  hope  in  this 
world,  for  we  esteem  them 
not,  but  are  joyful  that  for 
the  discharge  of  our  duties 
we  are  driven  hence ;  and, 
with  thanks  to  God,  we 
know  the  way  to  heaven  to 
be  as  ready  by  water  as  by 
land,  and  therefore  we  care 
not  which  way  we  go.*  Those 
friars  and  all  the  rest  of  their 
order  were  banished  shortly 

fkem.  Nor  wen  thew  ObMranIs  (Hke  tb«  Oho** 
B«gttl>ii  in  tho  lut  (dift|tt«r)  dlgpoaed  of  in  olhir 
foandntioiM,  bot  toully  and  finaUjr  hnnfalwi  oM  of 
nil  tvUgious  aocieliuii ;  for  king  Henry  hii  anflM 
eomplinientcd  the  formiT  oat  of  tbcir  hooMn  bf 
their  own  willing  condctcenaion,  whikt  Ua  ftvwM 
ont«d  tbuM  u  dclioqnenU  bjr  «  TioleM  i^al- 
rioB ;  jc«,  pnttMibly  Ptmie  of  ttHrm  hnd  beoi  «»■ 
pcllod  tbeir  lives  m  well  m  tlicir  livingi>,  (tw« 
bundml  n(  them  bring  at  oTir«  impriMinod,)  bad  noC 
■ir  Tbomas  Wriothoftlr  \  their  fcrmt  frii-nd  aaJ 
lk»ouiMr,  foaaonablT  intfrredcd  for  tbctn  to  tbo  kin^ 
on  bopef  of  some  uf  tbt'ir  future  conformity  to  Ut 
nuveaty*!  deiiiM. 
n^^to.  8.  Immediately  after,  a  fimuMM  petitiom  i 
CS  tho  Supplication  of  Bi^gan,  oame  Into  put" 
^M  It  wa«  made  some  ypan  beftiro  by  one  M 
*"^  FUb',  a  gcntlvnum  of  011/1*  Inn,  and 
pn-tti'titrd  by  Oenrffv  Bliot,  an  Kngliab  1 
nml  fntt-rtAlnt^il  by  kinfr  Henry  for  a  gm 
tliou^b  inili-vil  tbi'  same  biufr  nnec  had  1 
dored  hitn  by  qu(<en  Anna  BoUefl''*md 
arquaiuuxl  with  tliu  pasHgea  thanin:  ao  t 
^bly  this  nipplicatfun  might  ftnt  ra 

"  aftfr,  tai  afUr  Uvt  imm  *  [Uara,    la    hit     _ 

"dint  ofiralj  imBW  tkcn>     Um.  mj%  that   FU    : „ 

**  wltn  ^UMt  l£*  Itiag'i  •/-  wuda  ivpntad  uf  writlm  tlh 

*■  fccttoM.      Dr.  Omria  wm  knk.  noKitd  U>  ottm^  i^ 

-  mtmAr  imm  at  Httwiuri,  utd  ntUMdWlWefcardiaf  llaB» 
"  aftrr  ibtt  uchUahcip  of  Oak.  p.  3 14.    TW  wW*  vatf  Ib 

•  b»kM  of  (HIM  in  ^MM  Mf  U  JMBrfb  ?«'•  Umm- 

-  Mtrf   tioMT-"      CluPM.   p.  nnta,  m  moud  Wlow.] 
S6).]  '  Pwi'i  Um.  U-  a79>  (■»• 

k  ib.  p.  i9*95  net'*  IW  |.  p.  j»$.l 

BOOK  VI.  in  England,  S67 

near  his  majesty,  as  contrivers  thereof.  And  as 
Moses  ®  was  sent  to  be  nursed  unto  her  vj^ho,  though 
generally  unknovni,  was  indeed  his  own  mother 
which  bare  him,  so  petitions  may  sometimes  be 
recommended  back  to  the  same  power  that  first 
framed  them ;  great  ones  delighting,  not  only  for 
the  greater  solemnity,  but  also  for  their  better  secu- 
rity, to  transfer  their  intentions  to  be  others*  en- 
treaties ;  their  private  designs  finding  more  accept- 
ance when  passing  under  the  notion  of  a  public 
desire.  The  effect  thereof  was  to  complain  how  a 
crew  of  strong,  puissant,  counterfeit-holy,  idle  beg- 
gars and  vagabonds  by  their  luxury  starved  a  number 
of  needy,  impotent,  blind,  lame,  and  sick  people, 
which  otherwise  might  comfortably  be  maintained ; 
as  also  to  discover  the  foul  enormities  and  filthy 
conversation  used  amongst  those  pretended  pious 
fraternities,  as  the  same  is  set  forth  at  large  in  the 
Book  of  Martyrs,  whither  we  remit  the  reader. 

-t.  Only  a  word  of  the  geometry,  arithmetic,  andThegeo- 
chronology  used  by  the  author  of  this  supplication.  IlriSmetic, 
For  his  geometry,  I  conceive  he  faileth  not  much  in  J^^^^ 
l)r()portion,  when,  in  measuring  the  content  of  tliisJJJ^^ 
kingdom,  he  affirmeth  that  "They  had  got  into  their 
"  hands  more  than  the  third  part  of  all  the  realm.'* 
But  whereas  he  auditeth  the  revenues  of  the  friars 
in  England,  besides  their  lands,  to  amount  yearly  to 
four  hundred  thirty  thousand  three  hundred  thirty 
and  three  pounds,  allowing  their  quarterage  to  arise 
out  of  fifty-two  thousand  parishes,  he  highly  over- 

^  Exod.  ii.  8. 

thdr  numbor.  oot  oninfiletiiig  taa  ih— 
nod '.     Indeed  Uio  papiits  tell  ni  of  ten  I 
ehufcbes  in  Englaad  deattxijnpd  »U  in  one  year* 

MUtia  d 

4  trmptomm  dtalemit  a 

Yrt  tbcce  beinf;  ronTcatoal,  nat  puvichial  t 
add  nothin)*  to  ttiv  foniK'r  rijmfmUtiuti.  Yoa,  ■ 
all  iho  rlM|N-<lii  of  caiic  in  tliia  Uiid  be  wlmHlcd  Id 
take  a  new  dograe,  and  to  cominenco  cfannhM  la 
this  nOalopie,  it  would  not  make  op  the  tmaAm. 
Dut  it  i*  ginm  to  beggan  MiawtJiDfM  to  hypertwto^ 
to  tnako  their  ease  the  morv  pitiful ;  and  JBdeed,  if 
we  debllt  a  third  port  of  that  mm.  yet  atiU  mC  «w 
tbe  renuinder  of  mcIi  frian'  rercniMa.  Bot  vfaenM 
tke  tttd  autbor  of  tkia  mppBeatioo  aith  that  -  tar 
**  handled  yean  paat  thcae  frian  bad  not  one  peoqr 
**  of  this  BMCwy."  ^tutre,  whether  be  bo  not  mb- 
takon  in  hit  obrooologjr,  and  whether  Mime  of  ihe 
Mine  profita  aeerucd  not  to  the  Benediotinn  bafcw 
the  Cooquertt 
Axt.  5.  In  answer  to  thin  an  anti-cnpfilieatiaa  «na 
^(^  made,  and  m-t  forth  by  air  Thomaa  More,  (eadnnft 
among*!  his  otitic  works,)  ralinl  the  SoppBeaden 
of  the  Hauls  in  I'liiyafiiry  ;  the  aeopc  v  hereof  ii^  tn 
prc«  the  rnntinuatiitn  of  thote  huidi  given  to  piona 
BM  for  the  ((ood  of  the  deovwod,  and  that  tfa^ 
might  not  bo  aliened  without  dai^er  of  i 
In  this  ■application  pleaaant  dalljring  and  i 
are  to  intecinijmd  with  eomplainta,  that  i 
theiTof  diaeoTercth  hinttelf  UMirc  ntirist  than  talnl 
in  his  eapPBwioM :  ao  hard  it  is  for  an  actor  su  to 
divest  himself  of  btmselC  as  not  to  vent  susne  of  Ua 

r  awOMdlUt.iaUsdhrWM«rBrh.pL  117. 

BOOK  VI.  in  England,  369 

own  humours  with  the  property  of  that  person 
whom  he  is  to  represent.  And  seeing  sir  Thomas 
More  would  have  his  own  jests  when  dying,  no 
wonder  if  he  makes  others  to  jeer  when  dead. 

6.  These  two  supplications  pressing  both  together  The  first 


for  audience  and  reception,  that  of  the  beggars  on  Uon  best 
earth  found  the  best  entertainment :  whether  be-  "**'^ 
cause  it  came  first,  which  we  know  is  great  advan- 
tage in  beggars — first  come,  first  served ;  or  because 
these  terrestrial  beggars  were  nearer  at  hand,  (and 
so  best  able  to  manage  their  own  suit,)  whilst  those 
in  purgatory  were  conceived  at  a  greater  distance ; 
or  chiefly  because  their  supplication  suggested  mat- 
ter of  profit  to  the  king  and  his  courtiers :  and  such 
whispers  sound  loud,  and  commonly  meet  with 
attentive  ears.  And  as  an  introduction  to  the  dis- 
solution of  all  abbeys,  spies  were  sent  forth  to  make 
strict  discovery  of  men's  behaviours  therein.  Indeed 
the  lord  Cromwell,  scoutmaster-general  in  this  de- 
sign, stayed  at  the  court  whilst  his  subordinate 
emissaries  (men  of  as  prying  eyes  as  afterwards  they 
proved  of  gripple  hands)  sent  unto  him  all  their 
intelligence,  in  manner  and  form  as  in  due  time 
shall  ensue. 



Now  because  some  months  were  employed  in  that  a  gainful 


service  before  a  perfect  account  was  returned  to  the  mjuJe  for 
lord  Cromwell,  the  suppressing  of  the  smaller  monas-       "*^' 
teries  may  here  seasonably  be  inserted ;  for  in  the 
twenty-seventh  of  the  king's  reign,  anno  1539  ^  a 
motion   was  made  in  parliament.  That  to  support 

^  [>535-6.] 

FULLER,  VOL.  III.  eb 

9TD  Tkt  tlhlQry  *)f  AhUyt  MR*  ti. 

tlm  klng^i  •tetoi  and  ■ipply  his  wnita,  all  iiilg,liwi 
hiiaH<«  jm^l  bo  eoafiorred  od  the  oruwii.  wbidi  — 
nut  able  elearijr  to  sxpentl  abovu  two 
potmda  a-jwar. 

S.  Some  tm^  rrport  that  Ji»hn  Fiafa«r. 

mm7^  Iloefaeater,  eamettljr  tfaouf^  plramiitlr 

inSZ.      motion,  by  ftllifniifr  aii  siKilofnic  mit  of  .Caof^  "' 

**  the  helve  of  tho  axo  rmvMl  %  haii<Ilv<  of  the 

"  of  oakft  otiljr  to  cut  olf  the  acntbowa  of  tb«  tree, 

"  but  when  it  wm  a  complete  inttrametital  axe  ii 

**  Allied  down  all  the  wood ;'  wf^yka^  It,  that  tha 

pant  of  theae  amaller  hooiaa  woold  Id  fine  prme 

deatruptivo  to  all  the  ntt.     Bat  fUwr  betaf  now 

in  hi»  ffniTp,  tbit  rould  not  be  tpokra  hi  Ibia  pafw 

Uamviit,  wfairh  witli   more  pmbabatity  wa 

T^TfvA  by  him  againtt  ranlJnal  WtJtej  fa 

the  fortj  hooMv,  wliPimf  before. 

faiH^  9.  This    pni|KMiition    fnnnd    little 

yMH^lt  either  houaes.     Hcnij  the  Eighth  ww  a 

hb  neoearitlMi  were  tynutta:  and  both  miB| 

for  the  Hune  thing,  mnat  net  be  denied. 

the  hrger  thoogi  thoj  cut  out  of  other  bmo^ 

the  mora  entiru  thejr  prewnred  their 

which  made  thit  periiament  to  Mie  thafa 

bjr  laving  the  load  on  thoae  lewei 

accordingly  pMMMl  to  the  crowii. 

A  p— »i      i.  The  hml  Herbert  in  hi*  History  ■  cum] 

■M*  »     aiul  that  jostly,  "  that  thU  tutotc  f»f  db 

^MbarT   "the   IcMer  mtauMteriei  doth   begin   verr 

"^.y****  without  any  formal  preamble  In  the  printed  hooka 

**^      "  ther  are  pablJilted.''     It  aeemeth  ihai  hnvln  ' 

never  Marobed  the  rvoonl  Haelf,  (otherwiae  I 

oppoOTkm  fci 

f  Of  Hmy  VIII.  p.  ifO.   (fkr«H  I.  p.  3S9.] 



BOOK  VI.  m  England,  871 

trious  in  that  kind,)  to  which  a  solemn  pre&ce  is 

prefixed,  shewing  some  reasons  of  the  dissolution, 

and  pious  uses  to  which  they  were  attained,  in  form 

as  folio weth : 

The  Preamble  is  this  : 

'^  Forasmuch  as  manifest  sin,  vicious,  carnal,  and 

^'  abominable  living  is  daily  used  and   committed 

commonly  in  such  little  and  small  abbeys,  priories, 

and  other  religious  houses  of  monks,  canons,  and 

nuns,  where   the   congregation  of  such  religious 

"  persons  is  under  the  number  of  twelve  persons, 

"  whereby  the  governors  of  such  religious  houses 

"  and   their  convent   spoil,  destroy,  consume,  and 

"  utterly  waste,  as  well  their  churches,  monasteries, 

^'  priories,  principal   houses,  farms,  granges,  lands, 

''  tenements,  and  hereditaments,  as  the  ornaments  of 

their  churches,  and  their  goods  and  chattels,  to  the 

high  displeasure  of  Almighty  God,  slander  of  good 

religion,  and  to   the  great  in&my  of  the  king's 

highness  and  the  realm,  if  redress  should  not  be 

'^  had   thereof.      And   albeit   that   many  continual 

"  visitations  hath  been  heretofore  had  by  the  space 

"  of  two  hundred  years  and  more,  for  an  honest  and 

charitable  reformation  of  such  unthrifty,  carnal, 

and  abominable  living,  yet  nevertheless  little  or 

"  no  amendment  is  hitherto  had,  but  their  vicious 

"  living  shamelessly  increaseth  and  augmenteth,  and 

by  a  cursed  custom  so  rooted  and  infested,  that  a 

great  multitude  of  the  religious  persons  in  such 

^'  small  houses  do  rather  choose  to  rove  abroad  in 

"  apostasy  than  to  conform  themselves  to  the  obser- 

"  vation  of  good  religion ;  so  that  without  such  small 

*'  houses   be  utterly  suppressed,  and   the    religion  •" 

*>  [*'  Religioas  penons,"  printed  copy.] 

B  b  2 

379  Tkr  HUlary  nf  AlAry*  noc  n. 

"  thiTpin  mtnmitl(H)  to  l\w  frmil  unit  bonoambic 
"  ntoiuiKt4>rioii  nf  n-lij^nii  in  tlit*  n«lm,  wbcro  Utcy 
"  mar  be  v(iiu|h>1I(h1  (o  live  rt>li;ii«*iuU  Tor  n^nrmmtinn 
"  or  tboir  Hw«.  lInTi-  cmi  v\i>v  U-  no  [nilnw  iwr) 
"  rcfnrnuition  in  that  bt-hair.  In  rntwtdonition  wbcT»- 
**  of,  the  king's  incMl  ri>ral  inaj<.*stT.  Wnng  MpniiM^ 
"  head  in  eanli.  iimler  *><»«l,  of  the  rhurrh  "f  Eiij(- 
"  taml.  AaiXy  finding  luid  d^vbtn;;  tbt*  iumnHi. 
"  lulTnnnfment,  nnti  cxaluuion  nf  inir  dcirtrine  and 
"  Tirluo  in  thi*  Mid  churvh.  («  the  only  $\ot}  attd 
"  honour  of  (icm),  and  the  total  i-xtiqiini;  mod  At' 
"  irtnirtion  of  y\w  and  win,  having  knowledge  llwl 
"  ihe  pr«fni»e»  be  tnie,  ai«  well  by  the  rompu  of 
■*  bis  lato  TiaiUtion*  as  by  mndiy  cn<dible  inAinnft* 
"tiona;  cnnideriiijf  aJsu  that  diren  and  gnvt 
**  aolonin  nioiiatrtcrira  of  thi^  nialni.  wht'Mn.  thoaka 
**  bu  to  God.  religion  in  right  well  kept  and  ohHTTfd, 
"  be  dntilate  of  wicb  full  niinibem  of  religlnus  per- 
"  aotw  OS  tbvj  ought  and  mar  ki'cit,  liath  tbo<i|[(it 
**  good  that  a  plain  dectantion  nhould  he  made  of 
**  tbe  pmnMi%  oa  wull  to  the  lords  aiitritiial  waA 
"  tinnpoml  aa  to  other  hli  loving  flobfecla,  tbv  fom- 
"  moiu  in  thi*  prvwnt  poriiiiiieat  aMantbled. 

**  WfacreuiNm  thi*  mid  lordii  and  tMOunom,  bjr  a 
**  great  deliberation,  tiiially  be  resnlvnl.  That  te  li 
"  and  ahall  be  mnrh  nioro  to  the  piramro  of  AU 
**  mightr  God.  and  for  the  himoiir  of  thu  bia  naln, 
"  that  the  poNMtMons  offtiirh  Ninall  ndigioon  boaoHk 
"  now  buiog  ifient,  tpoilcd,  atn!  wasted  for  IncfMa* 
"  and  maiatcoaneo  of  rin.  •boald  be  uaed  and  caiK 
**  rerted  to  bettor  nan,  and  tbo  unthriftj  refi§ioai 
**  pecioaa  lo  upending  tbo  Hune  to  be  eompcJInd  I* 
**  rHbnn  their  lives;  and  tbereiipon  bumC  hnaUy 
*■  de«ln>  the  king's  hlghneas  that  tt  mar  be  gnart>4 

BOOK  VI.  171  England,  373 

*'  by  authority  of  this  present  parliament,  that  his 
*'  majesty  shall  have,  to  him  and  to  his  heirs  for 
''  ever,  all  and  singular  such  monasteries,  &c. 

"  Ilis  majesty  shall  have  and  enjoy,"  &c.,  as  it 
followeth  in  the  printed  statute*'. 

In  this  preamble  two  principles  are  laid  down  ofTwopnn- 

.    /»  ii«i  1  i_  1  •  1  dples which 

intallible  truth,  and  postenty  must  not  be  so  pre- must  not  be 

,  .  i.'        i.1  questioned. 

sumptuous  as  to  question  them :  ^ 

i.  The  smallest  convents  were  the  greatest  sinners, 
and  they  who  had  the  least  lands  led  the  lewdest 

ii.  It  was  harder  to  reform  little  convents  than 
those  that  were  greater. 

It  seems  such  small  houses,  like  little  fishes,  could 
not  bo  caught  with  the  net  of  reformation,  as  slip- 
ping through  the  holes  thereof;  and  therefore  no 
way  to  repress  their  faults  except  by  suppressing 
their  foundation.  All  I  will  add  is,  God  first 
punished  great  Sodom,  and  spared  little  Zoar, 
though  probably  also  in  fault.  Here  Zoar  was  first 
punished :  let  great  Sodom  beware,  and  the  larger 
monasteries  look  to  themselves. 

5.  And  now  adieu  all  religious  houses  in  England  Bxact  mea- 
that   could    not   clearly  spend  above  two  hundred  the  «tan- 
pounds  i)er  annum ;  and  we  must  not  believe  any  jijjoiution. 
sinister  dealing  was   used   by  favour   to   rack  the 
revenues  of  some  above,  and  out  of  dislike  to  shrink 
the  rents  of  others  beneath,  the  standard  of  dis- 
sohitioii,  when  twenty  shillings  a-year  under  or  over 
the  aforesaid   sum  might  save  or  destroy  a  small 
monastery.     As  for  such  (if  any  in  that  posture) 
who  had  just  two  hundred  pounds  and  no  more, 

»»  [27  Hen.  VIII.]  cap.  28. 


tbt7  wtiv  i>t>iH>xioiui  to  the  litlltuu^  whiUt  fiw  ihil- 
Kngt  mnrv  Mvcfl  nil;  u  that  U  h  fair  ball  In  the 
U-nnn  raurt  which  toachcth  the  line,  jvl  go(4b 
ovvr  it, 
•«*'  6.  Ten  thoussnil  penou  were  bjr  tbb  di«olutioo 
■(•nt  to  loek  their  foitnnn  in  the  wide  wotU.  Soowk 
ini]ei<d,  hail  fatbun  or  friendi  to  Kcehe  Am; 
othcn  wmv)  at  ail ;  lonie  had  twpotj  ifaUKBga  glwa 
tbam  «t  tbdr  qjeotiao,  and  a  naw  gown,  which 
Doeded  to  be  of  itraiig  doCb  to  but  ao  lonft  till  they 
got  another.  Kfott  were  rapmcd  to  want.  I  «« 
DO  furh  cprtointT  for  a  romftirtable  lirelihood  m  s 
lawful  mlling ;  for  monkish  profcadon  was  no  pe*- 
nesnon,  and  luany  a  jroung  nun  |»roTt<!il  an  old  bqcgw. 
I  pity  not  tboae  who  bad  bands  and  bt^lth  to  work, 
bat  ffttreljr  the  giuy  hnin  of  Mitm.'  im|>oit>nt  petaMH 
ilewrfBd  flompaMdon ;  and  I  am  eonfidimt  nich,  had 
thfljr  etane  to  tlio  doom  of  the  eharilable  reader 
hereof^  riu3ald  havD  hod  a  mval'i  meat  and  a  Bigh^ 
^''^K'iV  given  unto  them. 
AUinr  7.  A  dear  revenue  of  thirty  thooHnd  ponnda  pv 

n^mm.  annum  waa  here  adTanccd  to  the  cmwn',  (beiMea 
TfiT***"  *^>oP— "d  pounda  In  plato  and  moTablea,)  tlMBgd 
^"^  the  Ung  eqff^ed  it  but  a  ^ort  timet,  aa  im"i»H  it 
vrnvf  hjr  gtnat,  nXe,  and  t-xrliange  to  hb  aoljlartfc 
lliii  waa  done  bjr  the  politic  eoonael  of  the  «te 
lord  Crumwcll,  not  hoping  that  tbeae  omU  monali 
to  ao  many  mouthi  aboold  Mthdy  thidr  hanger,  bol 
only  intending  to  give  them  a  taste  of  the  iiwritn— 
of  abbey  land*.    And  here  papfata  pleotiftiUy  lafl 

■  ("  h» 

I-  ^  447) 

haadnrf  ilmHud  Am  mOiv  thi  Mk.  Im4.  ^ 
•m  BwMt.  (Rrf.  InuldiMi  MMtmOi  >4  wdi  af 
w«Jh>«  ncioaiafi    iW  afabcj*  awl 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  875 

upon  him  in  scattering  these  lands  all  abroad,  that 
if  any  should  be  so  scrupulous  as  to  find  fault  with 
the  fact,  a  general  guiltiness  should  amount  unto  inno- 
cence. Thus  they  say,  **  There  is  no  fear  that  a  man 
''  shall  be  condemned  for  felony,  who  hath  so  many 
*'  receivers  in  the  county,  that  scarcely  a  judge  can 
''  sit,  and  surely  no  jury  can  be  empannelled  upon 
<«him,  saving  such  who  had  been  parties  with 
"  him  ^" 

8.  No  fewer  than  three   hundred  seventy-five  The  num. 

t. ^^  ^t 

convents,  as  Sanders  doth  account  them,  were  dis-: 
solved  at  this  time :  sure  I  am  none  was  left  stand- 
ing in  the  whole  diocese  of  Bangor,  where  no  foun- 
dation was  valued  at  full  seventy  pounds  per 
annum  K 

9.  We  must  not  forget  how,  in  the  foresaid  pre-  why  the 
amble,  the  king  fairly  claweth  the  grei^  monasteries;  ^aHiSt 
wherein,  saith  he,  religion,  thanks  be  to  God,  is  right  ^j^jj^^^ 
well  kept  and  observed;  though  he  clawed  them 

soon  after  in  another  acceptation.  The  truth  is, 
king  Henry  could  not  suppress  the  lesser  abbeys 
but  by  the  consent  of  the  greater  abbots,  whereof 
twenty-six,  as  barons,  voted  in  the  pariiament,  who 
mollified  them  by  this  commendation  into  a  oonoar- 
rence  with  his  desire. 

10.  However,  most  specious*  uses  were  pretended, '^p^''^"* 
(though  few,  perchance,  had  faith  firm  enough  to^ndedoi 
believe  their  full  performance,)  that  all  should  bepaiStiei. 
done  to  the  pleasure  of  Almighty  God,  and  for  the 

^  [Burnet  (Ref.  I.  p.  448)  by  interweaving  their  interetta 

asserts  the  same,  that  diese  with  the  proceedings  of  the 

lands  were  sold  to  the  prin-  crown,  to  oblige  them  to  9auaX 

cipal   gentry   in    the    several  in  these  proceedings.] 
counties,  to  allay  the  general        ^  See  Speed  his  Catalogiie 

discontent  of  the  times,  and,  of  Valoations. 



TAe  Hhtvfy  1/ AUtyu 

faooatir  of  Uii*  n.«lm ;  and  {iwticulAr  cafv  m  taken  in 
tbc  rtatato,  M  it  if  printed,  for  tbv  mtrtmtioa  af 
nuuiT  ivnts  and  ■pnriom,  mmMlw*,  and  pmaoiw  to 
rouiiitt^'ni,  donopt.  ntnl  lii>ni<r«ctur«.  OnW  1 
taken  tlint  i1kim>  to  whom  ibbcT  latida  vrrt 
■hould  kit.-)i,  iir  rftUM.'  to  U-  k«'|it,  k  continual  li 
and  honuulioM  in  tbv  Huni-  Mt«  nr  iimrinet;  ihej 
wvrc  also  tn  <iccu|iv  viiirlv  a»  murb  uf  tW  do 
In  tiilaffc  tuk  tti(-  nbbotR  did,  or  tlifir  {nrtULt*  uni 
llii'ni,  «it)iiii  tlR<  tinii'  of  twentr  yran  iH'Xt  I 
lllin  act,  tithrnriac  fiirfeilitlfc  to  the  kinj^'a  highncM^ 
for  vvt'ry  muiitti  oo  ulfendiiiff,  6/.  ISt.  W^  to  be  n«o- 
^vretl  (u  hix  UM-  in  anv  of  his  eourt#  uf  tvcoid.  The 
anvan  wbrrvof.  If  riffon^mily  vxiurted.  would  niTKTim 
to  a  nflt  mm  fmm  *uch  oH'cndi^r*.  vthime  boafAafi^ 
waa  cantnu>tt>tt  to  a  itlicptn-nl  and  bit  dn^.  1 
roliovinff  thtiw  w)i«  wnuld  uork  by  itidiMtr^,  1 
nirb  who  cftuld  not  work  by  tbiHr  rliaritr. 

fimiifmal.         \\.     Thc-M'     JN-IUlJticS     ftttXld     In     full      fllTOJ     i 

o-JT''*'  (-'iKbty  year*,  vit.  until  tbc  twrnty-fint  1 
Clljj^^  Jame*.  whfn  by  art  of  fmriiiiniont  tbi-y  wrre  r 
Ind<>i'd  Hurb  who  nn*  obnoxioiu  to  ptrmi  ■ 
(inly  innticcnt  I)y  o>urt4'«T,  and  may  be  n 
at  tbclr  prinro'i  jdmsurv;  and  though  foch  1 
may  Ih'  dunnaot  as  dboaiHl,  thoy  aru  ncrcr  <lcad  t01 
tevokiNl,  fcoing  eointuonly  pr^im^  call  on  auch 
■UCatoa  when  thenaelTflB  an  cmlled  oo  by  tbair 
iwuMJtha  Many  of  the  EngtUi  gmtry  kaow 
thmnaelTM  mmcvt  to  atiah  ptnaltiait  whoo,  Imtcad  «f 
maintaining  tlllaf^,[tl)*^7]  ^^  convfrtvd  thr  fnagm 
of  abU'n  into  t'nclamir* ;  and  tbcn-furc  pmridod  for 
thiir  own  nafety  whtm  they  wmugfat  thv  kiag  to  • 
ivrivation  of  llioav  riatnto  ■". 

•  Sw  lU  CkataiM  tU  SI  U  kMK  J^m.  a.  at. 

HOOK  VI.  in  England,  »577 

12.  But  the  courtiers  grudged  at  this  grant  and  Some 
great  indulgence  given   by  the   king  without  any  so  great  a 
vahiable  compensation,  some  sticking  not  to  say  that  ^'"*' 
hereby  the  king  at  once  gave  his  subjects  more  than 
ever  they  gave  him  in  subsidies,  benevolences,  con- 
tributions, or  any  other  way  whatsoever,  all  the  time 
of  his  reign ;  which,  if  so,  let  no  man's  eye  be  evil 
because  the  king's  was  so  good  to  his  subjects. 



When  all  in  the  school  are  equally  guilty,  and  the  Northern 
master  beginneth  at  the  bottom  to  correct  the  least 
boys  first,  no  wonder  if  those  in  the  highest  form 
begin  to  shake ;  as  here  no  doubt  the  bigger  abbeys 
did,  except  some  few,  who,  (to  follow  the  metaphor,) 
like  sturdy  striplings  counting  themselves  above 
correction,  began  to  prepare  themselves  to  make 
resistance:  hence  presently  arose  the  northern  re- 
bellion, wherein  all  the  open  undertakers  were  north 
of  Trent,  though,  no  doubt,  many  secret  compilers 
south  of  Thames  were  engaged. 

2.  This  commotion  began  first   in  Lincolnshipe,  **««p»n»  wp- 

,         pressed, 

where  the  rebels  presented  six  articles  to  the  king,  punished, 
in  the  last  whereof  they  complained  that  divers 
bishops  of  England,  of  his  grace's  late  promotion, 
had  subverted  the  faith  of  Christ,  as  they  thought ; 
which  is,  the  archbishop  of  Canterbury,  the  bishops 
of  Rochester,  Salisbury,  St.  David's,  and  Dublin  °. 

3.  This    Lincolnshire    commotion   being   quickly 

°  [These    risings   began   in  general  amnesty  was  proclaimed 

October,  1536,  (Burnet,  Ref  I.  all  over  the  north  by  the  duke 

p.  456,)   and  were   not   fully  of    Norfolk.     Burnet,    ib.    p. 

<iuieled  till  July  1537,  when  a  470.] 


The  HiOary  t^Abiry 

(<u|>|»n<MM.xl,  ami  n  riglit  iindfniUnding  begotten  I 

twixt    ilio    kill}!   ninl    )iis    KulijvrtHi    ibe 

liiiiiiotir  rt'inrfvi-^t   intu  Yoricshirv.  wWre  no  I 

tlwn  fifty  tb»usan<)  (Mut)i  SaiKlen)  i 

in  a  Itoily  uniter  li(»bert  Afike,  a  mc«ui  gMitlcaMil^ 

tbi'ir  <'n|itain,  uid  nnm  l>tamonil,  (tlnnigli  a  knaiv 

of  viothLT  fluit.)  whu   toniK*d  biiitfclf  tho   Eari  of 

PiiVtTtr.     Yvt   tliw  <li«tent)K*r  aliu  i 

cured   hy  Ibe  king's  panlon  and  Ibi'ir  i 

till  «M>n  after  a  jfivat  part  of  tbem  fi>ll  iota  a  r 

uf  robeUioD.  irmnying  in  tlieir  eua^pu  tlie  £▼«  wvonib 

of  otur  Saviour,  tbo  cbalioe^  with  IIm  b<Mt,  and  tba 

uamo  of  Jmds  bvtwtxt  tbem ;  wbo,  bdng  vaiwiaiifcaA 

hy  thi<   kinit'a  foroea  nnder   tb«   noniiaand   of  j 

vnri   of  Sbrt'waburjr,   veie   cooHguXj  •>« 

tbo  mine  <>. 

"  [Par   in   kkwuM  of   Um     "  iIm   Ambantm   i 
rUaX     U     Uneolaakirv.    mi     "  |wtrata  i 
IUI'b  Chraa.  p.  Sio.    TWac.    "  iT 

olBMtina.     But  tU  iMMUtw.  "  tWr  had  aW 

iJMiaVwIiAlnwMftrMra  "  la  th«  iaU.  ■hiiiiMiia 

bnaUiy*.   MImrW    wiikin  ■•  pdMti  CMm  "  Y  j 

■ii  d«n  after  iW  ^w*Ptlii|t  of  "  iIm  anm  mi   tit*  ■■•  d 

tba  otMr.    "  TImm  mmi,"  Mp  "  hhI  ■  cfcaUn  witk  ■ 

tkMHtlKir,''hMlaKfaartfcM  "  cdw  ia  k  oa  Um  ntfca 

**  tn   other   bwad  tkaoMrlvw  "  with  Srtn  other 

-  iy  tlNir  <alli  ta  ha  WtUd  ■'  Hha    kipoortay  u' 
"  ami  obadini  to  kii  eapuia  :  "  Maelitr.    TW 

-  tbajr  alw>  dacWad  bjr  ihrir  "  liad  a 

"  bai  enh  t»  tW  awiawniBBa  "  tada  af  iIm  **«  'I'laaJi  ■ 
-  aad  ilifciiiii  at  Iba  Ulb  of  -  Ctefat.  aad  fai  iW  ai* 
•Ohrfat,  aad  daBvmaca 
"  htiy  thaftb  aara  dacar 
-aaif  ■||i—i.«ad^l 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  379 

4.  Indeed  Sanders  (to  whom  it  is  as  natural  toExnisedby 
defame  as  for  a  stone  to  descend)  complaineth,  that  un^iSy. 
the  king  executed   those  whom    formerly  he   had 
l)ardoned  for  the  same  offence,  contrary  to  God's 
proceedings,  with  whom  peccata  remissa  non  recur- 

runt ;  yea,  contrary  to  equity  and  all  common  jus- 
tice :  but  our  chronicles  make  it  plain  that  they  ran 
on  the  score  of  a  new  rebellion,  (their  faults  specifi- 
cally not  numerically  the  same,)  and  justly  suffered 
for  their  offences  therein. 

5.  Thomas  lord  Darcy  and  the  lord  Hussey  p  (first 
and  last  baron  of  his  femily)  were  beheaded  on  this 
account ;  the  first  of  these  being  much  bemoaned 
both  for  what  he  had  been  (a  martial  man  of  merit 
by  sea  and  land)  and  for  what  he  was,  (decayed, 
being  almost  eighty,  with  old  age,)  insomuch  that 
there  goeth  a  tradition  that  he  had  the  king's  par- 
don in  his  pocket,  and  slept  the  while  the  sentence 
of  condemnation  was  passed  on  him,  and  then  pro- 
duced it  too  late :  such,  it  seems,  were  the  rigorous 
proceedings  against  him. 

6.  Aske  and  Diamond  were  executed  in  this  rebel- p«"o»» 
lion,  and  so  also  were  six  abbots,  namely,  of  Sawley, 
Barling,  Gervaux,  Whaley,  Rivers,  with  the  prior  of 
Burlington,  besides  many  gentlemen  of  prime  ac- 
count, whereof  these  the  chief  ^ :  [sir]  Robert  Con- 
stable, [sir]  Thomas  Percy,  [sir]  Francis  Bigot, 
Nicholas  Musgrave,  Nicholas  Tempest,  [sir]  Stephen 

P  [Lord  Darcy  was  executed         q  [Aske  and  the  others  were 

for  the  northern  rebellion,  and  at  first  pardoned,  and  subte- 

sufFered  on  Tower  Hill;  the  quently  appeared  at  court ;  but 

other  for  the  Lincolnshire  in-  being  accused,  at  the  condu- 

surrection,  and  was  beheaded  sion  of  the  year,  for  rebelling 

at  Lincoln.     See  Burnet,  Ref.  again,  they  were  executed  in 

I.  p.  470.]  June  following.     Hall,  824.] 

Hnmilton.  Tlioiiiiw  Oilbr.  Wlirwtn  l<niult)T.  [rir] 
John  KiilnitT,  nml  hiR  w\Tc.  Ilowcvfr,  •oniv  pjtjr 
latiy  Mftn  pruiM^r  U»  tbt-M.'  )it*m)n9^  u  ignunnllj 
KeaKiuik  aud  ffrioviHl  to  bflmlil  tbo  ilcvtrurtioa  vT 
tfac  ol<l  rvlifrioii  bcfure  tlim-  liii<I  n««>m<«l  any  rou- 
pcU'iit  iimtrucliiin  for  n  tifw.  Amt  thun  «ru  tbov* 
niut  iif  till'  niiMt  anrient  of  Ui<*  nurthrm 
u[  till*  Knmisli  iK'niiaaon,  w[io  in  tlic  iipxt 
tioii  bml  Mnrcvljr  TmllitM)  tlu-niwlvi'*  tkgMxn  but  they 
wt'n*  routcti  tbo  mtoikI  (imo  in  the  rvbellHUi  of  the 
t«rl«  of  NnrlbumbiTlaiii)  and  WcBtm«ivlaod. 


IbMMn      Bt  tbU  timi'  lbi<   itutninu-nta  uin|ilajx<d  tty  tbv 

OLmpJTn  l*"^l  (-'mniwoll  to  iiiaki*  ditrovfn'  of  tlio  ririinis  Utt* 

'^**'      of  munkK  niu)  frinn  were  all  n'tunusi  [u  tholr  per- 

M)ll^  or  in  tbi'ir  inlt'tlipi'-iioL>  sont  unto  blm.     lliey 

were  nifii  wbo  well  undentuoil  tbt>  mcwage  Uirjr 

went  on,  and  would  not  come  biu-k  without  a  «li»- 

bctorj  answn  to  htm   that  mmiI   thcin.  knowing 

thenuolTC*  wcro  likflj  to  he  no  Iii§«tii  tbt-ivb;^.  And 

now  Omj  h»d  fnniul  out  watvr  liimuj^  to  drive  llw 

mill,  (besidM  what  rut  hy.)  a  mfBrit-nt  ddcrtion  (a 

eflrrt  the  hudncm.     ttf  theap,  mmo  wnv   pvt  la 

eommiauon   to   vi«it   abbfra :    otbcn   moriog   bi  s 

lower  but  no  liw  nt<«dful  •phen*  of  activity'. 

TWptk.        a.    Of  tb«tte   romniiwioueni    tbc    jtriuHpal    wwf» 

33it^ra.  Rirbanl    Larlon.    'HiomAx    liifth,    William    IV<«tK 

dnct4in  of  tbe  law ;  doctor  John   London,  daan  iif 

%VallingforTl '.      Of   tbt*    thn^    furraer   I    mo    mf 

Dothiiig,   but  find  the  latt«r  (though   Piaplofed  to 

*  Lord  I  Irrfam  te  tiM  tifc  •< 
llw.  VIII  |h4>7- 

BOOK  VI.  in  Engl  ami,  38 1 

correct  others)  no  great  saint  himself;  for  after- 
wards he  was  publicly  convicted  of  perjury  ^  and 
adjudged  to  ride  with  his  face  to  the  horse's  tail 
at  Windsor  and  Ockingham,  with  papers  about  his 
head,  which  was  done  accordingly  "• 

3.  Their  power  was  partly  inquisitive,  to  search  Their  two- 
into  the  former  lives  of  religious  persons;  partly  sword, 
impositive,   to  enjoin  them  stricter  rules  for  their 
future  observation.     It  is  hard  to  say  whether  their 

eyes  were  more  prying  for  what  was  past,  or  hands 
more  heavy  for  the  time  to  come ;  and  most  true 
it  is,  that  betwixt  both,  many  monks,  formerly  lazy 
in,  were  now  weary  of,  their  present  profession. 

4.  Some   counted   their   convents   their   prisons.  Monks 

*  weary  of 

being  thus  confined ;  for  once  out  of  the  house,  their  UrtM. 
without  lawful  cause  and  leave  obtained,  and  never 
in  again.  It  was  a  fine  thing  when  they  might,  but 
sad  case  when  they  must,  live  in  their  monasteries : 
the  eighty-six  articles  of  the  visitors  (looking,  with 
Janus,  partly  backward,  partly  forward)  did  so  vex 
them,  that  many  who  had  hopes  of  others'  subsist- 
ence, cast  off  the  cowls  and  veils,  and  quitted  their 


These  visitors  were  succeeded  with  a  second  sortothen 
of  i)ublic  agents,  but  working  in  a  more  private  way,  ^  own 


t  Fox's  Acts  and  Mon.   p.  "extortions  in  time  ofvisita- 

1221,     where     is     a     picture  "  tion,  in  bribes  of  some  reli- 

thereof.  **  gious  houses,  x'»,  xx^,  and 

u  [In   the   rebellion    lately  "  forother  sums,  besides  horses, 

mentioned  one  of  the  articles  "  advowsons,  leases  under  con- 

of  their  petition  was,  that  Drs.  "  vent  seals  by  them  taken.and 

Layton  and  Lee  ''may   have  "  other  abominable  acts.**  Wee- 

'*  cimdign  punishment  for  their  ver's  Fun.  Mon.  p.  104.] 

am  TAf  Hillary  «/  Abtfy^ 

eneoonging  tho  mumben  in  moniiteriM  to  iaqMMk 

for  weing  Umm  wu  Midon  aoefc 
genenl  agreement  in  mnjr  great  oonveot,  but  \ 
fx'tioQi  won^  ruiinti  ukI  pAitioi  did  ftp|N9ar  t 
tbfw  emiiisariaf  mido  an  ftdnuUgooni  nw  t 
No  fttibej  oouM  havo  been  lo  sooo  dieliuywj  I 
canning  tetting  it  igauMt  iUel(  nd  eecnk  fl 
of  tiieir  own  divfadocw.  Wbermpoa 
aeeueed,  did  rrrriminate  their  aoeuMn 
Irai  to  RooTcr  tbt-'ir  own  innoceocy,  pi 
HclvM  b)r  plunging  oiben  in  the  Hke  , 
nthrn,  befaig  eomeioBi  to  themeette^  putMtrf 
accusing  bjr  eonfoabig  their  foaha.  and  than  vaiy 
fdul  ones ;  inaonneh  that  aome  have  ao  much  cte- 
ritr  a»  to  conceive  that  the;  x 
than  tbej  were,  though  tt  wai 
btackamoor  to  bewot  bia  own  (bee. 

9.  Yea,  foroe  bold  that  ai  witchea  long  I 
'*^vith  vatehlag  and  bating,  and  pindied  ^ 
read;  to  nod,  are  eonteotcd  caaaalaMlj  1 
theoiielTea  to  bo  eaaed  of  the  pieaent  pain.  ■ 
of  these  poor  imilt,  fr{ghtc<I  with  mcnarw.  an4 
fearing  what  might  br  tbi.'  nircrs,  acknowl«>dg«<d 
all  and  more  than  all  againat  thcmwiTn;  the  tnih 
whereof  none  on  earth  can  dedde. 


Thf>  pajtivti  Ho  hipnvlljr  romplain  (bow  jiMli;  Gad 
atono  iLniiWfth)  tliat  a  third  «>rt  of  agenla  mvat 
e«n|ilon<d,  to  practiae  on  the  cfamtity  of  tile  Dttaa,  an 
to  Miqiriae  theni  into  wantonneB.  Some  jmmg 
gallania  were  on  deiign  aent  to  am 

BOOK  VI.  in  England,  883 

fair  faces,  flattering  tongues,  store  of  gold,  and  good 
clothes,  youth,  wit,  wantonness,  and  what  else  might 
work  on  the  weaker  sex :  these  having  with  much 
craft  screwed  themselves  into  the  affections  of  nuns, 
and  brought  them  to  their  lure,  accused  them  after- 
wards to  the  king's  commissioners  for  their  incon- 
tinence. A  damnable  act,  if  true,  and  which  mind- 
eth  me  of  the  ensuing  story,  here  not  impertinently 

2.  Some  sixty  years  since  an  English  gentleman  a  uiemora- 
had  the  chastity  of  his  wife  in  suspicion,  jealous  of  a 
particular  person  who  kept  her  company.     To  put 

it  to  trial,  this  her  husband  so  contrived  the  matter, 
a  private  place  was  appointed,  with  all  accommoda- 
tions for  such  a  deed  of  darkness,  whither  the  woman 
with  her  suspected  paramour  were  by  set  design 
(but  wearing  to  them  the  visage  of  a  seeming 
casualty)  brought,  and  left  together.  Meantime  her 
husband  made  himself  master  of  a  secret  inspection 
out  of  the  next  room,  where,  with  some  of  his 
friends,  he  was  the  witness  of  his  wife's  dishonesty 
and  his  own  disgrace.  Soon  after  he  entered  his 
action,  sues  for  a  divorce,  and  the  court  seemed 
generally  inclined  to  the  granting  thereof. 

3.  But  a  reverend  judge  there  present  refused  to  sin  plot, 
consent   thereunto,  alleging  it  the   duty  of  every  **"'**^  ^' 
husband,  by  his  prayers,  counsel,  and  all  other  lawful 
means,  to  save  and  secure  the  chastity  of  his  wife, 

and  not  to  tempt  temptations  to  tempt  her,  who 
otherwise  might  charitably  be  presumed  honest,  if 
such  a  fore-plotted  occasion  had  not  debauched  her ; 
and  this  not  the  detecting,  but  first  causing  of  her 
disloyalty.  Seeing  therefore  in  some  sort  he  had 
been  a  i)ander  to  his  wife,  let  him  satisfy  himself 

in  the  nHarmiicc  or  what  wu  doubtftil  bafoni,  md 
hear  tlio  burthen  of  hU  nvm  b(>tni]riti|[  her. 
AMitaik.  4.  Iluw  just  tbb  juiljp^''*  «o»tnM«  wmb,  all  eir^ 
I  wii  rumMancv*  (.■onMilerml.  I  will  not  inti'rpatv ;  oolr  in 
i^i^Ul"  ni>|>H<*>tl»n  to  tho  |>n-M>nt  |iur|KMM^,  though  I  oaaftm 
the  relation  b<»twixt  huatiau«I  nit«)  «rifi>  ibo  atmntH, 
and  tlicrvfon'  iniMl  i>Mi>rinft  to  their  mutual  pc^ 
normtioi),  the  jictipml  princtpltv  of  n'ligion  and  Um 
communion  of  Mint*  tk*tL  all  ClirHtiaitB,  ■•  thtf 
liMiilcr  the  honour  and  glory  uf  (iod.  to  proierfc  the 
rotuoicncra  of  ntlier*  umk-iili-d.  It  was  tbeiolotv  ft 
merv  nUanical  trirk.  (who  i»  commonly  called  the 
ti'mptcr  in  iirriittun.**.)  first  to  solicit  wtab  to  i 
attd  after  the  oommitting  therM>f  to  be  on  « 
lAe  irHire»y.  And  accing  thv  ten)|rt«r  b  i 
^Itjr  than  the  t«>mpt4<d,  an  more  active  aad  i 
taiy,  no  remon  that  lu'  should  vvrape  and  the  i 
bu  punbhed.  But  all  this  dtscoorw  ainlutl^  \ 
fmindatioo  (aiUng.  nainely,  if  the  praniBBi  i 
be  (which  as  yet  are  not)  proved,  that  i 
dealing  wai  tund  in  vurprUng  of  any  volariat  i 

^^^        A.  Bat  atlU  the  paptsu  go  further,  i 
•ivn'M*.  of  false  Tvtomt,  that  maiiT  of  these  inTeiglen  of  ■ 
met  with  imimfrnitlile  |ii<<re«  of  ehastity,  (oeitl 
be  IwttenvJ  liy  fom-  mir  umlfrniiw-d  br  fraud,)! 
d»)niring  to  lie  with  their  bodlM,  did  lie  oa  I 
reputations,  making  tlieir  Aunn  to  suffer  in  1 
Imba  reports  which  they  returned  in  the  king's  c 
nilMJonum ;  and  the  following  storr  i«,  [  assure  ytm, 
tmditioiKd  with  very  much  ciedtt  amongst  our  I 

■  MalL  tv.j.anlTkw.  i 

t  It«».  >il  10. 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  385 

6.  Two  young  gentlemen  (whose  names  for  justAsaditory, 
cause  I  forbear)  went  to  a  nunnery  within  twelve 

miles  of  Cambridge,  in  the  nature  of  travellers  on 
the  highway,  who  being  handsomely  habited,  and 
late  at  night,  were  admitted  into  some  out-lodgings 
of  that  nunnery.  Next  day  their  civil  addresses  to 
the  abbess  were  returned  with  such  entertainment 
as  became  the  laws  of  hospitality.  Afterwards  (pro- 
ducing or  pretending  a  commission  to  visit  their 
convent)  they  abode  there  certain  days,  and,  how 
bad  soever  they  were,  met  with  no  counteq^art  to 
embrace  their  wanton  proffers.  However,  at  their 
return,  they  gave  it  out  that  nothing  but  their 
weariness  bounded  their  wantonness,  and  that  they 
enjoyed  those  nuns  at  their  own  command. 

7.  One  of  the  aforesaid   gentlemen,  with  great  Th«  p«ii- 

^  ^  greeofthii 

grief  and  remorse  of  heart,  did  in  private  confess  tradition, 
the  same  to  sir  William  Standly,  knight,  (afterwards 
employed  in  the  Low  Countries,)  avowing  that  no- 
thing in  all  his  life  lay  more  heavy  on  his  conscience 
than  this  false  accusation  of  those  innocents;  and 
the  said  sir  William  told  this  passage  to  a  noble 
catholic  still  alive.  All  I  will  say  to  this  story  is 
this,  that  if  this  sir  William  Stanley  was  he  who, 
contrarv  to  his  solemn  oath  to  the  earl  of  Leicester 
and  the  United  States,  betrayed  the  strong  city  of 
Deventer  to  the  Spaniards',  and  lived  many  years 
after  in  a  neglected,  forlorn  condition  *,  one  so  faith- 
less in  his  deeds  may  be  presumed  false  in  his  words, 
and  the  whole  credit  of  the  relation  may  justly  at 
l(*ast  be  suspected. 

z  Cjinul.  Eliz.  in  anno  1587,  «  IdcMn.  ibidem. 

!>•  5^7- 

1-  ri.LER,  vol..  III.  r  c 

Tht  Hittofy  qf  AUey* 


JjJJJJ^'       It  u  mnfrMod  by  uiipartial  i>poplr.  Hud  wime 

""■f       motmrtrriM  of  I»oth   pcxr*,  Mug  pot  to  the  tm. 

rnkhf       appcwfd  very  eommcDtlahlr  in  their  bi'luTJoar,  •• 

titat  tilt'  leftBt  uprmon  rouli)  ant  jii«lty  be  c 

tb(>m.     I  read  in  one  author'*,  ttuit  **  Mimo 

bi-hAVot)  thrmnc'lTcs  ho  wi'll,  that  thnir  Hvr«  i 

not   iiiiIt   cxciiipt    rmm   noloruios   faults,    bat   I 

f|«ro  time*  bo«tMwei)    in    writinff  (KMiks.   | 

rarril,  t'tifrrsvinjf :  m>  that  thvjr  visitorv  bmuat  I 

t(>rrf«wor»  for  th«-m."     Amoiif^i  thfue  th«  naniMfj 

of  UfxlKUm,   near  OxfnnI,  must    not   lie  forfOttm, 

wbiuii.  a»  it  hath  a  fsooA  name.  Ibcinjr  a  nctlirt,  that 

i»,  (lotro  h(»iuir  or  habitation.)  wHI  answrrtnl  tbvrr- 

unto  In  the  romlitioiut  of  ibp  |M>ri|>lo  liTing  ihrmn. 

■*•*  9.  But   then.'   wi-n*   fpw   tnu*h   blark   smuia,  aaA 

NmtU    thm*    innocent    ronventii,    Itring    inronn<l«rabl»   la 

number,  could    not    presorrp   ihr    rmt    from    nun. 

Kij^ht  ant]  one  picFUS  pcnons  aiv  insufficient  to  mt« 

Soiloni  from  destruction,  if  ten  be  the  lownt  tnaBfaar 

to  whirh  divim*  merrT  will  dntrvnd*. 

Kiorsi.v  VUIOIS. 

I  Mj  the  jfeneraliiT :  othmrtK*.  take  nny  noa*- 
nrnn  (torifty,  and  *iwtv  then-  Ik-  many  |i 
will  the  many  ofrendf-m.  there  beinjr  a  Cham  a 
the  ei};ht  in  the  ark  ^  yea,  a  Cain  amonjp*  thm  I 
primitive  (lenoiu  in  the  Iteginninjr  of  ibc  world* 
I  add  aljKi  notorimuly  vicioui.  for  in  Many  iAiajft  m 

*  I^W    llrtbcrt    in    llrnrt  '  Om.  tIL  7. 

V'lll.  f  jw.  <  U«L  if.  I. 


in  England. 



offend  aU^.  Yea,  if  the  visitors  had  been  visited, 
they  were  conscious  to  themselves  of  many  failings, 
which  might  make  them  more  &vourably  to  reflect 
on  the  infirmities  of  others. 

2.  Here  I  shall  present  the  reader  with  a  black  ^^  wj 
bill  of  some  eminent  malefiEtctors,  as  I  find  them  intii^ 
my  author  in  the  same  nature  ^. 

In  Battle  Abbey. 
John  Abbot,  N 

Richard  Salchurst, 
Thomas  Cuthbert, 
William  March, 
John  Hasting, 
Gregory  Champion, 
Clement  Westfield, 
John  Crosse, 
Thomas  Crambrooke, 
Thomas  Bayll,    * 
John  Hamfield, 
John  Jherom, 
Clement  Origge, 
Richard  Tovey, 
John  Austine,  / 

In  Canterbury. 
Richard  Gomersham,  ^ 
William  Lichfield, 
John  Goldingston, 
Nicholas  Clement^ 
William  Cawston, 
John  Ambrose, 
Thomas  Farley, 
Thomas  Morton,        J 

^  James  lii.  3.  Great  Brit.  p.  791,  x  =  ioft7< 

ST  John    Speed's    Hist,    of    ool.  i. 



S88  The  nUtory  ofAhhe^M  bom  ti. 

(*hriHt4)|)her  Janicti  kept  S  niarritHl  wbonm. 

In  St.  A  iiffUAtinr. 
Tlioiiias  Rarhani,  a  whoremonger  and  a  Kodomit**. 

//I  Chichester . 

John  Champion  and  Rof^er  Karliam,  b(»th  of  them 

unnatural  KodoniiU*fi. 

In  CatheHrnl  Church. 
John  Hill  hail  no  K*sii  than  IS  wlioren. 

In  Windsor  Castle. 

Nichohui  Whvden  hail  4^ 

(itHirpe  Whitethorn  kept  5  ' 

NicholoA  Spoter  kept  5    whoren, 

ItolN'rt  Ilunne  had  5 

Uohvri  DanvHon  kept  6 

In  Shulhred  Monfuterjf. 
(teorpe  Walden,  prior  of 


ShullinnK  hail 

John  Standnevhail  at  \m 

,    '  .    whore*, 

eommand  7 

Nieholaj4  Duke,  to  mipply      | 

hifi  venerr,  had  5 

In  ltri.%tmr, 
William,  ablM»t  of  Bristow,  kept  4  whom. 

In  Mnydcpi'limdleff. 
RichanK  prii»r  of  Mayden-Bnidley,  kept  5  wborm. 

In  Itath  Monastert/. 

RirhanI  l^ineouilK*  hud  7  whorem  and  n^'at  also  a 


BOOK  VI.  ffi  England.  9$0 

In  Abingdon  Monastery. 

Thomas,  abbot  of  Abingdon,  kept  S  whores,  and  had 

two  children  by  his  own  sister. 

In  Bermondsejf  Abbey. 

John  White,  prior,  or  rather  bull  of  Bennondsey, 

had  20  whores. 

I  find  this  catalogue  only  in  the  third  edition  of 
Speed,  proving  it  a  posthume  addition  after  the 
author's  death,  attested  in  the  maigin  with  the  au- 
thority of  Henry  Steven  his  Apology  for  Herodotus  \ 
who  took  the  same  out  of  an  English  book,  contain- 
ing the  Vileness  discovered  at  the  Visitation  of 
Monasteries.  Thus  this  being  but  the  report  of  a 
foreigner,  and  the  original  at  home  not  appearing, 
may  justly  abate  in  their  belief  of  the  full  latitude 
of  this  report.  Indeed  tradition  is  the  only  author 
of  many  stories  in  this  nature,  amongst  which  the 
ensuing  story  entitleth  itself  to  as  much  probability 
as  any  other. 

3.  One  sir  Henry  C!olt,  of  Nether  Hall  in  iheA«iti^ 
county  of  Essex,  much  in  fiftvour  with  Idng  Henry 
the  Eighth  for  his  merry  conceits,  suddenly  took  his 
leave  of  him  late  at  night,  promising  to  veait  on  bis 
grace  early  the  next  morning.  Hence  he  hastened 
to  Waltham  Abbey,  being  informed  by  his  setters 
that  the  monks  thereof  would  return  in  the  ni|^t 
from  Cheshunt  nunnery,  where  they  had  secretly 
quartered  themselves.  Sir  Heniy  pitched  a  buck- 
stall,  wherewith  he  used  to  take  deer  in  the  forest, 
in  the  narrowest  place  of  the  marsh  where  they 

^  Cap.  ai»  fol.  183. 

cc  8 


TAt  IfUlmy  ttf  AlAeyi 

wvrv  to  poM  over,  loaTing  ■ome  of  bb  ( 
to  managt'  i\w  mmw. 

4.  Tlie  moaki  mmiog  out  of  tbe  tinnoarjr,  1 
.  ft  great  noho  tnadv  iMfbiod  thvm,  ooil  nupvctinf  lo 

bo  diacDvetv).  jiut  out  tbt'  lifflit  llirv  liatj  with  Uiem. 
whow  feet  without  i^of  coald  find  the  way  hoow  ia 
»o  tued  ft  pftlfa.  Mftking  mora  hftit*  tlwB  food 
fpeod,  they  tmn  thonuclTet  ftll  into  the  not.  Tto  . 
next  morninff  sir  II.  Colt  liroafrhl  ftod 
thvin  lo  king  Hcury,  who  had  oft«n  Na 
but  nevn-  fatter  Teowon. 

5.  Here  I  canoot  bclievo  what  b  nHnmotily  told 
of  aoder-grooDd  nulta  leading  from  fHaiie*  to  nna- 
Dvrin,  eonl^itnl  hj  t\w  situation  of  the  |tlac«,  thioagh 
rocki  bnpmbalily  and  under  n\cn  impo«ibte  lo  be 
conTcjml.  Surely  Itail  Waltham  monk*  had  waj 
•Dcfa  ffubtemnoaa  eoatrirancM,  tbc^  would  wmnvt 
bftve  made  use  of  to  open  ft  pa— ge;  and  aneii 
raulu  extant  at  thbi  day  in  manv  abbetv  cstAod 
but  a  few  pavca,  gvnenlly  oaed  for  the  ranrvranc* 
of  water,  or  KWen  to  eany  away  the  filth  of  tb« 

6.  More  improbable  it  }%  what  ia  goaerftlly  r^ 
ih4r  Urn.  potted,  tbftt  ftUpots  made  provisif>n  for  their  liuts  on 

their  leftMi,  eq}oining  their  ti-nanti  lo  fumi>h  them, 
ft!  with  wood  and  eonla,  to  with  fuH  for  tltrir  wan- 
A  reverand  divine '  bath  iufenned  me  that 

'  Mr.8««pli.U«»UU.  Llh  into  giMiw  AnfMi.  Mi  w 
«■«  MM  of  tW  HwiiiiMMJ^  btor  ih»  ■■iirfciiJ  asd  ■ 
(•M  ColUvr,  Eoci  HM.  U.  p.    ffmttinm  wi  tha  TJAin^  wkv 

ihM- ftwl  tol«  wM  ia*vM>d    «>«pl>  of  Mk%  li 
to  hriH  (^  raliciHH  ^mm    aadfliiMll^tU 


in  England, 


he  hath  seen  such  a  passage  on  a  lease  of  the  abbey 
of  Essex,  where  the  lessee  was  enjoined  yearly  to 
])rovi(le  unafn  clnram  et  lepidam  pueUamy  ad  pur- 
fjandos  renes  domini  abbatis, 

7.  It  was  never  my  hap  to  behold  any  instrument  chanty 
with  such  a   lustful   clause  or  wanton   reservation  doubtful 
therein,  and  shall  hardly  be  induced  to  believe  it:*^^"^ 
first,  because  such  turpis  conditio  was  null  in  the 

very  making  thereof;  secondly,  because  it  was  con- 
trary to  the  Charta  Magna^  as  I  may  call  it,  of 
nionastical  practice,  si  non  castCy  tamen  caute ;  where- 
fore what  private  compact  soever  was  by  word  of 
mouth  made  betwixt  them  upon  their  leases  parole, 
sure  all  abbots  were  (if  not  so  honest)  so  discreet, 
that  no  act  in  scriptis  should  remain,  which  on 
occasion  might  publicly  be  produced  against  them. 

8.  As  for  the  instances  of  their  private  incon-ASodom 
tinence,  they  are  innumerable.     I  will  insist  but  inlJlmn^. 
one  happening  just  at  this  juncture  of  time,  and 
which  may  be  presumed  very  operative  to  the  ruin 

of  such  religious  houses. 

'*  A  Lettorey  certefying  the  Incontynensye  of  t/ie  Nuns 
'*  ^if  *^J/on  with  the  FrioreSj  and  aftore  tlie  acte 
*'  done  the  Friores  reconsile  tliem  to  God. 

''  To  the  right  honourable  Master  Thomas  Crom- 
'*  well,  chief  secretary  to  the  king's  highnesse. 

relijijious  houses.  (Burnet,  Ref. 
I.  p.  484.)  Nor  is  Cromwell 
or  his  friends  by  any  means 
free  from  these  imputations. 
There  are  many  letters  to  him 
in  wliich  lie  is  requested  by 
one  or  another  to  bestow  upon 
them  this  or  that  priory ;  others. 

again,  in  which  money  is  offered 
to  him  for  his  favour  in  these 
matters,  which  certainly  would 
not  have  been  made  to  one  who 
was  severely  upright,  as  those 
employed  in  such  proceedings 
especially  ought  to  be.  Cotton 
MSS.  Cieop.  E.  iv.  125.  orig.] 

c  c  4 

Th*  Hitlary  t^  AUIityt 

"  U  majro  pli««c  Tour  ipMidncMo  to 
*■  tfaat  BMiopv^  this  (lay  )>TvclHNi,  sod  dvckivd  tha 
"  kynjte'a  tjrU'llv  very  well,  ant)  htuAv  b  gnt«  aodv^ 
"  wi»e,  iho  chfiirbo  full  nf  pi>opU'.  Ono  of  like 
**  Pocnn'  ill  Ui»  Hud  declaretirtn  niieiilr  rallt<d  hha 
"  blM*  kiwvf.  with  (rtlicr  foolish  wonln:  it  «-»  tbe 
**  f(M>liiih  fi-llnir  with  lh«  mrlml  hcmtl  that  kucvled 
**  in  yiiur  n*ajre  when  yrMi  ctaav  ftitib  nf  tho  coaA^ 
**  M>n''i>  chambtT.  I  ran  du  le«e  doe  but  fvt  hfM 
"  in  prtDune,  ui  ptrna  tjus  Mtl  mehu  alionnm.  Ye^ 
**  tonlay  I  Ir^unc**!  niniiT  cnormuia  thin]^  agmiaat 
"  BiwJi<i]i(\  ill  tbi>  cxaiiiiiiatini)  nf  tbv  lar  bivderm : 
**  tint  thai  UiMliii{ti*  pfniwidc>tl  (owe  of  tbu  facnS»- 
"  iTiw  to  have  (tone  tbi-in*  wiiyiis  by  Dlgbt,  Mid  W 
"  hiinsolfc  «iih  thciii.  wii)  to  the  arcompUilinwat  of 
"  that  they  JM'kcil  but  money  to  buy  thrm  wcwiw 
"  Bppandl ;  furtbrr.  Ibat  BtMhope  wonld  have  pcf^ 
**  awKded  onv  uf  bii>  lay  brvd«nm,  a  miitbr,  to  hav» 
**  made  a  kny  for  the  doan-,  to  ban'  in  the  nijrbt- 
**  tilDO  rvoeiTcd  in  Wfocbi-M  fur  him  and  bi»  fcMowci^ 
"  and  eqicctally  a  wiflb  uf  riobrii)){f,  now  dwt>IUtig 
**  not  bnv  from  the  old  lady  Derby.  nifHi  I'lcbridg*^ 
**  which  w1  A  hb  old  ruatoaier  bath  byno  tnany  tinea 
**  tuTo  at  tbi*  ;rntp)i  roounaninf  with  the  aid  Bi»> 
*■  pluiy.  and  miirbu  bi>  wva  deairoua  to  haw  liada  far 
"  ronvryml  In  to  him.  Tie  Mud  BiHbop  also  far* 
**  twadf'd  a  uurine,  to  whom  Ih<  wan  cnafuaoar.  W 
"  lAidimftm  carporu  pnim/tlemdam  ;  and  thtu  he  pa^ 
"  awadod  her  in  conioanuu,  making  her  to  beUmSb 
**  that  wheuioeTer  and  aa  ofte  aa  tbey  AM 
**  together,  if  abe  wetv  fannodMtriy  ^ter 

k  1I«  WM  OM  of  frhn  who.     tbr  Brifltka  Mm 
■— «itit  In  tki   eoMitttwtiM         '  I  ea 
■f  fMU  nrdn'.  brpd  bn*  with    mmw. 

BOOK  VI.  in  EnglamL  399 

by  him,  and  tooke  of  him  absolution,  she  shold 
be  cleerc  forgeven  of  God,  and  it  shold  be  none 
offence  unto  her  before  God  ;  and  she  writte 
diveres  and  sundrye  lettores  unto  him  of  such 
their  foolishnesse  and  unthriftynesse,  and  wold 
have  had  his  brother  the  smithe  to  have  pulled 
out  a  barre  of  iron  of  y^  window,  whereas  ye  exa- 
niyned  the  ladye  abbas,  that  he  might  have  gone 
in  to  her  by  night ;  and  that  same  window  was 
their  commoning  place  by  night  *".  He  perswaded 
the  sextene  that  he  would  be  in  his  contemplacion 
in  the  chorche  by  night,  and  by  that  meanes  was 
many  nightes  in  the  chorche  talking  with  her  at 
the  saide  grate  of  the  nunnes  quire,  and  there 
was  their  meeting-place  by  night,  besides  their 
dav  communications,  as  in  confession.  It  were 
too  long  to  declare  all  thinges  of  him  that  I  have 
heard,  which  I  suppos  is  true.  This  aftemoone  I 
intend  to  make  forder  serche,  both  of  some  of  the 
brederen,  and  some  also  of  the  sisters  of  such  like 
matteres :  if  I  fynde  any  thing  apparent  to  be 
true,  I  shall  (God  willing)  thereof  certify  your 
mastorshipe  to  morow,  by  vij.  in  the  momyng. 
And  after  this  daye  I  suppos  there  vrill  be  no 
other  thinges  to  be  knowne  as  yet  here ;  for  I 
have  already  examined  all  the  brederen,  and  many 
of  them  wold  gladly  departe  hense,  and  be  ryghte 
weary  of  their  habbyte.  Such  religion  and  fained 
sanctetye  God  save  me  free.  If  Master  Bedyll 
had  byne  here  a  frior,  and  of  Bisshops  counsell, 
he  wold   right  welle  have   helped   him  to  have 

n™  This  copy  uiis  taken  out  of    sir  Simon    Dewes.     [I    have 
the  MS.  letters  in  the  library  of    coilateU  it  with  the  original.] 


The  /Ii%iory  €f/  .iUtrys 


"  liroghte  hiH  inaltor  to  jtaiwo,  without  brt^krin^ 
**  ii]>|K»  of  niiy  ^rate  or  yet  countt-rfetttiig  of  ke«Tt-m, 
**  piiirli  c*:i|>assM*tyc  G^mI  hath  S4*nt  him. 

'•  Kniin  Svoiif,  thi«i  S»n<lavi\  xij.  lKTcnihri!«.  Bv 
*•  thr  ^|K.»i*i|y  hand  of  your  as-Min**!  |MH>r  |irit<^t, 

••  HU'IIAKO  LAYTtiN  "." 

We  will  conrhiile  this  clisc«»urv*  with  oiu*  ob>M*r- 
vatioiL  how  thnuiph  i^ioranct*  the  tnie  nu*aiiiii)(  «»f 
that  wonl  rrr/usf*  wa»  in  that  ag^*  abumMl :  for  in 
pure  l^atin  it  fiijnJiifieth  «Mie  net  ojien,  or  let  hntm*  to 
his  own  lilM*rtv  : 

wht*n*aH  n*rlu«i4>  wan  taken  in  that  a;;«*  for  one  rlikotr 
fihnt  up ;  so  that  many  monkn  an«l  frian  wi-rt* 
nvhiM^s  indeiNl,  not  in  the  romm«>n  ar«H*pti«»tu  t»ut 
tnit*  notation  of  that  name  p. 

*'  'I  iii«  xt.m  ntii*  i»f  till*  jiriiiH* 
%-ii»it«»r<»  .it'i*ri*itu*tit!(»iif«|. 

"   H'lr.  lilr.  i.  ijiiit    ;. 

P  '  Thi*  j:i'iii'r.i!  %'iMt4tit>ii  i»f 
thr  limn  i*trrirn  )if;;aii  in  tlif 
month  nt*  OotoU'r.  .iiui  m  Fi*- 
liru.irv  ti»l!<>v%:ii^.  .1  |iirl:.itiifiit 
!ii*ini:  l»flil  .»t  \\'i"»tinin*t«*r. 
tlK*%4'  i:ii»n'»triMi'»  ri'|i  »rt*  «■!*  ili-* 
Ci*<iii!ii<»<*i'»:i«-rn  w-Tv  fiTtjtiril  . 
U|Min  %« )•>«  li  .(  \..t^  ri  %i|\  I  il  \h  tt 
till'  lr"«*«  r  \%u*\i  i^!t'ri»  *  i"  Fuiirr 
Im*  111  '>lii«iiifi  In'  ;;i\  I'll  til  t!>t* 
ktii'^  Hut  («>!n.iki*ttii%urrripl«  r 
i»f  thi'^i'  tiniiM*^  tht'  niiiri*  «'.i«\ , 
till*  ti»lliuni^  I.  •■.i%nr«'%  \\%t** 
ailojpti  il.  .!'•  (!t-%(  rilH-tl  liv  \\  «M*- 
y%*T  '  Kir-i  nt  .ill.  f*  »r  nri  iji- 
*'  tr<M!  irtioti  t.i  til  it  u!m«  h  t  »l- 
••  Utwt  i|.  i  r«ii,'*i!l  iikI  tl..'  ri'^t 
**  «if   thr  «i«it«ir^    111    tlir.r  \.<>i- 

**  tatii>n«  |>iit  f.>rth  itf  th«-ir 
*'  ciin%rnt«  all  ri-lip«>u«  |Mfr«iin« 
**  «lt**irtni  til  l«c  raird  iff 
**  the  hurthrnnu«  mkr  <»f  tb«  ir 
'*  |irt»fi-%«iiin.toHhi>in  tlie«l»liiic 
"  or  priiir  \kjk%  ti»  ^\%c  to  ftuch 
"  iMi  dt*|»artr<l  Un  th«rir  h^htt  m 
**  |iri«*%t*«  p>un.anil  fiirtv  Uiil. 
*'  ttntr^  of  nioni*\  ;  thi*  itun«  U* 
"  h4v<*  kiii-h  ap|»ar«*l  ««  Mfctil^r 
"  1% •linen  w.»ri*.  MhJ  tt»  ,;o  «ih;> 
"  thrr  thrv  unulil.  Thrv  put 
"  fiirtti  lik«*wi«r  all  rrhii^toLk 
"  |M'r«4>n%  that  vtrrrv  under  tk«* 
"  ap*  of  ti»«UtMrnt%  ^rttr«. 
"  ami  iftir\«ariU  rh»^^l  U|i  tl.<* 
'*  rf«i«liii*  that  wiiiiM  rrttiAir 
*  stt  that  till')  i'oiiiil  n«»C  con.<* 
*'  iiiit  i>t'  thrir  |ilac^*«  .  Afiftl  t««*k 
*'  itrih-r  tl  at  ii<»  nun  »li«>tilU 
"  t.*(»uu*  t*t  tbv  L«>um*«  \*(  »( 


in  Englaml. 



Sanders  saith  that  kins:  Henry  sent  a  laree  instru-  Monk*  pw- 
ment  to  ever}'  monastery,  fairly  engrossed  in  parch- a  rewgna- 
nient,  enjoining  them  all  to  subscribe,  sign,  and  seal 
the  same  with  their  seal  conventual,  Upon  the  pain 
of  his  displeasure.  It  is  not  probable  that  such  a 
fonnal  wTiting  was  sent  unto  them,  drawn  up  before- 
hand by  the  king's  officers ;  but  most  certain  it  is, 
^vhiclTamounts  almost  to  as  much  in  effect,  a  general 
intimation  was  given  to  all  houses  how  acceptable 
such  an  act  would  be  to  the  king.  It  was  also 
j)ressed  upon  the  said  monks,  friars,  and  nuns,  that 
they,  through  their  viciousness,  being  obnoxious  to 
the  king's  anger,  this  might  and  would  be  done 
without  their  consent;  so  that  it  was  better  for 
them,  rebus  sic  stantibus^  to  make  a  virtue  of  neces- 
sity ;  the  rather  because  this  compliment  conduced 
nothing  to  the  king's  right,  (on  whom  the  parliament 
had  already  bestowed  those  abbey-lands,)  but  might 
add  nmch  to  their  own  advantage,  as  being  the 
way  whereby  their  pensions  might  the  more  easily 
be  procured,  largely  allotted,  and  surely  satisfied 
unto  them. 

*•  nor  women  to  the  houses  of 
*'  men,  but  only  to  hear  their 
*  servici*  in  the  church.  This 
*'  little  bondage,  after  so  long 
'*  and  so  licentious  a  time  of 
"  libertv, could  not  be  endured; 
"  which  being  perceived  by  the 
**  connnissioners,  with  fair  pro- 
**  mises  of  other  preferments 
'•  or  competent  yearly  pensions 
**  they  so  wrought  with  the 
"  abbots,  j)riors,  and  prioresses. 

*'  and  the  rest  of  the  convents, 
"  that  divers  of  them  surreu- 
*•  dered  up  their  houses,  with 
"  the  appurtenances,  into  the 
**  king*s  hands  before  the  sit- 
**  ting  of  parliament."  Fun. 
Mon.  p.  105.  Of  the  abomi- 
nable frauds  committed  in  the 
suppression  of  the  abbeys,  see 
an  original  paper  presented  to 
queen  Elizabeth,  printed  by 
the  same  author,  p.  1 24.] 

396  Thr  /Alia 

a  9.  Tliu  pn!iniM<«  made  taeli  InprtMioii  on  th* 
particfi  Minrcmeil  thervJn.  that  (V«riag  the  lag  wwiM 
bv  l(N>kfd  on  with  tiad  vyea,  ibfT*  ran  u  it  1 
rare  in  thoir  r(mjtniAtif>in>.  wbn  ihoold  be  ill 
fcMT>m«iet  therein,  llowvrer  tb(>j  used  aoTCiml 
tiKit'io.  f.\mv  onlr  rnndemnii^  their  Urea  for  • 
stjttntu,  but  not  eoniraring  tlMnaelTea  pcraoaaUy 
tMoiu,  na  hy  the  followirtg  ii 

•*  The  Siirrtmdfr  dfike  Warden  mid  Fryer$  vf 

**  St.  Fraaeit  in  Stamford  '. 
"  For  aa  iBorbt<  iw  we.  the  wardm  and  (roets  of 
**  the  howfo  or  Saj'nt  FnuictM  in  Sunnforde,  coaMoly 
**  callvd  thv  graj  frei*n  in  StannfoHc^  in  the  eoon^ 
"  of  Liueiiln,  duo  pnifoundlj^  roncid«-*r  that  the  par> 
**  feceioa  of  Cbriatian  Ijring  dotho  not  connate  bi 
**  done  coroBKmiea,  werTng  of  a  jpvy  onntic,  dia- 
"  jpm^g  our  tplffe  after  utranngo  (umuiu,  dokyng 
**  and  berkjug.  in  gunlynff  owr  ael^  vyth  a  guidle 
"  full  of  kmitA,and  oUwr  like  papistical!  rvrpniunje^ 
"  whi'rvin  wc  lia^c  b,ni  niooat  prinrijiallr  pnrtnetl 
"  and  miwoi-lyl  in  trnuti  iin»t ;  1>ut  thi<  wnr  tni  wajv 
**  to  plottiM*  (jinI,  and  to  lire  a  tnic>  Chrutian  ouui, 
**  wjihc  owte  oil  TpocraMie  and  fiiTTved  diaunnlalion, 
>*  it  MDcecrir  ilcclarrd  unto  us  hy  owt  Ma«tcr  (liriita^ 
**  bit  FTangrliata  and  apnrtole«.  Bring  tnitu 
"  after  to  folowe  the  nmo.  rourortnjmg  owr  I 
"  uDto  the  will  and  plcasuro  of  owr  i 
**  undre  God  in  erthe,  tlio  Kingva  Klaiei^,  t 
**  to  follow  beoflftitth  the  aaperrtMooa  I 

«  OaloitWramrdi  ef  iW  M»ton,  iMrttr  of  tU 
C<wt  of  AanMrtabMi.  [Ant  mmution  iMiar.  \m  %i» 
print«4    fav  Whtw.  wIm   fv     Mm.  a.  •■!».] 

HOOK  VI.  in  England,  397 

"  oiiy  forincycall  potentate  or  poore,  wythe  mutuall 
assent  and  consent  doo  submytt  owr  selffes  unto 
the  mercy  of  owr  saide  soveraygn  lorde  ;  and 
"  wythe  like  mutuall  assent  and  consent  doo  surren- 
"  der  and  yelde  upe  imto  the  hands  of  the  same  ail 
"  owr  saide  howse  of  Saynt  Frances  in  Stannforde, 
"  comenly  callyd  the  grey  Friers  in  Stannforde,  wythe 
*^  all  lands,  tenements,  gardens,  medowes,  waters, 
pondyards,  fedyngs,  pastures,  comens,  rentes,  re- 
versions, and  all  other  our  interest,  lyghtes,  or 
tytles  aperteynyng  unto  the  same ;  mooste  humbly 
besechyng  his  mooste  noble  grace  to  disspose  of 
"  us  and  of  the  same  as  best  schall  stonde  wythe 
"  his  mooste  graciouse  pleasure ;  and  farther,  frely 
"  to  grant  unto  every  on  of  us  his  licens  imdre 
"  wretynge  and  seall  to  change  our  abites  into  seculer 
"  fassion,  and  to  receve  suche  manor  of  livyngs  as 
"  other  seculer  pristes  comenly  be  preferryd  unto : 
"  and  we  all  faythfuUy  schall  prey  unto  AUmyghty 
"  Cod  long  to  preserve  his  mooste  noble  grace,  wythe 
"  encrease  of  moche  felicitie  and  honor. 

"  And  in  witnes  of  all  and  singuler  the  premysses, 
"  we  the  saide  warden  and  covent  of  the  grey  fireers 
"  in  Stannforde  to  these  presentes  have  putte  owr  co- 
"  vent  sceall  the  yeght  day  of  Octobre,  in  the  thirtythe 
'^  yere  of  the  raygn  of  owr  mooste  soverayn  kinge 
'*  Henry  the  Yeght. 

"  Factum  Johannis  Schemy,  gardian : 
"  Per  me  Frairem  Johannem  Robards. 
"  Per  me  Fratrem  Johannem  Chadwhort. 
"  Pel'  me  Frairem  Ricardum  Pye. 
'*  Per  me  Fratrem  Johannem  Clarke. 
"  Per  me  Fratrem  Johannem  Quoyte. 

I'ht  tlUlon,  '/  AUi^» 

I  JoliBiinoni  OemauL 

"  Prr  mf  Fratrrm  J 

"  Per  me  f'nstrrm  Johumrm  Von|f. 

•*  Per  me  pmtrrm  Jnhartttrm  Ijon^, 

"  Per  me  Fnirem  >>'iHiplniain  Tomaoa'.* 

9.  Other  roMKnaliont  wiiv  Tar  more  humMe  and 
mbmiMdvc,  with  an  M-'knovU-djrminit  of  tbcir  fiekiai 
'  and  roUiptunua  livpn  :  nirli  wax  itip  KumiMlrr  maAc 
tiT  ihf  prior  hikI  convent  of  St.  AndivirV  In  N'orth- 
atnpton,  which,  bcraUM'  Tory  lodiotu,  wc  fthall  oolj 
tnuitcribe  m  raQch  thereof  m  roarcraelh  nor  p 

"  But  OA  wdl  wc  u  otlmv  owr  pmlpceMon,  eall]r4 
**  n>ligiuuM<  iierwne*  within  Tuwr  «id  nuMiaatocj.  tak- 
"  m^  un  tu  tbi'  liabtio  or  owtvwardo  vMtufv  of  the 
"  Mitk'  ntlo,  onely  to  the  i»tt>nt  to  lead  o%rr  Kflka  la 
"  an  Tdcll  qurctmw,  and  not  in  vvrtuote  Ktiereyim, 
"  in  a  ftatolj  ratTmacion,  and  not  in  obedient  bs- 
"  niyljrte,  )iavc  undrc  the  shadowe  or  enlor  of  tbe 
"  nidr  rate  and  habitc  n)-nlT,  dK4>*tablT,  and  abo 
"  ungudly  cniploTud,  Tua  rather  devnwred  tbe  Jtnij 
"  revenue*  vwuinff  and  c(*mynfr  of  tbe  latde  | 
**  mow^  in  contynuall  tngurgttaciont  and  iarrrnga  at 
**  owr  caiaj-ne  lx>dyes.  and  of  otbcfa  the  mpportana 
**  of  owr  vuluptiKiae  and  carnal  appetyta,  witb  other 
**  tarne  aiul  anKudty  expennv,  to  the  manyleat  wah- 
**  rcrtinn  of  dcvoclon  and  cleiuuii  of  \y\yag,  and  to 
**  the  matt  notable  klaundcr  of  ChrrsU  boly  E*aB- 

«t  tniKtli  in  Wi«Ttv.  ib.  p 

rJBivd  mj*,  ~  Tls  Immmf  h  ■■  Mt 

idb.)  -*pntl^  IW  UaJk  m>U  nd 

•  [Ofltlra   M8N.  Clmi.  E.  "  wtan^ttA ;    iW   farm*  In 
i«.  p.  131  orig.    L«;lMi.l>iUa 
iMtrr  10  Cranwrll  ramdiM 

ih«    I  iiMliii  wl  tUa  cMfW,  -  y^*.-] 




HOOK  VI.  in  EufrlaniL  399 

*'  gely,  which  in  the  forme  of  owr  professyon  we 
dyd  ostentate  and  openly  advaunte  to  kepe  most 
exactly  ;  withdrawyng  therby  from  the  symple 
and  pure  myndys  of  yowr  graces  subjects  the 
onely  truth  and  comfort  which  they  oughte  to  have 
by  the  true  faith  of  Christe ;  and  also  the  devyne 
honor  and  glory  onely  due  to  the  glorious  maiestye  of 
(iod  Almyghty,  steryng  them  with  all  persuasions, 
ingynes,  and  polyce,  to  dedd  images  and  counter- 
"  fett  reliques,  for  owr  dampnable  lucre :  which  our 
"  most  horryble  abhominacions  and  execrable  per- 
suacions  of  yowr  graces  people,  to  detestable 
errours,  and  our  long  coveryd  ipocrysie  cloked 
with  fayned  sanctite ;  we  revolving  dayly  and  con- 
tinually ponderyng  in  owr  sorrowfuU  harts,  and 
thorby  perseyving  the  botomlas  gulf  of  everlastyng 
fyre  redy  to  devowre  us  if  persysting  in  this  state 
of  lyving,  we  shulde  departe  from  this  uncertayn 
''  and  transytory  liffe,  constrayned  by  the  intollerable 
''  anguysh  of  owr  conscience,  callyd  as  we  trust  by 
"  the  grace  of  God,  who  wolde  have  no  man  to  perysh 
*'  in  synno,  with  harts  moost  contrite  and  repentante, 
"  prostrate  at  the  noble  feet  of  yowr  moost  roiall 
*'  maiestye,  most  lamentably  doo  crave  of  yowr 
"  highnes,  of  yowr  habundant  mercy,  to  grant  unto 
*'  us,  most  grevous  agaynst  God  and  yowr  highnes 
'*  yowr  most  gracious  perdon  for  owr  saide  sondry 
'*  offences,  omyssyons,  and  negligences  comytted, 
"  as  before  by  us  is  confessyd,  agaynst  yowr  highnes 
*'  and  yowr  most  noble  progenitors ;  and  where  yowr 
"  hyghnes,  being  supreme  hedd  immediately  next 
''  aft  re  Christe,  of  his  church,  in  this  yowT  roialme  of 
''  England,  so  consequently  generall  and  only  refor- 
"  mator  of  all  religious  persones  there,  have  full  au- 




Tht  Hittani  uf  AlAf* 

-  ihoritT  to  eomcU!  or  dyMolTe,  at  yowr  | 
**  jilcaMm'  »n<l  libertye,  all  eownti  uaA  Mripatia 
**  cumjMuiTiMi  abainrng  tbe  rowln  of  ihcir  prnfranno  : 
"  uul  mfiFfoviT  to  Towr  faif^biiM,  licinfr  owr  towrmvfa 
"  Ion]  uid  iitiiIoubt4Ml  fouD'ler  of  jowr  nitic  oinwi 
"  trry.  br  diwoludon  wlicrcof  np)M*rteynrth  oaelj 
"  llii>  nrrginsll  tittf  and  pmpre  inhoTTtauc*,  ■•  wdl 
"  of  nil  ntliur  j^uckI*  mnrcablc  uid  uniuov««ble,  lo 
**  tbr  nido  niuniutnj  in  my  wjw  ■pptitTTnin^  or 
"  U'liJitging.  to  he  clivpoanl  mod  iiii])luVNl  w  la  jroiwr 
"  grmee*  moat  exc«ll«at  wjuiomm  ahdl  mne  exp*- 
**  djt>nl  aod  nece— ry,"  &c 

**  P(T  wf  Fnorbcum,  priorew. 
**  /Vr  Mr  Joluuin4>in,  mib'^mwma. 
"  f*rr  me  Tlmmani  SitijUi. 
"  Per  mr  TlKtuuiiii  (ladAton. 
**  Prr  mr  Il«b*rtum  Mutin. 
"  Prr  mr  Joritbuiu  IlopkiiM. 
"  Per  me  llM'liarduni  [tunbriy. 
**  Prr  me  JohauiH-m  I'ellc, 
*•  Per  me  Jotiuintti)  llivmld. 
*•  Prr  me  TlioniAiii  [lortr. 
"Per  me  Wjlliflmum  Ward, 
"  Per  me  Tbonuuii  Atlrrbury. 
-Prr  me  WUIk-lmiim  Fowler'." 

fKh«*r  n^a^ipuilioiM.  iitrriiifr  in   thoir  woi 
for  the  main  in  tbe  maili-r,  and  trt^n*  with  all  i 
firvt'tUfA  tn  thi'  kin^'ft  Ttnlon.    A*  tdKMdlmn  hnpa 
to  rairaiio  with  the  fewer  stripe*  fi»r  brinp  I  be  fint 
iu  uotjrJDg  their  {loiiit*,  thtme  canvnita  proanial  to 

'  [tUud  Ike 

lit  of  Umnk,   >9  Urn.  VIII. 

nooK  VI.  in  England.  401 

themselves  the  kindest  usage  which  were  forward- 
cst  in  their  resignations,  though  all  on  the  matter 
fared  alike. 

4.  Yea,  John  do  Warboise,  so  called  from  the  Betwixt 
place  of  his  nativity  in  Huntingdonshire,  (where  my  last  no 
worthy  friend  Mr.  William  Johnson  is  well  bene-SI^     ^' 
ficed,)   though   the   first,  with    his   sixty  Denedicti 
monks",  who  with  solemn  subscription  renounced 

the  pope's  supremacy,  and  now  as  officious  as  any 
in  surrendering  his  convent  to  the  king's  visitors, 
met  with  no  peculiar  and  extraordinary  civility  above 
others  of  his  order. 

5.  Such  resignations  sealed  and  delivered,  the 
visitors  called  for  the  seals  themselves,  which  now 
had  survived  their  own  use,  having  passed  the  last 
effectual  act ;  and  these,  generally  made  of  silver, 
were  by  the  king's  officers  presently  broken  in 
[)ieccs.  Such  material  stamps  l>eing  now  abolished, 
it  will  be  charity  to  preserve  their  impressions,  and 
exhibit  them  to  posterity ;  which  here  we  shall  en- 
deavour, rendering  some  probable  reason  how  most 
of  them  refer  to  the  founders  or  situation,  or  some 
remarkable  action  therein. 



In  presenting  of  them  I  will  not  be  confined  to  The  design 
the  strict  tenns  of  blazonry,  the  rather  because  some        ^ 
of  their  arms  may  be  presumed  so  ancient,  as  fitter 
to  give  rules  to  than  take  them  from  our  modem 
heraldry.     And   what   my   pen    cannot   sufficiently 

*^  Speed  in  his  Description  of  Huntingdonshire. 

FULLER,  VOL.  III.  D  d 

4m  TktBiihry^Jl^i 

dewribe.  thereio  the  mMler  my  Mtiufy  hinnlf  |y 
hbi  own  ejre,  to  which  these  coat*  ue 
tbn  tint  tthcet  of  thb  rolumu  kftvr  tbo  kfrtofy  «f  J 
Walthatn  Abbey. 

1.  I  will  make  m  methiMl  of  my  own,  I 
(whifo  the  miD  eodf)  in  tbe  w«at :  Tavi 
Dcnrooihire.  give  rerry,  or  *,  aoi 
or,  two  niiiUel*,  gule«. 

ft.  Glutoobary   gmre   Tcrt,   (u   I   con}c<rtiii 
eokmr.)  «  eton  bottony  aryi-nt.     In  thv  first  < 
tbe  wontui   with  a  ffloiy  boliliog  «  b«be, 
ab»iit   hw  hnii).  in  ht-r  amw,  1 
tlic  (lin>ction  nf  tbe  aiip.'l  (Uhriel  thoir  c 
tint  (letliraled  (»  the  Virjrio  Mary  f, 

3.  Mi'ltlk-toii,  in  (•louct'stt^nbin.',  gnvo  nbl^tl 
bukvt«  arfrrnt,   rettleubheil  with   laarcs   of  I 
gnlei.     Had  the  number  of  the  huketa  beta  c 
•even   or   twelve,  •otno   wuolil   interprK  theicia  aJ 
rrferciux-  to  the  reTernoua  prewfrrd  by  < 
runinmnt)  of  the  Ioatu*   mltmenloiuly  ii 
whereas  now  thoy  dmoto  tho  bounty  of  t 
in  relievinjf  tbe  |Kmr. 

4.  %>*hat  Malmeitbury  In  Willahirv  gavr, 
yvt  attain. 

A.  Abingdon  gave  [ar^font]  a  cmm  flurt  lM>t«ixt 
maitletR  nable ;  murh  ftlluding  to  tb(^  annn  «f  onr 
Engliib  kingB  before  tbe  CoDqneat,  wbo,  it  ttrmt, 
wvra  gmU  beoofikcton  tberaunto. 

6.  The  abbey  of  fit.  Jamea.  in  Rewfing,  gave  wnmi, 
thrw  McallopHihelb,  or.  Here  I  know  not  what 
Mvret  lyniiiathy  lb«'rr   u  betwi-en    SL   June*  aad 

■  tAntvBt  —i  Mm.  •mvd.    Ut*  Wm  Mi|iflM  ia  tW  atw  , 
Um  Mak  nM  ftmMl  W  fMrr         I  f(w  iW  fM  anL  v.  1 1.     ' 

BOOK  VI.  tit  England.  408 

shells;  but  sure  I  am  that  all  pilgrims  that  'risit 
St.  James  of  Compostella  in  Spain,  the  paramomit 
shrine  of  that  saint,  returned  thenco  ohsiti  canchis  y^ 
all  beshelled  about  on  their  clothes,  as  a  religious 
donative  there  bestowed  upon  them. 

7.  The  abbey  of  Hyde,/M.rto  Winton,  gave  argent,  Of  Hyde, 
a  lion  rampant  sable,  on  a  chief  of  the  second,  four 

keys  argent. 

8.  Battle  Abbey,  in  Sussex,  gave  gules,  a  cross  Of  Battle, 
betwixt  a  crown  or,  in  the  first  and  third  quarter; 

a  sword  (bladed  argent,  hilted  or)  in  the  second  and 
fourth  quarter  thereof.  Here  the  arms  relate  to 
the  name,  and  both  arms  and  name  to  the  fierce 
fight  hard  by,  whereby  duke  William  gained  the 
English  crown  by  conquest,  and  founded  this  abbey. 
Nor  must  it  be  forgotten  that  a  text  ^,  pierced 
through  with  a  dash,  is  fixed  in  the  navel  of  the 
cross :  now  though  I  have  read  letters  to  be  little 
honourable  in  arms',  this  cannot  be  disgraceful, 
])artly  because  church  heraldry  moveth  in  a  sphere 
by  itself,  partly  because  this  was  the  letter  of  letters, 
as  the  received  character  to  signify  Christus. 

9.  St.  Augustine's,  in  Canterbury,  gave  sable,  aOf  st.Au. 
cross  argent. 

10.  Cross  we  now  the  Thames,  wh«re  westward  Of  okm. 
we  first  fall  on  St.  Peter's,  in  Gloucester,  whose 
dedication  to  that  apostle  sufiSciently  rendereth  a 
reason  for  the  arms  thereof,  viz.  azure,  two  croe»- 
keys,  (or  two  keys  saltire,)  or. 

1 1 .  Tewksbury  gave  gules,  a  cross  of  an  antique  Of  Tewkt. 
form  or,  a  border  argent. 

y  Erasmus  in  his  dialogue     ergo."  [p.  377,  ed.  1643.] 
c:illed  "  Peregrinatio  Religionis         «  Accidence  of  Armes. 


104  71U  Hiatory  ^AUxyi  Boom 

■-      IS.  I  will  not  odToiitDro  on  the  bUsoninf  of  I 
linns    of  Wmclicoinli,    (tutvjng    much    coafomltf  I 
tbLTcin  with  Mnrtinior'ii  roni.)  but  Icutc  the  i 
to  sotiBfy  hu  own  eyes  in  thi>  inspcctioo  tbcrMit 

13.  I    nhoulil    1m.'    tbankful    to   bim    wbit    woniM  ] 
infiimi  me  o{  thv  ormB  uf  C'ireDcvst«r,  which  hkhail 
I  onnnnt  |irnrun<. 

14.  St.  Alben'fl  gave  tuarc,  a  rwm  saltiR^  ar*. 

15.  WentmituilLT  Abbey  gaw  azuru  a  < 
[or]  betwixt  livp  luartlcls  or ;  anil  tbb  I  humbi 
cfdTO  were  anciently  the  entiru  ann«  of  that  I 
htiag  la  eflbot  the  mme  with  tboie  of  king  X 
the  Coafoanr,  tlio  tint  fminiler  tht^rcof.     Hat  i 
wardf  their  coavi-ntual  msiI  was  augnumtvd  with  I 
aniM  of  Fninee  bikI  ICngUnd  on  a  chief  or.  Iietwixt 
two  roam  guleo,  plainly  rdattng  to  king  Henry  tbc>  ' 
ScTrntb  enlarging  tlH>ir  rhtirrh  with  bis  rhapeL 

16.  The  prior  of  St.  John  of  Jeramlcm  gave  gulaa  ! 
a  crow  argi'tit.  which  the  lord  prior  somctitna 
lialfid  with  (hut  b4-fore)  his  own  roat  ^  atkd  i 
thnos  baru  it  in  a  chief  at>out  it  '. 

I7<Thc  arms  of  Waltham  Ahliey,  in  E«px,a 
at  thii  day  neither  in  glow,  wood,  nor  stooc^  I 
about  the  town  or  rhurch  thereof.  At  laK  wvl 
recovrrcHl  thrtn  (whhj  Af>mo  notu)  out  of  a  bit  4 
of  Riibcrt  Kulk'r'a.  the  last  abbot,  though  Dot  l 
tain  of  the  metal  and  eohmra.  rix.  gule*  (■■  ] 
jecture)  two  angehk  (fan  they  bo  lew  than  vl);l 
tbuir  hands  (mch   wc   find   uf  Ihetn  in  fcripl 

>  St.  Mnj'%  in  C:«raatr7. 

I  B*  ami  is  iMr  wal.  m 

■  Tbw  tir  IVh.  E 
*  UMt.  ir.  t>. 

BOOK  vi.  in  England.  405 

holding  betwixt  them  a  cross  argent,  brought  hither, 
saith  our  antiquary  ^  by  miracle  out  of  the  west, 
whence  Waltham  had  the  addition  of  holy  cross. 

18.  The  arms  of  St.  John's,  in  Colchester,  I  leave  or  CoMmi. 
to  the  eye  of  the  reader. 

19.  Bury  gave  azure  three  crowns  or,  the  arms  or  Buy. 
of  the  kings  of  the  East  Angles,  assumed  in  the 
memory  of  king  Edmund,  (to  whom  this  abbey  was 
dedicated,)  martyred  by  the  Danes,  when  his  crown 

of  gold,  thorough  a  crown  of  thorns,  or  arrows  rather, 
was  turned  into  a  crown  of  glory. 

20.  St.  Bonnet's  in  the  Holme,  in  Norfolk,  gave  or  st.  Ben. 
sable,   a  pastoral  staff  argent,  picked   below  and 
reflexed   above,    (intimating   the  abbot's  episcopal 
jurisdiction    in    his    own   precincts,)    betwixt    two 
crowns  or,  pointing  at  England  and  Norway,  the 

two  kingdoms  of  Canutus,  the  founder  thereof* 
The  aforesaid  staff  was  infiilated,  that  is,  adorned 
with  an  holy  lace  or  label,  carelessly  hanging  down 
or  cast  across,  such  with  which  their  mitres  used 
formerly  to  be  fastened. 

21.  Thorny  Abbey,  in  Cambridgeshire,  gave  azure  or  iiioniy. 
three  crosses  crossed  fitchee,  betwixt  three  pastoral 
staves,  or. 

22.  Ramsey,  in  Huntingdonshire,  gave  or,  three  or Bmtsy. 
rams'  heads  couped  argent,  on  a  bend  azure;  the 

rest  of  the  rams  must  be  supposed  in  the  blue  sea, 
the  fens  appearing  such  when  overflown.  Besides, 
such  changes  were  common  here,  whereof  Melibseus 
coniplaineth  in  the  marshes  of  Mantua  ^ : 

Nan  bene  rijke 

Crcditur^  ipse  aries  eiiam  nunc  veUera  eiecai. 

f  Cuind.  Brit,  in  Essex,  [sub  init.]     '  VirgU,  Edog.  iii.  95. 


TV  Hitfory  a/Ab6tyM  •ous  ii. 

'TlMn  b  no  tnHtfa^  to  tbo  ftMDcTriflf  twok. 

Tin  nn  sUn  dria  hb  flM«  w  Uliily  dutk. 

Bat  linre,  thu  ilnininfr  of  the  fnu  hath,  I  hope, 
■Murod  tfapir  rattle  Truni  canialtieA. 

SS.  The  vor)-  luinic  nf  PetCTborottgh  unlocks  the 
raiiRon  vthj  ihftt  atiboT  jj^stp  guln,  two  ctom-Iebj* 
betwixt  fimr  <-TnMr«  mMM-H  fitrboe,  or. 

84.  {'rowUn'l  Abbov  gave  quiutert7  three  (eiB 
them  lonfT  knivm  nr  short)  kworIh  bUded  ftrjtvnt, 
h&ftctl  or  pometlnl  or,  aznro  thrra  whips  ttiingBd 
and  knotted  or,  the  •econd  like  thi*  thinl,  the  fourth 
hke  the  firvt :  iturtmtiivnts  of  crucltT,  n-latiajf  to 
thoir  monks  tni«ncr(<d  by  the  Dwus,  umo  870  ^ 
whenor  their  hbtorhn  giTc*  m  tbti  iccooBt,  tkat 
Bnl  thtj  wero  ttnnmim4di,  tortured.  Ke  there  ^bm 
whi)N,  afid  then  rjrtmimati,  killed,  eeo  there  tt» 
iwonlN.  Bnt  if  tuty  will  bare  thaae  whlpa  to 
to  tbp  wliip  of  St.  Bartholomew,  the  tOi 
able  R'lic  of  that  tnonanlcrT,  I  will  not  afifnee. 

85.  The  amis  of  Evmham  Abf>er,  in  Wormtor- 
»birf>,  I  mnnot  n<rovrr.  bnt  {xiMibly  may  belfan  tto 
eonclnsinn  nf  tbit  vork. 

r«  96.  Sfarc'wvbnrr  gnvt}  axure,  a  Don  nunpuift  (mr 
a  peatoral  irtaff  hcndwvya,  [or],  to  that  both  the  oA 
thereof  are  plahily  diaravrml. 

ST.  Vman  we  now  north  o(  Trpot,  whrre  only  twv 
remain :  St-lby,  foumlH  by  William  ttte  Caoqucmt; 
whirb  {carc  Mlile.  thnv  vwanx  aryent.  membrvd  or; 
alluding,  an  I  believe,  to  the  depreoaed  Ntoation  of 
the  {tbce,  where  the  neijtbbouring  river  of  Onae 
aSbrdeib  nieb  birds  in  abumlaDcc. 

88.  St.  Mary"*,  in   York,  gave  argent,  a   enm 

BOOK  vi.  in  England.  407 

gules,  and  a  key,  in  the  first  quarter  of  the  same. 
In  the  midst  of  the  cross  a  kmg  in  a  circle  in  his 
robes  of  state,  with  his  sceptre  and  mound;  yet 
hath  he  only  a  ducal  cap,  and  no  crown  on  his 
head.  I  humbly  conceive  (under  favour  of  better 
^judgments)  this  king-duke*s  picture  to  relate  partly 
to  king  William  Rufus,  partly  to  Alan  duke  of 
Britain  and  Richmond,  the  principal  co-founders  of 
that  monastery. 



Amongst  the  principal  persons  who  suffered  for  a 
their  zeal  in  defending  of  abbeys  was  the  lately  grounded 
mentioned  Thomas  lord  Darcy^  whose  extraction  ^  ^^*"^ 
I  find  foully  aspersed  by  the  pen  of  that  passionate 
prince,  king  Henry  the  Eighth ;  for  when  the  rebels 
boasted  of  the  many  noblemen  who  sided  with 
them,  in  confutation  thereof  king  Henry  returned 
a  letter  to  them,  interlined  with  his  own  hand, 
wherein  this  passage :  "  Others,  as  the  lord  Mamey 
and  Darcy,  are  but  mean,  scarce  weU-bom  gen- 
tlemen,  and  yet  of  no  great  lands  till  they  were 
promoted  by  us,  and  so  made  knights  ^'^  It 
cannot  be  denied  but  that  king  Henry  too  much 
consulted  his  choler,  (now  swelling  high,  because 
opposed  by  the  rebels,)  more  than  his  judgment  in 
this  his  expression ;  and  seeing  an  historian  should 
stium  cuique  trUmere^  give  me  leave  %  little  to 
enlarge  in  this  subject. 

2.  Of  the  lord  Mamey  I  can  say  but  little,  finding  wimtha 
him  whilst  as  yet  but  a  knight,  sir  Henry,  servant  ncj    *^ 

^  Vido  supra,  pag.  379,  par.         '  Speed*8  Chron.  in  his  fint 
5-  ed.  p.  776=  1023  of  the  3rd. 


wiil  iinu  (if  tlic<  L'xecutan  to  the  \aAy  Maifanl. 

Count«^  of  [Vrbv :    at  which   timo   be  «■■   Hmr- 

cvUor  of  the  tluchjr  nf  Lancaster.     It  BMnetli  ba 

r<Mp  hjr  tho  Uw,  Iwinji  lht<  Gnt  and  la»t  bwnn  of 

hit   iuuhp,    wbote    »oti!    danftfatcr    wu   marrivd    to 

Tfaotnu  llowmrd,  vfawount  Bindoa. 

"t^mnMm     5.  Longer  miMt  wo  itMiiit  ou  the  p«reatafi«,  per- 

<W  iwr7«  fbrmuwcfl,  aod   ptNteritr  of  Tboou   lord   iJUvf, 

^Jjj       findiiiff  in  thp  north  three  distinct  bnncfaei  •»— — ' 

wh<>rvof  the  first  wss 


in  England. 


In  John  Darcy,  (son 
to  the  aforesaid 
Norman,)  stew- 
ard to  the  king^s 
household,  justice 
of  Ireland. 


For  five  descents, 

being  barons    of 

Knaith  and  Moj- 


1.  John. 

2.  John. 

3.  Philip. 

4.  John. 

5.  Philip. 

In  Philip  the 
fifth  baron,  who, 
though  dying  un* 
der  age,  left 
two  daughters, 
Elizabeth,  mar- 
ried to  sir  James 
Strangewajs,  of 
Hartley  Gastle, 
and  Mai^ret,  to 
sir  John  Gon- 
yers  of  Hornby 

5.  Thus  expired  the  second  male  stem  of  the 
Darcys,  styled  barons  of  Knayth,  long  since  aliened 
from  their  family,  and  for  this  last  hundred  years 
the  habitation  of  the  lord  Willoughby,  of  Parham. 
Come  we  now  to  the  third  stem,  which  was 

Bepun  I        Ckmtinued 

In  sir  John  Darcy  Through  seven  ge- 
of   Torquay,   se-    nerations: 
cond  son  to  the         i.  Kchard. 
last    lord    John         2.  William. 

Darcy  of  Enayth. 

3.  Thomas. 

4.  George. 

5.  John. 

6.  Michael. 

7.  John. 

In  John  lord  Daroy 
of  Ashton  dying 
issueless,  thou^ 
he  had  four  wives, 
in  the  reign  of 
king  Charles. 

6.  Thomas  Darcy  here  named  is  the  person,  the 
subject  of  this  discourse,  of  whom  four  things  are 
memorable : 

i.  He  was  knighted  by  king  Henry  the  Seventh, 
who  made  him  captain  of  the  town  and  castle  of 

410  Tht  HUlory  if  A 

Bcnrjck  '.  and  comniuider  < 

bin  1 

Kitift  llcnnr  the  Eighth,  in  tbp  fint  jtmr  ^ 

,  modi-  hii 

'  in   V.\rc  of  the 

1   JllctlCl' 

bt-vond  Trt'Dt,  miiiinKnifd  him  thv  «uni>  y«ar  ■• 
a  bnroii  to  |i«rtimtieiit,  hii|iIuvi'<I  him  with  ■  fwvy. 
uiiio  1511,  Ui  aK<t«t  Kt'nliiiuid  kiiij;  uf  Amygti 
apuniit  the  Mount,  uid  nuuk-  him  knight  uf  the 

HI.  tliough  (ho  cnrortora  of  this  Tboouu  Ducy, 
Rinco  tlio  H-<*nnd  bniich  wiw  cxplrctl,  ware  tfylBd 
lonU  in  iMimc  di'txhi.  (whether  bv  the  coortca^  W 
the  rountiT,  or  bvintutte  thi-  right  of  a  bwnaj  I 
in  them,)  vet  this  Tbomiut  wm  the  Ant  i 
baron  tn  {mrtiiuiient,  in  the  fint  uT  king  Ilei 
Eigbtii,  and  liis  nicreaon  took  tlivir  pbee  i 

iv.  Thoagh    tlie   rerenuo    of    thi» 
Uarr;   was    not   great   at    the    begimdng  i 
Henry  tbe  Eigfatli,  bocaoM  the  bein-gvooral  i 
lord  Darryt  of  Knayth  carried  away  the  i 
the  inheritanre,  yet   Ite  bad  a  t 
augmented    by   his    match    with 
dauglilcr  and  betren  of  tir  Ricbaid  TeapMC 

11ie  n'miU  of  all  if  this :  this  lord 
htiuoiirably  deacendcMl,  and  bin  nobility  aagi 
not  fint  ftmmlfd,  by  king  llcnrr  the  l-jghtb,  h 
liU  wonU  did  intimate.  Let,  Ihen'fore,  |«aMoaate 
)trinnii  ii)K!ak  what  they  pUii^v.  thnr  |ntient  Mib}ceCa 
will  believe  bat  tbeirjuM  |>r»p4inion:  and  altboo^ 
the  fox'a  eon  rnaat  bo  n>jnito<)  bom*  whibt  ibi?  Kcm 
in  prewoce  it  {deaaod  m  tu  tuns  tbmn,  yet  Ihcy 

I  Prinu  fl«iIU  de  vtnn  14  lliwid  VII- 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  411 

never  alter  their  nature,  and  quickly  recover  the 
name  after  the  lion's  departure.  This  I  thought 
fit  to  write  in  vindication  of  the  lord  Darcy,  who, 
though  he  owed  his  life  to  the  law,  it  is  cruelty 
he  should  lose  both  it  and  the  just  honour  of  his 

7.  As  for  the  present  Conyers,  lord  Darcy,  he  is 
not  only  descended  from  the  foresaid  lord  Thomas, 
but  also  from  the  heir-general  of  the  second  stem  of 
the  Lord  Darcys  of  Knayth,  and  was  by  king  Charles 
accordingly  restored  to  take  his  place  in  parliament* 




Although  many  modem  families  haye  been  great  ^j^^^ 

gainers  by  the  destruction  of  monasteries,  yet  the 
ancient  nobility,  when  casting  up  their  audits,  found 
themselves  much  impaired  thereby^  both  in  power 
and  profit,  conunodity  and  command :  I  mean  such 
whose  ancestors  had  been  founders  of  abbeys,  or 
great  benefactors  unto  them.  These  resenred  to 
themselves  and  their  heirs  many  annual  rents  and 
services,  reliefs,  escuage;  as  also  that  such  abbots 
and  their  successors  should  do  fealty  and  homage 
to  their  heirs  for  such  lands  as  they  held  of  them 
in  knight's  service. 

2.  Now  although  order  was  taken  at  the  disso-^[^|^ 
lution  to  preserve  such  rents  to  the  founders'  heirs, 
(payable  unto  them  by  the  king's  officers  out  of  the 
exchequer,)  yet  such  sums,  after  long  attendance^ 
were  recovered  with  so  much  difficulty  that  they 
were  lost  in  eifect :  thus,  when  the  few  sheaves  of 
the  subject  are  promiscuously  made  up  in  the  king^s 


41 S 

The  Hhtarp  efJhUgt 

mow,  it  U  hftM  to  fin<i  them  there,  aad  I 
fc-tch  them  thfocc. 

3.  At)   for  thu   furvsoid  tervicot  merred  (d 
Bt  moni'v  or  nionur-wortti)  to  th«n  and  their  I 
llicr  wen?  lotall)-  am)  finally  cxtiagnuhed ;  I 
nierly  nuch  abbi'TH  uonl, 

i.  To  aemi  itieii  on  tboir  own  eharj^  in  i 
to  m-ar,  to  aid  and  attend  aurb  of  tbiHr  f 
bftiofactora'  beire  of  whom  tliejr  held  land  in  kn^lu!^ 

iL  Thcj  boontiftdly  oontrilmted  ■  portloa  to  IW 
niarriajp)  of  their  eldeat  dattgbten. 

iii.  They  baro  the  ooeta  and  cliafget  lo  aeeovtiv 
their  eldvat  auna  In  a  geat«ol  militoty  equipage  wfaaa 
knighted  by  the  king. 

Bat  now,  the  trre  being  plucked  ap  by  t 
no  nirfa  fruit  eould  aAerwanls  bo  expected. 

4.  Nor  iniMt  we  forget  the  benefit  of  t 
l^ao  ralhid  a  cnnraHmdo,  from  eating  logetbrr:  Ar 

tbo  beira  of  the  fore«aiil  founden  (not  by  eoortor, 
bat  compontion  for  tbeJr  ftvmer  &Toaj«)  had  a 
privilege  to  aend  a  aet  number  of  their  poor  • 
to  abheyi  to  diet  thuivin :  tfann  many  aged  s 
paat  working,  not  feeding,  (coMly  ui  keep,  and  et— I 
lo  CMt  oC)  wore  aeot  by  their  niu<tem  to  aaell 
abbeyi^  where  they  bad  plentiful  food  during  their 
tivOT.  Now  though  aoine  of  thoau  eomdiea  (whvro 
the  property  waa  altered  into  a  aet  mn  of  xaautj) 
wai  aolTBblo  oat  of  the  exeheqoer  after  the  diiM^ 
Intion  of  abbcya,  yet  iodi  whieh  eoatinard  in  kind 
wBi  totally  extinct,  and  no  aoch  diet  hereafter  givem 
when'  both  table  and  hooic  were  oTcttuned. 

BOOK  VI.  tn  England.  41S 


The  noble  fSamily  of  the  Berkeleys  may  well  give 
an  abbot's  mitre  for  the  crest  of  their  arms,  because 
80  loving  their  nation,  and  building  them  so  many 
synagogues.  Hence  it  was,  that  partly  in  right  of 
their  ancestors,  partly  by  their  matches  with  the 
co-heirs  of  the  lords  Mowbray  and  Seagrave,  in  the 
vacancies  they  had  a  right  of  nomination  of  an 
abbot,  in  following  foundations : 

414  The  llisiory  tif  AbUyi  boob  ti. 

IHmet.  FmituUr,  iH^rr.  Vmlm^, 

'      /.     .-  *  -L^ 

1.  Si.  Aii|(ii»Ciiir*%,     t.  Kirfirrt  Fiu-  i.  lUarli  oifMirtft  ;4li;  i|    J  •• 

ill  Ilri»(i4  Itanliiiic.  *^  Oic  iwiirr 

mlMMr|kaC^  iif  Si.  Victur. 

I  riiy  BMiinwil 

thr  naiiir  vi 

2.  niirtnn  l^asiin,    2.  Thr  l«wil  Miiw.  2.  l^prom  pn^    ^|A<  10     1  O  1] 

ill  l^tcnCrr-  i  (•rmy,  in  eh*    1  |m4r«Mii|r  t^ 

»)unr.  rriicii  iif  kinic  ««itrr  «if  M. 

I  Wmry  tlw  Au|piMiii«. 

;>.  ihUiiil,  fir         .  y  itilvrt  cU*  j.  [C  MtemMM  ]      [195    5    4^ 

tirllji  i^Mimla,!  Jk|tml»niv, 

ill  Viirkihirr.  I  ftmft  (tiinnoni 

i  hi«  nmilMT. 

4.  riianNiil^s  in    >  4.  Iluich  dr  Ana/.    4.  [  llWfc  aiiim.J      ^93    ^    J  ^I 

Ntrtluiiiip*  kDiicht,  in  \hm 


tinw  vi  the 


Rufant  liiak 

tlw  nMD»  id 

i  luMVMnlir, 

and  Annalrtlin 
I  hi*  fUuiHurr 

I  WM  nuirrM 

to  (ffilbrrt  kml 


5.  r««nhr,inWnr.|  5.  [liunlMo«br«y    5.  [rhfnwiM  |       :j4i   o    9] 

wk-kthirv.  and  nthflrft.] 

6.  Cnisum,  in  6.  Pr«nnmtrM*n-    45'^  19  ■  >    >   ■ 

iifirf«Crr«  UMI  nunks. 

;.  K|i«iirih,  in  ;.  Thmuw  Miiv.      7.  (*«rthMiwM.  >90i4     ;    I 

,  th^  IftW  «if  hmjf,  «iH  a^ 

Airhiilnir.  in  Ni<unirHBRi 

l<iunilu»)iiiT.  Ml  \\\r  mirn 

i<  kiii« 
KirhAnl  the 

K    FiHinUii.ft.  K  T.I  « htrh  the        h.  f<  Nirrrtani.;       'nr.l    o    7   ^i' 


«rTr  |:r«nd 
I  vtM-f  •■  ttiTI. 

.    t;.  Kirk^v.  !ii  \dt\-     if.  K'Vrf  tlr  IVU  i^    C  aiiiWi*  rnniUr       **'*     ;  >3   C  I 
cr«(rr«liirr                     Irr,  «)*if  lirld  iif  H|    Ati«cu»- 

th-«  liiAiHir  11^  tiiir 

I.*  r   Uiril 

10.  \>at  i.r^-r.  iu  lo     HIm k  raiMHit         4C*i!     c 

1  tirkvlt  rr. 

\\  liat  hIkiII  I  H|i4>ak  nl'  iUv  ^uuill   li«itiM-«*  of  |ji>ng* 

hriflp*  uihI  Tiiitoni,  in   Ci|<iiii-4*««t4*niiin\  (not    iih'II* 

uooK  VI.  in  England.  416 

tioned  in  Speed)  the  hospitals  of  St.  Katharine  and 
Maiy  Maudlin's,  near  Bristol,  the  well-endowed 
school  of  Wotton-under-edge,  in  Gloucestershire, 
besides  forty  chantries  founded  by  the  Berkeleys? 
yea,  I  have  read  in  a  manuscript  belonging  imto 
them,  no  less  judiciously  than  industriously  composed 
by  Mr.  John  Smith,  (who  did  and  received  many 
good  offices  to  and  from  that  family,  as  is  mutually 
confessed,)  that  the  forenamed  abbeys  and  others, 
held  of  the  lord  Berkeley  at  the  dissolution  no 
fewer  than  eighty  knights'  fees,  and  payed  services 
unto  them  accordingly ;  all  which  are  now  lost,  to 
the  value  of  ten  thousand  pounds,  within  the  com- 
pass of  few  years. 

2.  Nor  will  it  be  amiss  to  insert  that  Robert  iK<)ii«t 
Derby,  the  last  abbot  of  Croxton,  was  presented  ^h^of 
thereunto,  April  22,  the  26th  of  king  Heniy  the 
Eighth,  by  Thomas  (the  sixth  of  that  name)  lord 
Berkeley,  (the  place  being  void  by  the  death  of  one 
AtterclifTe,)  belonging  to  his  presentation  by  inhe- 
ritance ;  and  in  the  record  he  commandeth  the  prior 
and  convent  to  receive  and  obey  him  as  abbot. 


Ingratitude  is  the  abridgment  of  all  baseness,  a  ir anduuik- 
fault  never  found  unattended  with  other  viciousnesg.^**^**** 
Tliis  is  justly  charged  on  the  account  of  many 
abbeys,  whose  stately  structures  grew  so  proud  as 
to  forget  the  rock  whence  they  were  hewn,  and  the 
hole  of  the  pit  whence  they  were  digged ;  unthank- 
ful to  such  founders  who,  under  Gh)d,  had  bestowed 
their  maintenance  upon  them. 

S.  One  insUuiec  of  many: — Vut  ww  the  Kb* 

imlitjr  of  the  lord  BvrkolcTi  to  Kt.  AnsUn'a.  \m 
HrMtol,  IcntinfT  thtmuwlrc*  in  that  ibrir  huxe  eMal* 
not  one  rcctoiy  to  which  thoT  miffht  |>nMai  • 
rhupl&in ;  all  tbi>  btmoiiom  in  tlivir  namcroua  mmgmn 
bduff  a|i|>ro|>riAt<Hl  to  tliu  and  other  moMlUriaft 
Now  HC4>  tl]D  n>4|uital. 

9.  Manrir^,  (tlie  limt  of  that  name,)  lord  Btrfcahy; 
liavinfc  nccaMon  to  mnko  tbf  rlitrh  about  his  nMlIn 
tho  brootler.  for  the  bcltt-r  fortifrinfc  thereof,  took 
in  tome  few  feet  of  jtround  out  of  Ik^rkclpr  cbufdi- 
yard,  whirh  rhiirrh,  «ith  tho  litbo*  thnrof,  hfe 
anoctton  ha*!  ronferriil  on  lhL>  afonwaid  inoiiailtij. 
The  abbot,  MiolUiii;;  thin  at  a  |fr«at  ttv«|*M^  or 
rather  as  a  litlli'  mrrittf^,  to  |iroterat«d  the  afore- 
said Innl  with  rhurrb  rfnaurp*.  that  he  tnailo  him  la 
a  manner  ract  the  dirt  of  tho  ditch  in  hit  own  &e^ 
cnforrinjr  him  to  a  fntblic  ronfMelon  of  hi«  fiuilt, 
and  to  giTo  five  Rhillinpi  rmt  for  erer,  with  wmos 
titln^  and  iHuturc  for  u  manr  nxfn  oa  winild  till 
a  ploupb-Uiid,  hi  tb<*  wimlii  of  his  will.  Pro  n— 
dalitutf  cHlfMT  metf  de  fmtato  ^uod  feci  dW  aemilfriu 
dr  Bcrkch-jr  eirra  coMtriltm  mtmm. 

4.  1  know  it  will  W  |i(cadcd  for  the  abbot  that 
there  b  a»  much  right  in  an  inrh  a«  in  an  oil.  that 
he  waa  a  lldui:iary  ontruittod  to  drfi-nd  the  rights  af 
hit  ooavent,  that  rounden>'  hcin  aif  not  privl 
In  do  iiyoriea:  jrea,  thcr  of  all  |MmoiM  lonat  I 
per  to  take  bark  what  tliHr  ancestor*  have  | 
llowoTpr,  the  lord'i  enmiacbincnt  on  the  rhoreh- 
rani  iMMng  in  a  manner  done  in  hi«  own  ik>frnce, 
the  ihinff  in  itaelf  mi  omall.  and  tbf  nw^t  of  hia 
«jior«t<>n  Ml  fiD-al  In  ilui  nblip*.  might  have  met 
with  that  m«vkiirH  which  obould  be  in  the  1 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  417 

of  all  spiritual  persons  to  abate  his  rigorous  prosecu- 
tion against  him. 

5.  Thomas,  the  first  lord  Berkeley  of  that  name,  Another 
found  little  better  usage  from  the  abbot  of  St.  ingratitude. 
Austine's,  though  he  had  formerly,  besides  confirma- 
tion of  many  lands,  conferred  on  that  convent  pas- 
ture for  twenty-four  oxen;  discharging  also  their 
lands,  lying  within  certain  of  his  manors,  from  all 
services  and  earthly  demands,  only  to  remember  him 

and  his  in  their  prayers;  yet  did  that  abbot  and 
convent  implead  him  before  the  pope's  delegates  for 
tithes  of  pawnage  of  his  woods,  for  tithes  of  his 
fishing  and  of  his  mills.  The  lord  removed  the  suit 
to  common  law,  as  challenging  the  sole  power  to 
regulate  7nodum  decimandi.  And  now,  when  all 
was  ready  for  a  trial  before  the  judge  itinerant  at 
Gloucester,  it  was  compoimded  by  friends  on  such 
terms  as  the  abbot  in  effect  gained  his  desire. 

6.  Indeed,  so  odious  and  obvious  was  the  unthank- a  omaeof 

-  ,  -  1        .     .  -11  their  niiiii 

fulness  of  some  convents,  that  it  is  reputed  by  some 
the  most  meritorious  cause  of  their  dissolution,  and 
their  doing  things  mthout  and  against  the  will  of 
their  founders  is  instanced  in  the  statute  as  a  main 
motive  to  take  them  away  ". 

7.  Some  who  pretend  to  a  Prometheus'  wit  fondly -^/i  over- 

wise  OQii- 

conceive  that  the  founders  of  abbeys  might  politicly  oeit. 
have  prevented  their  dissolution  had  they  inserted  a 
provision  in  their  foundations,  that  in  case  abbey 
lands  should  be  alienated  to  other  uses  against  or 
besides  the  owners'  intents,  then  such  lands  should 
revert  to  the  true  heirs  of  the  said  founders,  if  then 
in  being. 

^  For  the  dissolution  of  chantries  and  colleges,  37  Hen.  VIII. 

rap.  4. 


41S  Thf  i/iMiory  </  A6A^$  im  Emgimmd^ 

i^*"*-      a.  But  mch  ctmi4ct  not  that  meh  m  i 

would  bare  rarourefl  mora  of  wi]4ne«  tbui  l 
in  that  0^:  m  wdl  m(f[fat  odo  have  •onirlit  to 
flcpurv  liinuolf  with  a  nhelttr  oipuiict  the  blliaff  tf 
tb«  flkies,  as  ix|ually  probable  as  tho  divottlf^  «C 
abbcjr  lands  to  other  iatentioM.  Bwiile^  MMii  • 
jealoua  datue  might  be  mt«r]iraCed  boratical.  to  pK 
hllo  pooplu't  fanoiui  a  futtibllitjr  of  nch  I 
ym,  I  have  hiiird  it  4)iH«doDed  by  tho  I 
llie  law  wbvth(.'r  mirb  a  conditional  MttlonMBl  \ 
Kuch  a  clauM!  wcra  lofpil  or  no,  many  i 
that  mch  donationn  rniul  bv  abatilntc.  Bat  ■ 
Kwb  A  clouw  in  their  fouudationi,  it  had  not  nacfc 
bcfriondt-Hl  th(.>m  at  tbii  time,  wmi^  f^>lc«  an  aa 
oiu>ilT  rut  off  an  twinc-lhmub  by  power  of  pai{{»- 
mt'nt,  when  dlBpoM<d  In  make  such  a  tttMolation. 
SMitMih  9.  Now  some  vonceiTpd  It  jitst  abbey  laoda  dinald 
MKfcw  have  bfien  ivstoml  to  the  hdn  of  th*^  (buMlan; 
S^^  but  M«iD|t  thfl  moat  and  grcAtMt  abbey*  woe  fanOl 
*^^i-  and  eodownl  befbra  tho  ConqoeaC  K  ww  hard  !• 
And  oot  their  hein^  if  extant.  Beiidca.  thti  vqhM 
mbilater  matter  of  mueh  litigiotMMB  r^ttally  to 
aham  them  lunongrt  their  many  bemAeton :  «bcr^ 
fere  the  king,  the  foandor-gpneial  of  them  alL 
mediately  or  fanmedbtdy  in  himself  or  hi  hia  wcib- 
Jeetc,  ai  who  in  hb  peraoa  or  ancvaton  conto—< 
eooaented.  or  at  least  eonnived  at  their  fnnndiilna^. 
may  charitably  be  prmnned  to  aeiBe  th«n  all  Into 
hit  own  haoda,  ao  tn  rat  off  the  oeeaikio  of  4b^ 
geraoa  dhrbioa  amongit  hia  wbfeeti  about  the  paib 
tkfcm  of  thMB  catatoa. 

SECT.  V. 




There  he  three  decrees  ofgraiibide,  aeeording  to  fiMiCe  miemrci 
abilities:  the  finA  ie  to  reqtiiief  the  teoand  to  deeervef  the 
third  to  eon/eeSj  a  benefit  received.  He  i$  a  hofpjf  num 
that  can  do  the  firsts  no  hmeet  man  that  would  not  do  the 
second^  a  dishonest  man  who  doth  not  the  third. 

I  must  be  content,  in  reference  to  fonr  faieomn  on  mtf,  to  ait 
down  in  the  last  form  of  fhainkfullmese ;  it  being  better  to 
be  a  lag  in  that  school  than  a  truant^  notataU  appearing 

*  [Arms  of  Ken.     Ennine,  array  in  1643,  **when  other 

three    crescents    gales.      She  "  noUemen  were  crest  or  ooro- 

was  the  daughter  and  co-heir  "  net-fiillen,  and  excepted  to 

of  Christopher  Ken,  of  Ken  "  by  the  enetnr  as  the  moat 

Court,  esq.,  in  Somersetshire,  "  dangerous  offender ;  being  a 

(from  whom  bishop  Ken  was  '*  pioos  man  for  religion,  an 

descended,)  and  married  John,  **  hospitable  and  well-repated 

the  eldest  son  of  sir  Anthony,  '*  man   for  doing  justice  and 

and  grandson  of  sir  Amias  Poo-  "  good  to  hia  country,  a  watdi- 

lett,  who  in  1627  was  advanced  "  ful  and  active  man  in  the 

to  the  dignity  of  a  baron  by  the  "  field,  and  a  shrewd  man  in 

title  of  lord  Poulett,  of  Hinton  *^  coundL*'    Memoirs,  p.  65  a. 

St.Oeorge.  According  to  Lloyd,  He  died  in  1649,  ^^  Teaim 

the  husband  of  this  lady  was  before  this  portion  was  pnnted 

entrusted   by  king  Charles  I.  of  Fuller's  History;   to  tUa 

with   his  first  commission  of  q^tdioa  he  alludes,  I  suppoae.] 

E6  S 

iU*f«.     Km,  memr^mf  to  mt  S»tim»r'§  mmmd  «^ 
■AM  (if  NwAr^fiU  liiiiiliWdUa  Ufltmdm  <rf 

Jfwifiwi  <to  ^wwf  (ia«iiy  Mu  mim  UitU  <  w«t)  ^ 

^<Mrf«  ■  '  -        -  -  - 

<f  «U  Mtfam^  i/tUg  Mtfim.  fib  mhm  nw^  mAmI 
tiftmifjfmir  hanm$  tktrmm.     Otdibm  ftm  im  aff  jaar 

MIMf{f)M^  (A«M  Mte  fm. 


■TGirr  ii  tlip  rule  or  wluu  U  MS  Mid 
~  whnt  ifi  otbt.Twui>.  Wv  will 
rcmi«.'  tlu"  »l(?«cri|»tion  uf 
I  iTiimrk- ;  n  itiimrli'  u  a  work 
{offiiDg  the  [lowirr  a{  Mtiin!>, 
tbe  KaiSmutinn  of  fiiith  im  tbc  miarinn 
of  a  new  tuiiiittiT. 

i.    Work  of  'Gmf]     fi'io    fmlf   <MA 
tktHtft* :  fur  though  bo  •amothnM  mcch 
nwiral  ittftrumctiU  whorcbjr,  jet  never  h 
mnm  to  eflbct  miraeloB. 

ii.  P*3*inf  At  ptmtr  of  natmrt'\  Hcnre  H  n  tint 
it  is  not  dniM  by  teisarc,  bat  pnventl; :  oot  \rj 
Aoffve%,  bat  peHc«tl]r.  God**  cnra  hv  oeTvr  nib. 
jeot  to  relijwo,  (once  btxled  and  onr  beded.)  «s. 
et^  tbo  party  lun  oa  tbe  «eore  of  a  dp*  fnflk : 

r  >j*.  lo- 

'  Ptebilnui.  iB. 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  4C1 

Thau  art  made  whaler  sin  no  morCf  lest  a  worse  thing 

befall  thee  **.  ? 

iii.  Done  for  the  confirmation  of  faitX]  God  will 
not  make  his  works  cheap  by  prostituting  them 
merely  for  the  satisfaction  of  man's  curiosity. 

iv.  On  the  mission  generally  of  a  new  min%stTff\ 
For,  although  some  sprinkling  of  miracles  on  other 
occasions,  yet  their  main  body  was  done  by  MoseSi 
a  new  lawgiver  to  the  Jews ;  by  Elias  and  Elisha, 
two  grand  restorers  (adequate  almost  to  a  giver)  of 
the  law,  in  a  general  yisible  defection  to  idolatiy ; 
by  Christ  and  his  apostles,  as  the  first  preachers  of 
the  gospel. 

In  this  our  description  no  mention  of  the  rarity 
of  miracles,  because  the  same  resulteth  from  the 
premises,  frequency  abating  from  the  due  wonder 

2.  Now  that  such  miracles  long  since  are  ceased  MiiMhi 
appears  by  the   confession  of  ancient  fathers  andoeMcd. 
most  ingenious  Romanists.    St.  Chrysostom  (twenty- 
third  Homily  on  St.  John)  thus  expresseth  himself! 

ai  yap  wv  eicri  oi  ^tp'ovvref  kqi  Aeyovreg^  ota  re  fui  xai 
vvv  (TTjfieia  ylvovrai ;  ei  yap  iricrr^^  t?,  W9  tiycu  Xf^^  '^ 
(plXetg  Tov  ^piTTOVy  W9  ipi\€iv  jei,  ov  jfjpeiav  ix^^^  (nifi^m^. 
TaOra  yap  Tot9  onrloToi^  SiSoral.     **  For  even  now 

"  there  be  seekers  and  sayers,  wherefore  also  now 
^^  arc  not  miracles  done  ?  for  if  thou  beest  a  belieyer, 
''  as  thou  oughtest  to  be,  and  dost  love  Christ  as 
''  thou  oughtest  to  love  him,  thou  hast  no  need  of 
''  miracles ;  for  miracles  are  given  to  unbelievers.'' 

3.  St.  Augustine,    passing   his    censure  on  the^jScAo. 

d  John  V.  14. 
E  e  3 


Tlu  Histarg  t^  AUtyt 

minwled  of  hU  ago,  had  ao  low  an  ofilafcNi  of  iMr 

truth  that  )ii'  nuikud  tliem  under  two  beads  * : 

L  Fiymmta    mettd^tim    komimim,  Fofgeria*  af 
\jittg  men. 

il.  Pttrtenta  faUacutm  apiritmmm,  Prodigiaa  of  4^ 
ci'itful  ticvilk. 

4.  ninhop  Fl-tlier  liinut-lf,  niiting  ajfainit  I 
atul  u^cuirioualt)'  ttvnlintr  of  (be  powvr  of  i 
a|fMi  Return  mime  nuBum  ctmimuji,  of  which,  aakll 
he.  wo  now  ice  no  effvct ;  which  oddeCh  to  tW 
wonder  that  m  wiiu  a  man  should  «oga^  i 
foulish  wutidvr  of  tbL>  boljr  maid  of  Kent. 
y^y^      a.  Tlie  tnio  ouuu  of  the  cniing  of  i 

not  tny  want  of  dWino  |iowor  to  eAct  tbea,  aa  I 
that  infinitenuM  oould  erer.  like  Naomi,  be  i 
aoQuat«d  and  effbte,  to  hare  no  mora  trae  ^ 
In  the  wittnh  thenxif,  but  became  nUnelo*  an  tba 
Hwaddting-clothoH  of  iii£ant  chnivhciL  And  when 
d(H-triiic«  ar«'  once  catabU^uxl  and  reeetrod  I 
rbuirli,  niiniclL*s  are  impertinent ;  jea,  it  iaaob 
than  a  t«inpiii)K  itf  Ood.  after  meh  i 
Inof  siiiru  III  the  tiutK  itill  to  expect  a  min 
cunfiimatiua  tlienxtf. 
TWBWf*.  6.  WhoR-rurr,  when  the  iRi|K>rtutiity  of  | 
MMM  pnsweth  tu  tu  iinxlucc  iiiirBrW  t«  altt-vt  our  tvU^oa, 
we  Tvtnm  unto  thi-nu  that  Mur»  is  an  utd  bhk, 
fi>n»<lc<]  long  Hin<v  on  lh«-  M-Tiptunw ;  and  wo  maj 
jiutlv  lajr  rloim  lo  alt  th«  miracUa  in  the  N«w 
TcntomuuL  to  be  uunt,  bccauw  done  in  dcmoaatntiaa 
of  that  doctrine  which  we  at  thb  dajr  do  dafand.  ^ 

•  Db  Uailsto  Bcckiir.  n^        '  DiCkpiMttOa 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  4S8 

are  the  seals  of  that  instrament,  the  writiDg  wherein 
we  desire  and  endeavour  to  maintain  and  practise. 

7.   Such  forgery  must  needs  be  an   high  and  Counter, 
heinous  offence.     If  the  counterfeiting  of  the  mark,  mwHSm  » 
tokens,  and   letters  of  others,  so  as  to  gain  any^l^^ 
money  into  their  hands  thereby,  be  punishable  by 
pillory,  imprisonment  <f,  or  any  other  corporal  penalty 
under  death,  at  the  discretion  of  the  judge ;  yea,  if 
it  be  treason  for  any  to  forge  the  king^s  sign-manual, 
privy  signet,  or  privy  seal  \  how  great  a  guilt  do 
they  contract  who  falsify  the  signature  of  the  high 
God   of  heaven?    miracles  being  of   that  nature 
whereby  he  immediately  impresseth  his  own  power 
and  presence  on  that  which  is  so  supematurally 
brought  to  pass. 

8. 1  know  what  such  forgers  plead  for  themselves,  Thafa^Br'f 
viz.  that  they  have  a  good  intent  therein  to  beget, 
continue,  or  increase  a  reverence  to  religion,  and 
veneration  to  the  saints  and  servants  of  (jod,  so  to 
raise  up  vulgar  fancies  to  the  highest  pitch  of  piety. 
Wlierefore,  as  Lycurgus  made  a  law,  not  that  theft 
should  be  death,  but  death  to  be  caught  in  their 
thieving,  so  these  conclude  counterfeiting  miracles 
no  fault,  but  when  done  so  bunglingly  that  it  is 
detected,  conceiving  otherwise  the  glory  accrueth  to 
God  by  their  hypocrisy. 

9.  But  what  saith  the  Holy  Spirit?   Witt  jfoucmdatBL 
speak  wickedly  for  Gody  and  talk  deceitfuUy far  Himt 
will  you  accept  His  person^  wiU  yam  yet  contend  for 
God  f  Do  you  so  mock  Himy  shaU  not  His  earcettency 
make  you  afraid '  f    Yea,  so  far  is  such  fraud  from 

?  Statute  33  of  Hen.  VIII.         i  Jobxiii.  7. 
*'  Statute  1  Mary. 

£  e  4 

\  repute  to  rrliiri'").  ttuil.  Iieinfr  fnond  i 
dupoKth  toim  to  athcHii),  nn<l  to  n  ffU9)Hrion  o^ti 
tmtb  own  of  the  rval  mimrlcji  In  wripttiro. 
T      10.  Tlip  pn>tcni1«fl  rftmc*  of  vhicb  i 
gcnernJI;  rednribte  to  ttuMc  tin>  brada: 

i.   Saints'  relic*. 

it  ^Sftintll'  itntgn. 
How  Diucb  fnrgftiy  tboro  b  in  the  fint  of  t 
geoenUy  kDnwn.  to  many  pfecm  bc^  | 
of  Chriit'i  oftMi  u  would  kittd  a  (tnat  iUp; 
amonj^  oil  of  thctn  mmmcnd  me  to  tb*  4 
the  prinnr  of  Ik'nodicttncA  at  DmmebolnM  I 
folk,  the  legend  whumir  deserveUl  to  b*  f 
Qaeon  Ht^en,  thoj  iar,  finding  Uie  t 
at  Jennalein,  dividtHl  it  into  tunc  paita,  • 
the  nhw  otdtn*  of  angi'li ;  of  one  of  I 
besprinkled  with  ChririV  Uood)  ftbe  1 
eroMR,  and,  patting  it  Into  n  Imx  adomed  with  | 
timm  fttime^  bo^iowpd  it  on  ComtaDtlao  bar  t 
Thb  relict  was  kept  bjr  hb  neecann  ontU  1 
emperur  of  Greore,  fbrtanate  to  lodft  an  be  < 
It  about  him.  but  mlnln  in  fifffat  when  fnfuotlity  I 
nnio;  after  wha«e  difith  llngli  hU  rhaplaJB  (h 
in  N'orfollc,  and  vbo  onnstantly  aaiil  prayvn  I 
tbe  em«i^)  Mole  it  awaj,  bus  1 
into  KuglatHl.  and  bvntowod  it  oa  Bra 
Norfolk.  It  Reems  there  in  no  Mnny  Id  ■ 
but  ratcli  who  ratrh  mav ;  yra.  mirb  1 
iai>creto;(atifin.  Ut  tbb  rron  thirtfHiiw 
tre  Mid  to  be  mived  to  life,  and  1 
reatorcd  to  their  uftht.     It  < 

kC^pgnw*  LffcnAi.  biUw  Life  of  Ki^  ISdmmi,  [C  > 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  425 

trade  much  in  odd  numbers,  which  best  fasteneth 
the  fancies  of  folk,  whilst  the  smoothness  of  even 
numbers  makes  them  slip  the  sooner  out  of  men's 

11.  Chemnitius  ^  affirmeth,  from  the  mouth  of  a  False  teeth 
grave   author,  that  the  teeth   of  Saint  Apollonia  loniaT* ' 
being  conceived  effectual  to  cure  the  tooth-ache  in 

the  reign  of  king  Edward  the  Sixth,  (when  many 
ignorant  people  in  England  relied  on  that  receipt  to 
carry  one  of  her  teeth  about  them,)  the  king  gave 
command,  in  extirpation  of  superstition,  that  all  her 
teeth  should  be  brought  in  to  a  public  officer 
deputed  for  that  purpose,  and  they  filled  a  tun 
therewith.  Were  her  stomach  proportionable  to 
her  teeth,  a  county  would  scarce  afford  her  a  meal's 

12.  Tlie  English  nuns  at  Lisbon™  do  pretend  that  J^*J"™m 

of  Xnain&s 

they  have  both  the  arms  of  Thomas  Becket,  arch-  Becket. 
bishop  of  Canterbury ;  and  yet  pope  Paul  the  Tliird, 
in  a  public  bull  set  down  by  Sanders  ",  doth  pitifully 
complain  of  the  cruelty  of  king  Henry  the  Eighth, 
for  causing  the  bones  of  Becket  to  be  burnt,  and 
the  ashes  scattered  in  the  wind ;  the  solemnity 
whereof  is  recorded  in  our  chronicles,  and  how  bis 
arms  should  escape  that  bonfire  is  to  me  incre- 

13.  The  late  mentioning  of  ApoUonia  curing  the  Saints, their 
tooth-ache  mindeth  me  of  the  popish  designing  of  pioyments. 

^  In  bis  Examination  of  the  Printed  in  1622^  and  reprinted 

Council  of  Trent,  cap.  de  Imag.  by  Morgan    in    the    Phoenix. 

jKi^.  I .  See  p.  332  of  the  last  edition.] 

">  Anatomy  of  the  Nuns  of  °   De   Schis.    Angl.   lib.    i, 

Lisbon,  [by  Thomas  Robinson,  pag.  171  [=141]. 

Tlu  ffUtory  t/AUt^  mm  < 

Minta,  rioRiL'  t't  hf  [)li3nucbiu  of  (UtMaes,  uitl  qthwi 
tttM  of  <»ccu|<atioiM : 

FSt-SeUMknconth  Uw 

'  L  PotranJ  Um  fmw. 

t*  Hftcwiiio  too  ptami^* 

U  0«iioir  Umi  gout. 

L  Orii|iui  ptmtveU  iboe- 

t.  Boeh  Um  wUon. 
I.  WmmMo  tlM  ■1hi>- 

Sl  PbIhC*  pniCacto  aiM- 

SL  ABtfaoajr  th«  twM*- 


tH.  Eloytlwa 

St.  Lnk*  tho  p 

St.  mihiiliithiinwiiiMi 

Si.  Ilnbvrt  Um  hMitan. 

Sl  Yna  the  kw^Ms  •. 

Not  U>  fpesk  of  St.  Anne,  [ir(>)ier  to  help  {R-upk*  to 
lost  goodi;  St.  Lcuoanl.  m]U  to  ofioii  ttiL'  tlwm  of 
gnnlii  and  nuke  prwoDeni'  fcttvn  full  off:  ukI  |rily 
it  b  tlut  be  draoM  riww  a  raf>t  of  his  ulficc  tu  kdj 
nve  to  huDoat  penou  In  dunuice.  I-lxjxvt  nut  (mm 
me  a  roittoti  wbjr  tuch  B»iuta  an*  |i«trvD9  to  «idi 
pmreanoiu,  tupentitious  fuM-y  bviog  all  the  aotlMir 
thereof ;  othcrwiae,  wprc  judgmval  ooaaolted  i 
Luke  ttbould  bo  tult* bu'  tu  {»bniciaiis,  aa  Ua  | 
calling,  tbougli  )<i>iTliikiicu  be  vntettaiued 
abo  R«  a  qttalilT  fur  dcliftht  atid  arroni|>li«hmmL 
iA.  Now  tnoftt  niiraclt'A  may  be  raJU«l  cuuft'iitnaJ. 
K.mua]u  being  more  dcxtcroiu  tbvmt  tbau  wcular 
prieati^  boeaiiae  thair  conTenta  afibrded  gmtcat  cm^ 
fenienejr  of  ooatrivaBee,  with  more  heada  aad  haa^ 
In  pint  and  praetiao  tbenfai.  And  tUa  may  b*  i 
evivfd  one  mab  canae  which  jaaiij  i 
jvalouay  againat  them,  and  in  doe  tfane  ad«aMi4il 

•IHm  Bmi 

BOOK  Yi.  m  England.  4S7 

destruction  of  monasteries,  because  fathering  the 
issue  of  earth  or  hell  to  be  the  oflbpring  of  heaven, 
entitling  their  monstrous  delusions  to  be  miraculous 


Such  false  miracles  are  reducible  to  two  ranks :     ^  ^^ 

toanT  Off 

i.   Reported,  but  never  done.  mizwte. 

ii.  Done,  but  not  true  miracles,  as  either  the  pro- 
duct of  nature,  art,  or  satanical  machination. 

2.  Of  the  former,  whose  being  is  only  in  report,  ^^pJ^* 
were  many  thousands,  whose  scene,  for  the  better 
countenancing  thereof,  is  commonly  laid  at  distance 
both  of  time  and  place.  These,  like  the  stuff  called 
stand-far-off,  must  not  have  the  beholder  too  near, 
lest  the  coarseness  thereof  doth  appear.  Thus  any 
reddish  liquor  (especially  if  near  the  eyes  of  the 
image  of  a  samt)  is  reported  blood ;  any  whitish 
moisture  (especially  if  near  the  breast  of  the  image 
of  a  she-saint)  is  related  to  be  milk:  though  both 
of  them  neither  more  nor  less  true  than  what  Wil-* 
liam  of  Newborough  writes  of  the  place  near  Battle 
Abbey  in  Sussex  ^  where  the  fight  was  fought 
between  the  Normans  and  English,  that  on  every 
shower  fresh  blood  springeth  out  of  the  earth,  as 
crying  to  Grod  for  vengeance;  being  nothing  else 
than  a  natural  tincture  of  the  earth,  which  doth 
dye  the  rain  red,  as  in  Rutland  and  in  other 

3.  Of  pretended  miracles  which  are  really  done^DoMVy 
let  precedency  be  allowed  to  those  which  proceed 

o  Camd.  Brit.  Id  Sussex,  [p.  225.] 

rrttm  8l  Nan's  Wd 

Tlu  HiHary  of  Abbey » 

Amn  twtntn)  ntHMv ;  and  hem  wf  will  ii 
nnL>  (lilt  (if  miuijF  tbi»imtHbi.    >k.  Nun's  Pnol  in  Coi 
wnll  wiu  fumuTly  &moiup  for  curing  mad  folk^A 
till*  tbp  mantirr  tiicrvof : 

4.  Tlio  water  ranninff 
into  a  aqaarc  an<l  rlnso  irallii)  pln^  which  n 
fiUnl   to  what   <lq>th   tln'v  WavA.     V\wn  tUt J 
wai  the  fnuitir  itomm  M*t,  liu  buck  bcin^  t 
the  [MKil,  011(1  ftvttn  tfacnre  with  a  suddMi  blow  i 
tbL<  brvast  lumhlcl  bcudlong  intii  tho  pond,  when 
rtrong  fellow  (provided  Tor  the  KMice)  took  hin  m 
UxmeA  him  up  ami  down  wiung  and  athwart  tlw 
water,  until  the  patient,  foregohif  hb  strmftth.  Ii 
•omcwhat  frirgi»t  hn  furr ;  then  wat  ho  i 
to  the  chun-h.  and   wrtaiu   maMea  aid  n 
and  St.  NuD  hod  tbo  tbaiika  or  hb  rcrovety.  : 
all  this  water  there  wan  nf>t  one  drop  nf  i 
but  mere  lutuml  eaoH!*  artificially  i 
that  not  euriag  the  phrvmy,  but  abating  tbo  I 
tbs  preMint. 

5.  Bat  other  MMsminfr  miracle*,  d^me  \*f  I 
and  tbo  oioranvDru  of  art,  wtre  ff)iun  with  i 
thivad,   e»]K<L-iAltjr   wtn^n    tbe^  mwle   advanta 
ooeult  qnaUtiea,  tho  eertala  maoii  wbiiveof  n 
•0|ilMr  can  randar.    Snch  eanallka  happen  i 
CfasMi  and  phMi^  whldi  ptnparij  are  not  i 
tbooKb  thejr  pnnle  all  men  t<>  *m\gt\  ih 
wfaareby  they  an  offbetcd ;  one  of  wbioh  kin 

I  to  pTHterfty,  iaVMtfd  with  all  the 
I  thertiif,  wliirb   I  have  nuvfullr  (not  tu  i 
eurioual;)  inquirvd  Into. 

6.  In  the  yvta  of  our  Lord  1646,  on  the  rixtoMlli 

f  Cwvw,  ta  hM  &«nw7  mt  Coraw^  p.  iij. 

oooK  VI.  in  England.  4S9 

of  February,  this  happened  in  the  parish  church, 
St.  Leonard's,  Eastcheap,  whilst  Mr.  Henry  Bough- 
borough  was  minister  and  Mr.  John  Taylor  upper 
churchwarden  thereof.  Thomas  Hill,  the  sexton  of 
that  parish,  making  a  grave  in  the  night-time  for 
George  Streaton,  in  the  south  side  in  the  passage 
into  the  chancel,  and  under  the  first  stone»  opened 
a  grave  wherein  he  found  two  skulls,  and,  as  he 
conceived,  the  proportionable  bones  of  bodies  be- 
longing unto  them;  under  all  these  he  lit  on  a 
corj^se,  whose  coffin  above  was  consumed,  but  the 
body,  which  he  brought  out  of  the  grave,  complete 
and  entire,  save  that  the  nose  thereof  flatted  with 
his  spade,  as  the  sexton  believed ;  the  flesh  thereof, 
both  for  colour  and  hardness,  like  scalded  bacon 
dried ;  his  hair  and  nails  complete,  with  his  eyes 
(but  sunk  into  his  head)  and  all  his  entoails  entire, 
(for  a  young  chirurgeon  did  open  him,)  save  that 
shrunk  very  much  within  his  body. 

7.  Some  said  it  Mras  the  corpse  of  Mr.  Pountney,  a  eorp« 
in  Soper  Lane,  a  merchant,  buried  thirty-four  years i 
before;  others,  of  one  Paul,  a  wealthy  butcher  in 
Eastcheap,  (which  Mras  averred  both  by  his  principal 
apprentice,  as  also  by  William  Haile^  the  old  sur- 
viving sexton,)  interred  four-and-twenty  years  ago. 
I  read  a  memorial  hereof  entered  in  their  paridi 
register,  and  thousands  of  people  are  alive  to  attest 
the  truth  thereof.  Had  this  happened  in  the  time 
of  popery,  what  a  stock  had  here  been  to  graft  a 
miracle  on,  the  branches  of  the  fame  whereof  would 
have  spread  all  over  Christendom. 

8.  Such  false  miracles  succeed  which  are  effiscted 
by  art  alone,  whereof  seyeral  kinds :  first,  such  asdm^art 
are  done  by  confederacy,  wherein  if  but  five  complot 

t«fFf>ther.  they  nuv  ensily  dceoive  flve 
thiiH  tlip  holy  mai<1  of  Kent  wns  axlniinNl  for 
mon'i  M^rpt  iiiiu,  by  koi'|iing  awnmpaaienef 
tho  frion  that  fomm-ly  haH  hmrd  their 
otbM*  dono  by  legenlcnuin :  tbni  tboro  wm  m  rva4 
at  Bexley  in  Kent  made  with  devioea  to  mow  tW 
oyei  and  Hpi,  fbnt  not  to  nee  ud  >pnk,)  wbiefc  ii 
the  year  ISSS  ^  wu  publicly  iihcw«d  at  St.  PaaF*  hf 
tite  iirporher,  (then  hishop  of  Rochester.)  and  thtan 
broken  in  pieces,  the  iwople  Uu^ing  at  Ibat  wkiek 
they  adonyl  bat  iin  hour  before.  Sueb 
waa  alao  uiied  at  llaitt<ii  Ab)>ey  in  Gl 
where  tbc  UiKKJ  of  a  duck  (for  gack  it 
at  tlio  diwotvinjr  of  the  house)  «aa  to  rui 
eonvi'yril  that  it  »tnin^-ly  spurted  or  apranir  up,  to 
the  great  anuuccmeat  of  ooounan  people,  accounttay 
it  the  blood  of  otir  Sarioor. 
"  9.  Thirdly.  stnuifi;e  tbinga  an  dune  by 
which  is  a  mysterious  manner  of  uttering 
not  out  of  (hr  |torrh  of  iho  mouth  and  mtryr  ti 
the  throat,  (tlto  romninii  plan^  of  KiKvrh,)  hat  ovfe 
of  the  itiwanl  ruoiit  or  rather  orrbeil  cellar  nf  tho 
belly,  yt>t  mi  that  tlte  hoIlowneM  thereof  aeeinitagly 
fixeth  tbo  aouiul  at  a  ilifttaiiot\  which  no  donbi  htth 
been  mistook  for  the  Tciiro  of  images. 

10.  l^iitly,  Mich  as  are  done  by  tbo  pomr  «f 
Satan,  who  bath  a  high  title  ami  largi*  territofy.  aa 
tenned  prince  of  tht  potrrr  of  the  air '.  Now  tbe 
air  botqg  Satan's  shop,  bo  batb  tbtuvin  many  tuob 
to  woifc  irtth,  and  maeh  nattor  to  work  on ;  U  to 
the  i^iini)  of  Betaon,  lightning,  ihtmdMr,  mmm. 

Chrno.    ill    tb« 

'  Kpfcfk.  ii.  ). 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  4S1 

hail,  wind,  rain,  comets,  &o.  wherewith  many  won- 
ders may  be  achieved  ;  and  it  is  observable  that  air 
is  required  to  those  two  senses,  sight  and  hearing, 
which  usher  in  most  outward  objects  into  the  soul. 
False  lights  are  of  great  advantage  to  such  as  vend 
bad  wares:  Satan's  power  must  needs  be  great  in 
presenting  shows  and  sounds,  who  can  order  the 
air,  and  make  it  dark  or  light,  or  thick  or  thin,  at 

11.  We  will  conclude  with  one  particular  kind  ofPi»tyrf 
miracles,  wherein  monks,  by  the  deviPs  help,  didphedei. 
drive  a  great  trade :  namely,  predictions,  or  pretended 
prophecies.  Of  these  some  were  post-date,  cunningly 
made  after  the  thing  came  to  pass ;  and  that  made 

the  invention  of  Prometheus  which  was  the  act  of 
Epimetheus.  Others  were  languaged  in  such  doubt- 
ful expressions  that  they  bare  a  double  sense,  and 
commonly  came  to  pass  contrary  to  the  ordinary 
acceptance  of  them.  However,  hereby  Satan  saved 
his  credit,  (who  loves  to  tell  lies,  but  loathes  to  be 
taken  in  them,)  and  we  will  only  instance  in  two  or 
three,  which  we  may  write  and  hear  with  the  more 
patience  because  the  last  in  this  kind,  which  at  the 
dissolution  of  abbeys  brought  up  the  rest  of  monas- 
tical  prophecies. 

12.  There  was  in  Wales  a  great  and  loobily  image,  a  fimu 
called  Darvell  Gatheme,  of  which  an  old  prophecy  fmi^ 
went  that  it  should  bum  a  forest,  and  on  that 
account  was   beheld  by  the  ignorant  with   much 
veneration.     Now  at  the  dissolution  of  abbeys  it 

was  brought  up  to  London,  and  burnt  at  the 
gallows  in  Smithfield,  with  friar  Forrest^  executed 
for  a  traitor. 

Tin  HUbify  ^  Ahhtft  >««  n.  ' 

JjJJJ""^  13.  A  pro|ibocy  wm  rummt  in  th«  abbej  «f 
Mkau.  GloRttinbnry,  tlint  n  whitinji  mIkhiM  iwim  on  iW 
top  of  tliu  Torr  t)iere«r.  (which  ii  n  vtetft  hill  I 
by.)  luid  the  crcdulmu  cnaotry  poof4e  niMlcntoad  H  of 
an  eruption  of  tho  Mia,  which  they  nupt.'clt.'d  annnl- 
ionly.  It  happened  that  abbot  Whiting  (U 
of  GtafftoDbutT-)  waa  bangad  tberwm  for  Ua  i 
■uicj  to  nirreoder  tbe  abbey,  and  denying  tho  kfa^  1 
mprctnary ;  an  Bwimraitifr  in  nlr.  and  not  i 
waved  with  tbe  wind  in  tbe  pUee. 
l;^^      1^  We  will  oloMt  all  with  tba  pfO|ibirtical  i 

(at  leaatwiau  m  men  aiooe  haTa  espouBd«d  Ihc^) 
of  tho  thrco  laat  mccurivo  abbots  of  Glo 
became  mueh  of  mudeaty  and  ■omBthing  i 
Dootainod  therein  : 

I.  Abbot  Bullion,  [or  Dutler.]  MemtiUo,  i 
tbat  fa,  a*  aoBw  will  have  it.  Remember,  r 
tUt  abbey  mwt  be  dlMolTcd. 

U.  Abbot  Smbfookft  Fial  roimtat  Dimimi ;  ttet 
la,  If  it  moft  be  dknlvod.  the  will  i>f  the  l^jcd  b* 

IB.  Abbot  Maubom,  [or  Malvura,]  Mtr 
tuteita  :    Rabe    up  tfaoav  which  are  diowail  !■  j 

Which  HMne  My  wai  accomptifcbed  whm  thb 
■hbey  fimnd  that  fiivonr  fhnn  king  llenij  Che 
Eighth  to  be  Tailed  into  a  bbbf^irie.  But  I  like 
the  text  better  than  tbe  eomnewt,  and  then  ia 
noro  humility  in  their  mntto*  than  M^tdity  in  tbe 

•  (bi  kh  tiM  wM  baUl  tW  Ue  Iba  huM  feahM  *•  iMt 
whfchwi— dringnWphM—W     Moom*.  1.  995.) 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  433 


The  English  monks  were  bookish  of  themselves,  English 
and  much  inclined  to  hoard  up  monuments  of  learn- exoeiienUy 
ing.  Britain,  we  know,  is  styled  "  another  world,**  *^™" 
and  in  this  contradistinction  (though  incompambly 
less  in  quantity)  acquits  itself  well  in  proportion  of 
famous  writers,  producing  almost  as  many  classical 
schoolmen  for  her  natives  as  all  Europe  besides. 
Other  excellent  books  of  foreign  authors  were 
brought  hither,  purchased  at  dear  rates,  if  we  con- 
sider that  the  press  (which  now  runs  so  incredibly 
fiist)  was  in  that  age  in  her  infancy,  newly  able  to 
go  alone,  there  being  then  few  printed  books  in 
c()nij)arison  of  the  many  manuscripts.  These,  if 
carefully  collected  and  methodically  compiled,  would 
have  amounted  to  a  library  exceeding  that  of 
Ptolemy's  for  plenty,  or  many  Vaticans  for  choice- 
ness  and  rarity;  yea,  had  they  been  transported 
Ijevond  the  seas,  sent  over  and  sold  entire  to  such 
wlio  knew  their  value,  and  would  preserve  them, 
England's  loss  had  been  Europe's  gain,  and  the 
detriment  the  less  to  leaniing  in  general ;  yea,  many 
years  after  the  English  might  have  repurchased  for 
])ounds  what  their  grandfathers  sold  for  fewer  pence 
into  foreign  parts. 

2.  liut  alas  !  those  abbeys  were  now  sold  to  such  The  miaer- 
cliapnion,  in  whom  it  was  questionable  whether  their  tyniom  of 
i^noi-ance  or  avarice  were  greater,  and  they  made^^^Sf** 
havoc  and  destruction  of  all.     As  brokers  in  Long 
Tjanc,  wlien  they  buy  an  old  suit,  buy  the  linings 

FIJLLKR,  vol..  in.  F  f 


n,  lliuan,  of  Abhiy 

I  raocQTCd  I 

Ingrtlicr  with  tlit*  ouuiik-.  w>  it  i 
thai  aiirli  as  |iun')iup<I  tlio  titiiltling*  of  moi 
ftbcniM  ill  ttu-  Mime  ^nuit  Iimvc  the  Ubtmrie*  (lfc» 
ntuffinjr  tlicriHir)  ronvi'vinl  unto  ihcm.  And  mam 
tlii'M'  igtiorniit  owiii^rs,  mi  Inti^  w  tbcv  tniglit  kccy  • 
k-djp'f-lKMik  «ir  t(*rrii.'r,  \t\  dirwtton  Ibonof  to  1 
Hitrh  »tmp:(irlii)fr  ncn-it  wt  iM'Innjn"!  unto  tin 
rantl  nut  (o  iirLtipn'i.'  nny  otliiT  moauiiMi&ta. 
c<ivers  of  bnukit,  with  curiniu  bna  I 
intcndml  to  protoct.  (troved  t»  btftnr  tbeca.  I 
tb<*  bwlfi  of  envcloiiinK'-wi ;  and  wa,  nuuir  exn 
anLhn^^  8tri|>[H'<]  niii  of  tht-ir  mtvn,  were  ivfi.  t 
to  In>  Imnit  iir  thnmii  awnv.  Thus  .%Uo|>'«  i 
rastialtr  lifjhtinj;  on  a  |MiirI,  |>reft'm-d  a  grmUi  I 
it ;  Tct  he  left  it  aa  hv  found  it,  and,  u  b«  i 
DO  profit  hj  tbi>  prari,  it  rpreiToil  no  < 
him:  wheieai  the»o  cruvl  mnooranta,  w 
iMrtiaRiuii  bealu  and  f^nt-dv  elawi.  imt,  i 
tattcml  tbeae  ineatinuible  pieces  of  antiffuity.  WW  • 
would  think  that  tho  &tbcm  abould  bo  < 
to  Durh  MYvile  ptnploTmcnt  an  tu  be  mtvcngvi^  to 
tnako  rlmn  ihi*  fouU-vt  Mnk  in  mw>'%  bridi<<«  t  Vaa, 
whirb  is  wufM!,  nutnv  an  ancii>nt  manuanipt  Uible  eat 
in  pieea  to  cnvi-r  fitthj'  {wnipblotA  ;  hi  that  a  rape  of 
diuDond  bath  bctin  nia<lo  to  ko'p  dirt  within  it : 
jn,  tlie  wine  m<*n  of  Oothain  bound  tip  in  tkc  wb- 
dom  of  JSolumnn. 
i^'^  S.  Hat  biiir  bow  John  Bale,  a  man  tnftcwntfy 
iZZImZ  arrne  from  the*  Iraat  shadow  of  puptirr.  hatJnj  ■!   i 

mm^     monkerj-  wjlb  a   [HTft-ct    batn-d,  comp(~' — '  * '  ' 

to  king  EdwanI  tho  Hixth  ' :  **  CoTetooi 

■    In    kn    [KrlAntMMi    ' 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  4S5 

"  that  time  so  busy  about  private  commodity,  that 
^  public  wealth  in  that  most  necessary  and  of  respect 
"  was  not  any  where  regarded. — A  great  number  of 
''  them  which  purchased  those  superstitious  mansions 
"  reserved  of  those  library  books  some  to  serve  their 
*^  Jakes,  some  to  scour  their  candlesticks,  and  some 
to  rub  their  boots ;  some  they  sold  to  the  grocers 
and  soap-sellers,  and  some  they  sent  over  sea  to 
''  the   bookbinders,  not    in   small  number,  but  at 
'^  times  whole  ships  full,  to  the  wondering  of  the 
"  foreign  nations.  Yea,  the  universities  of  this  realm 
'^  are   not  all  clear  in  this   detestable  fact ;    but 
*^  cursed  is  that  belly  which  seeketh  to  be  fed  with 
**  such  ungodly  gains,  and  so  deeply  shameth  his 
^  natural  country.     I  know  a  merchant-man  (which 
''  shall  at  this  time  be  nameless)  that  bought  the 
contents  of  two  noble  libraries  for  forty  shillings 
price,  a  shame  it  is  to  be  spoken.    This  stuff  hath 
he  occupied  instead  of  grey  paper  by  the  space  of 
more  than  these  ten  years,  and  yet  he  hath  store 
''  enough  for  as  many  years  .  to  come.    A  grodigi- 
''  ous  example  is  this,  and  to  be  abhorred  of  all 
^'  men  which  love  their  nation  as  they  should  do. — 
''  Yea,  what  may  bring  our  realm  to  more  shame 
''  and  rebuke  than  to  have  it  noised  abroad  that  we 
''  are  despisers  of  learning  ?     I  judge  this  to  be  true, 
''  and    utter  it    with    heaviness,   that  neither  the 
"  Britons  under  the  Romans  and  Saxons,  nor  yet 
''  the  English  people  imder  the  Danes  and  Normans, 
''  had  ever  such  damage  of  their  learned  monuments 
''  as  we  have  seen  in  our  time.     Our  posterity  may 
''  well  curse  this  wicked  fact  of  our  age,  this  un- 
''  reasonable  spoil  of  England's  most  noble  anta* 




4M  Tk»  Uktatg  ^AU^  amm 

l*M»i«^  4.  What  soul  can  be  m  tmunn  u  not  to  i 
MiMMT-  into  uigvr  licniUT  What  heart,  haviag  tlw  1 
Jfa^^^iqiark  of  ingennitv.  U  not  hut  at  thk 
oflbml  Ut  Ittvraturu  ?  I  deny  not  bat  I 
bmp  of  books  then*  wni  mach  rabbit :  I 
lyitig  Icigeodt,  good  for  nothing  bat 
keeping  wooM  hare  canied  the  Iom  of  i 
dous  time  in  reading  tbtm.  I  eonfea*  i 
were  many  Tolumes  full  fraught  with  i 
which  notKithiitiuiiling  might  he  oaefiil  1 
raen ;  except  any  will  dcn^  apotbeeariea  i 
lege  of  keeping  poiwna  in  their  abopa,  i 
can  make  antidutei  of  them.  But,  1 
what  lifauliful  Bible's,  rare  ratben,  subtle  i 
iiSL>ful  historiaiH  (anoimt,  middle,  modern)! 
painftU  comments  wore  here  i 
Dwanimnti  of  nuUberaatiea !  mII  t 
■eoing  oTor;  book  with  a  enm  waa  < 
pf)pi»h  ;  with  circle*,  for  ooq^rtng.  Yoa.  I  mv 
that  then  holy  dirinity  was  profiued.  phTwr  I 
hurt ;  and  a  tmi]nH,  yea,  a  rint  committed  em  I 
law  itself;  and  nion<  parHcnlarly  the  Usloiy  i 
fiMTiKT  timit  then  and  tlii'rr  rcceircd  a  < 
wound,  whereof  it  baltx  at  thin  day.  and,  * 
bo)>e  of  a  perfurt  niro,  mutrt  gn  a  ertpplol 

5.  .Some  wnold  penoade  us  that  in  all  MaM 

was  a  mnack  or  taste  t^  anabaptintical  fiuf,t 

H^^'^i  about    this   time   began   in   (tennanT, 

l^**    de«lruyvd  the  *tatelj-  libraries  of  Mun^eri 

*•■*      burg.     Indetxl.  a>  the  x-icked  tenants  in  ( 

thmijrht  ttieniki'lYcs  not  safe  in  and  fture  of  t 

fan]  till  thoT  hail  killed  the  heir,  that  m>  U 

ritance  might  bo  tlwir  own,  so  thi'  ani 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  '     4«37 

ceived  themselves  not  in  quiet  possession  of  their 
anarchy,  and  sufficiently  established  therein,  whilst 
any  learning  did  survive,  which  in  process  of  time 
might  recover  its  right  against  them ;  and  therefore 
they  beat  their  brains  to  the  final  extirpation 
thereof.  But  I  am  more  charitably  inclined  to 
conceive  that  simple  ignorance,  not  fretted  and 
embossed  with  malice  or  affected  hatred  to  learning, 
caused  that  desolation  of  libraries  in  England ; 
though  perchance  some  there  were  who  conceived 
these  books,  as  the  garment  spotted  with  sin  **,  had 
contracted  such  a  guilt,  being  so  long  in  the  posses- 
sion of  superstitious  owners,  that  they  deserved  as 
an  anathema  to  be  consigned  to  a  perpetual  de- 

6.  Some  will  say  that  herein  I  discover  an  han- Suiicm  dii- 
kering  after  the  onions  and  flesh-pots  of  Egjrpt,  and  cauadetsiy 
that  the  bemoaning  the  loss  of  these  monuments  is*®^®^ 
no  better  than  Lot's  wife's  looking  back  with  a  fare- 
well glance  to  the  filthy  city  of  Sodom.     To  such  I 
protest  myself  not  to  have  the  least  inclination  to 
the  favour  of  monkery.     But  enough :  for  I  know 
some  back-friends  of  learning  there  be  that  take  it 
ill  that  we  have  jogged  them  in  this  discourse ;  and 
therefore   we   will   let   them  alone,  to   be   settled 
(luietly  on  the  lees  of  their  own  ignorance,  praying 
to  God  that  never  good  library  may  lie  at  the  mercy 
of  their  disposal,  lest,  having  the  same  advantage, 
they  play  the  like  prank,  to  the  prejudice  of  learn- 
ing and  religion. 

^  Jude  23. 

Ff  8 

ne  Bhtmrf  ^  Miey 





If  crrr  the  jtoet's  fictinB  of  s  golden  tkmmm 
imineil  into  Dknae  her  Imp  fbaiid  a 
perfctmince,  it  ww  dov.  at  the  (IMpatfaw  of  4 
ImhIi  :  and  tboogli  wv  will  hoc  give  hfaring  or  % 
in  (bll  latHode  of  bi«  tlaBdemu  pe-n  that  iipirti  ' 
how  kiDg  Ilenrj  (when  aaeiait  and  'iliiii— J,  t 
teric  and  eurioui  In  CriflM)  wai  woM  to  roward  ■ 
■a  ordered  hb  tlunie  or  diatr  In  a  eamweaiam 
diataiice  from  the  fire,  to  as  to  pleaae  him  wMk  A» 
church  of  aomo  abbe;  or  lead  of  Mne  rfaordi  *.  jM 
it  b  ecTtahi  that  in  this  age  nnall  tDcrita  of  r 
nu4  with  a  prodif^otu  rerompeDce  far  tbeir  • 
not  onlr  all  the  coi^t*.  but  the  mean 
in  the  king'«  kitchen  did  liclc  hli  flngeis ;  ] 
king>  aerranta,  to  the  third  ami  ftmith 
tatted  of  hlf  liberality ;  it  hetiig  but  proportiovafaiB, 
that  where  the  maater  got  the  manor  in  fee.  Ua  ■■■ 
under  him  should  obtain  kmih*  long  leaae  of  a  turn 
of  oatiiidefal>l«  ralue. 
!B««>T  <•  Indeed  king  Henry,  beiidva  hti  own  d%mritka 
'S**  to  manifloenoe,  wai  doobly  coneomod  to  ba  bw— Uftd 
herein:  first,  in  boooor,  for  leeinjt  the  parllaMeaK 
with  one  bmith  had  blown  lo  mnch  profit  unto  him, 
and  bad  with  their  mAaga  coaferred  the  harrevt  vf 
abbey  laiidtt  on  the  crown.  It  «w  fitting  that  motmt 
[■qwdallT  thf  |irincipal  advaneen  of  the  bwin^| 
lould.  aith  Itutb,  y^n  oiimm^  Mh  liiai—',- 
■Pcandly,  in  policy,  to  make  many  and  great  «■■ 

I  Mntk  II.  i& 

BOOK  vr.  in  England,  439 

effectually  sensible  of  the  profit  of  this  dissolution, 
and  so  engaged  to  defend  it.  Wlierefore,  as  he  took 
the  greater  flowers  to  garnish  his  own  crown,  so  he 
bestowed  the  less  buds  to  beautify  his  noblemen's 
coronets.  But,  besides  these,  he  passed  abbey  lands 
in  a  four-fold  nature  to  persons  of  meaner  quality. 

^.  First,  by  free  gift.  Herein  take  one  story  of  Jf"^  ^^^' 
many:  Master  John  Champernowne  ^  son  and  heir  nowne  got 
ap])arent  of  sir  Philip  Champernowne,  of  Modbury  of  st.  Oer. 
in  Devon,  followed  the  court,  and  by  his  pleasant  "™^"'" 
conceits  won  good  grace  with  the  king.  Tt  happened 
two  or  three  gentlemen,  the  king's  servants  and  Mr. 
Champeniowne's  acquaintance,  waited  at  a  door 
where  the  king  was  to  pass  forth,  with  purpose  to 
beg  of  his  highness  a  large  parcel  of  abbey  lands, 
specified  in  their  petition.  Champernowne  was  very 
inquisitive  to  know  their  suit,  but  they  would  not 
impart  the  nature  thereof.  This  while  out  comes 
the  king ;  they  kneel  down,  so  doth  Mr.  Champer- 
nowne, being  assured  by  an  implicit  faith  that  cour- 
tiers would  beg  nothing  hurtful  to  themselves  ;  they 
prefer  their  petition,  the  king  grants  it ;  they  render 
him  humble  thanks,  and  so  doth  Mr.  Champeniowne. 
Afterwards  he  requires  his  share,  they  deny  it ;  he 
appeals  to  the  king;  the  king  avows  his  equal 
moaning  in  the  largess :  whereupon  his  companions 
were  fain  to  allot  this  gentleman  the  priory  of  St. 
Germains  in  Cornwall,  valued  at  two  hundred  forty- 
three  pound    and  eight   shillings   of  yearly  rent*, 

z  Careu-'s  Survey  of  Corn-  *  Speed,   [p.  1053,   3rd  ed. 

wall.  fol.  109,  [ed.  1602.  Lady  and  Dugdale  I.  ad  fin.]     But 

diainpernowne    is    mentioned  quuere  whether  he  had  all  the 

by    Strype    as    having    some  land,  or  only  the  site  of  the 

charuro  of  the  princess   EUiza-  priory. 
beth.   Grind.  5.] 

F  f  4 

440  The  ITtMlory  of  AbUyt 

(rinee  Xrj  liim  or  hifl  beln  tuld  to  Mr.  EUoC.)  ftir  Ut 

pwtage.     Hero  a  dumb  bcfcgBr  met  with  «  blind  . 

ginr,  Ibo  mw  m  little  kaowiog  wbat  ha  i 

tbo  other  «b>t  he  ivnuitad.    That  Ung  H« 

cufworj  eharton,  and  in  Inmtilm  I 

buxlx.     I  oould  add  how  be  gave  a  rvti^m 

«r  wimu   valuu   to    Mtntn^m   [Comwallis],   fiiir  pr«- 

M'nliog  liiiii  vUh  a  diafa  of  puddiugi  wbieh  | 

bia  palate. 

mificM  thouMuid  |M>iiml  |<«<r  nntiam.    Oneo  being  at  d 
~"        plaTud  with  idr  .Milco  I*artridjB[o  {utaking  an  Ir 
pontKb  a^inut  them)  fin-  Jtaiu  U-lk  ^  I 
steeple  uot  fiir  fntni  St.  PaiilV   in   IjiKidun,  umI   ■• 
gniat  and  tiiruil)l(i  n»  tutj  in  the  citT,  aiid  liMt  them 
at  a  cant.     1  will  unl.  with  soine.  bHj^tcit  the  guilt 
of  this  net  <N|iuil  to  tluu  which  e*ut  lt4t  nm  Ckruf*  ' 
gmrmmti ;  but  ntrc   it  in  tio  sin   to  mj  that  I 
thingB  dcaoTTcd  more  aerioiu  and  ddibenltl 

5.  TliinilT.  by  I'xrhaiiKf.     To  make  I 
iiont'  wi'iv  frtpbt«l  with  tbi*  king's  power,  1 
tonxl  into  tbinn  \ty  tbo  apprchranon  of  I 
profit ;  Ibr  many  hodf  of  cobjeeta,  either  i 
bald  or  newljr  iharen  of  their  woods,  were  eon 
for  grange*  of  ahbeyi.  which,  like  mtjrn  or  ae 
were  all  mcigiowu  with  \tw*  and  timber,  ' 
other  diadvanlage^  both  for  i|uantitT  an«l  vpalBty  « 
ground,  as  enbaneed  ftir  old  rent.     Oh,  here  i 
Royal  Exchange! 

fc  ewm\  fhmw  mT  X.mAnm,  aib  a  fiMwifr  Md  •  iW 
[p.  JJ7.  nU  air  Miln  IW-  ■fktfwwAi  wtritfctJ  fey 
tfUii*,  •  MM  aatortdDi  far  hk    kMb  mljmA^    Sm  Sir 

BOOK  VI.  in  England.  441 

6.  Lastly,  by  sale  at  under  rates.     Indeed  it  is  Unoon- 

SCI  on&iilts 

beneath  a  prince  (enough  to  break  his  state  to  stoop  uuder.saie 
to  each  virgato  and  rod  of  ground)  pedlar-like  to  ^^^ 
higgle   for  a  toy  by  retail ;   and   all   tenants  and 
chapmen  which  contract  with  kings   expect  good 
bargains ;  yet  officers  entrusted  to  manage  the  reve- 
nue of  the  crown  ought  not  to  behold  it  abused  out 
of  all  distance,  in  such  under-valuations.  Except  any 
will  say  he  is  not  deceived  who  would  be  deceived, 
and  king  Henry,  for  the  reason  aforesaid,  connived 
at  such  bargains,  wherein  rich  meadow  was  sold  for 
barren  heath,  great  oaks   for  fuel,   and   farms  for 
revenue  passed  for  cottages  in  reputation.     But  for 
farther  instruction  we  remit  the  reader  to  that  in- 
fonnation  ^  presented  to  queen  Elizabeth  by  a  man 
in  authority  (though  nameless)  of  the  several  frauds 
and  deceits  offered  the  crown  in  this  kind.     But 
the  motion  rather  drew  odium  on  the  author  than 
brought  advantage  to  the  crown :  partly  because  of 
the  number  and  quality  of  persons  concerned  therein, 
and  partly  because  (after  thirty  years)  the  owners  of 
abbeys  were  often  altered ;  and  though  the  chamber 
be  the  same,  yet  if  the  guests  be  a  new  company,  it 
is  hard  for  the  host  from  them  to  recover  his  old 
arrearages.     Yea,  by  this  time  when  the  foresaid 
information  was  given  in,  the  present  possessors  of 
much  abbey  land  were  as  little  allied  to  those  to 
whom  king  Henry  granted  them,  as  they  to  whom 
the  king  first  passed  them  were  of  kin  to  the  first 
founders  of  those  monasteries. 

c  Wee ver's  Funeral  Mon.  pag.  115. 

AND   JirsTICK.    I>UNK    UV    KINO    ItEN'RV    THK 

Rioimi.  oinr  ok  the  KEVENUeft  op  dm- 


Wu  wttuld  iKtt  wilHnj^Ijr  be  •cMmntud 
callt'd  the  Httiioato-wot  amofijfvt  tlie 
■"  oRirf  it  WM  only  to  tjiico  imtin*  of  ibr 
bli'inUhtp%  thi'  ilcfocu  nn']  ilcfonnkkn  in 
\Vi*  would  nol  weed  kinj(  llotir)-'*  krtions  in  U* 
diamlvinj;  uf  nbbt'V!!,  mi  u  otiir  to  mark 
carriaj^vo  and  mimlt'tiK^noiin  tberrin. 
e<insidt>r  what  ronimt-iidablc  dtwd*  thk 
nuM.'  oti  the  niiiM  of  nirtnaNtf^rif*. 
,rT  i-  KirKt,  lie  jKditirly  inorrased  the 
*  the  cmwn  and  <lurtir  of  Ijaiiautrr,  (on 
bestowed  the  nrh  abbey  of  Foumu*  in  that  eoa^i;j 
with  annexing  much  land  ttu'tvto.  and 
ooart  of  angmentatioDa  (wbereaf  laigdjr 
lor  the  moie  netbodleal  managing  tberatif ;  $km^ 
•laa !  what  the  crown  poMeMed  of  abbey  hod  wm 
nothing  to  what  bo  pammd  away.  Kurely  bad  tlw 
revenues  of  monastones  been  enliivly  kept  and  paid 
into  tbo  exchiM|uer.  there  to  make  an 
Mcmm  ur  |>ublic  trvasury,  it  is  questkmablv 
tbv  same  ha<l  been  more  for  the  eoae  of  the 
or  nso  and  honour  of  tbc  nonivign. 

9.  Secondly,  be  (Hotuly  founded  five 
d>  »oro  (besidos  one  at  Westaiatter,  whiek 
tiniin]  iKrt)  where  nooe  bad  been  before ;  for  ti 
anciently  tht-tv  had  been  ■  biskop'a  «nU  at  CI 
for  a  nbort  time,  yet  it  was  then  ou  better 
■ummer>hooM>  of  the  biftho|i  of  LichReUf 
daring  the   life  uf  one    IVter    livini;    tborc.' 


in  Englaxid. 


now  was  solemnly  made  a  bishopric  for  succession, 
and  four  others,  namely, 

Ri»hop*i  See, 

Dlooete  oisignediL 

Taken  from  the 
B'ithaprie  of 

1.  Oxford. 

2.  Bristol. 

3.  Peterborough. 

4.  Glourenter. 

5.  Chester. 

1.  Oxfordshire. 

2.  Donet,  and  tome  part  of 


3.  NorthainpUmshire  and 


4.  Okiuoestemhire,  the  rest 

5.  Chester,  Lancaster,  and 


1.  Lincoln. 
3.  Salisbury. 

3.  Linooln. 

4.  Worcester. 

5.  Uriifield  and 


Such  who  honour  prelacy^  must  acknowledge  these 
new  foundations  of  the  king^s  for  a  worthy  work. 
Those  also  of  contrary  judgment  will  thus  fox  forth 
approve  his  act,  because,  had  he  otherwise  expended 
these  abbey  lands,  and  not  continued  them  to  our 
times  in  these  new  bishoprics,  they  had  not  been  in 
being,  by  their  late  sale,  to  supply  the  conmion- 

4.  Thirdly,  where  he  found  a  prior  and  monks  Monks* 
belonging  to  any  ancient  cathedral  church,  there  hetarMdimo 
converted  the  same  into  a  dean  and  prebendaries,  i******^ 

as  m 

1.  Canterbury. 

2.  Winchester. 

3.  Ely. 

4.  Norwich. 

5.  Worcester. 

6.  Rochester. 
7*  Durham. 
8.  Carlisle. 

I  dare  not  say  that  he  entirely  assigned  (though  a 
good  author  ^  affirmeth  it)  all  or  the  most  part  of 
those  ])riory  lands  to  these  his  new  foundations* 
However,  the  expression  of  a  late  bishop  of  Nor- 

*' [In  some  copies,  "Such  who         «  CJodwin  in  Henry  VIII. 
**  are  prelatically  persuaded."]       anno  1539^ 

4M  The  Hhitwf  «/  J  bbeyi 

wich'ii  enmpbini>4l  of  u  uncivil  and  ui 
**  kinf;  llt-'iir)-  took  nwav  the  *)\*x\i  (nmx  ( 
"  tlnj,  anil  iliil  not  restore  00  much  h  tl 
"  unto  it." 

5.  Fourtlil^,  hu  cluritmbl5  founded  waay 
faMHhi  hr  tclioob,  (great  need  whereof  in  thai  age  in  tl 
^'^         aa  in  Canterbury.  CoTontrjr,  Woraeatar,  kt 
liberal  aalaries  to  tbo  nuuten  and  tMba 
had  they  been  careftiUjr  pnavrrcd  :  but 
tite  gifta  of  a  bountiful  master  cbrink  in  tl 
thniiigli  tbo  hands  of  a  oovetooa  steward. 
^M|tad^      6.  KifUiIr,  ho  charitably  beMowwl  Otcj  Fkkn  | 
bmrfHi    (now  cuiuiiionly  calU-d  Chrivt  Church)  and  tbe  1 

|iitjU  of  b)t.  llartholntnow,  in  Londitn.  nn  that  eitT, 
fur  tho  relief  of  tbi.'  poor  then-uf ;  for  tlm  d««Ui  of  J 
Charles  Unuidon.  dulie  of  SuSVilk,  (ht>  bcknred  h>»- 1 
thcr>io-law,)  bapjwiiing  tho  July  before,  ao  ii 
king  Henry  with  n  Aerioiu  apprvbennon  of  hb  vmu  \ 
mortality,  (nich  tbe  aympotby  of  teui|icn^  i 
of  conTene,  and  uo  great  diA|arily  of  age  1 
tbinn.)  that  bo  thought  it  high  time  to  betfaiiik  I 
•L-lf  of  hiB  ciic).  and  to  do  tome  good  work  in  o( 
thfri'uiito.     Ih>n>u)ioiL  on  the  ISth  of  Januan  I 
luwinjT.  anno  15-tti  *,  ho  bestowed  tbe  aid  I 
(»n  the  city  :  a  gift  ndeni'anU  cnnfitiDedn 
by  king  Kdward  the  Sixth. 
«*».         7.  Hixtbly.  ho  Wll  and  endowed  tbe  1 
SSte  eollege  of  Triiiitr.  finishttl  Kin^t'ii  College  i 
■n-'piM  Cambridge,  and  founded  pnifeMor*'  phe ' 
SJir^  P**K>*>  ^y^  l>^"'<  A"*'  divinity,  in  both  1 
M  in  tlie  pfoper  plac*^'  thereof  nhall  b 

f  Shnr'i  Surnj  of 


BOOK  VI.  in  England.  445 

8.  Seventhly,  he  employed  John  Leland,  a  mogtLdand 
learned  antiquary,  to  perambulate  and  viMt  the  ruins  ^^m 
of  all  abbeys,  and  record  the  memorables  therein.  JJ^i'^J^^ 
It  seems,  though  the  buildings  were  destroyed,  ^DgJSJJJ^ 
Henry  would  have  the  builders  preserved,  and  their 
memories  transmitted  to  posterity.  This  task  Leland 
performed  with  great  pains,  to  his  great  praise,  on 
the  king's  purse,  who  exhibited  most  bountifully 
unto  him,  as  himself  confesseth  in  these  his  Latin 
verses : 

Ante  8U08  Phwbus  radios  astendere  mundo 

Desinet^  et  claras  Oynihia  ptdchra  faces : 
Antefluet  rapidum  iacitis  sinepiscibtu  tBqitor^ 

Spini/er  et  nuUam  smUU  habebU  avem  : 
Ante  sacrw  quereus  eessabuni  spargere  ramos^ 

Fhraq  soUicita  pingere  praia  inofitt : 
Quam^  Beoo  aKve^  iuum  lahatur  peetore  nostro 

Nomen^  quod  siudiiSy  portus  ei  aura,  meis. 

The  sun  shaU  sooner  cease  his  shine  to  shew, 

And  moon  deny  her  lamp  to  men  below ; 

The  rapid  seas  shall  sooner  fishless  slide, 

And  bushes  quite  forget  their  birds  to  hide ; 

(f  rcat  oaks  shall  sooner  oeaae  to  spread  their  bowers, . 

And  Flora  for  to  paint  the  meads  with  flowers, 

Than  thou,  great  king,  shalt  slip  out  of  my  breast. 

My  studies'*  gentle  gale  and  quiet  rest. 

Pity  is  it  that  Leland's  worthy  collections  were 
never  made  public  in  print ;  and  some,  justly  to  be 
praised  for  care  in  preserving,  may  as  justly  be  taxed 
for  envy  in  engrossing  such  monuments  of  antiquity. 
But  let  us  a  little  trace  Leland's  Itineraries,  after  he 
in  A\Titing  had  finished  the  same.  First,  his  collec- 
tions came  into  the  hand  of  sir  John  Gheke,  school* 
master,  then  secretary  to  king  Edward  the  Sixth, 

7***  Atttoy  y  jlUiy*  mw  •■. 

leavfaif  tbe  msm  to  Ucai;  Cktke,  kii  flUmi  «i^ 
seereUiy  to  tfcs  fiimii  Jl  fai  tW  owtk.  Hea*  ^ 
jnvat  antiqaafT.  wbo  aftenrard*  ih'Mirihwi  BnM^ 
gai  a  fligbt  and  made  a  food  oae  ibeteoC  ■>  M«( 
moM  tnic,  (I  LfiamdmM  mtm  laharntMt^  Camtd^mm^  om 
trimmpiaaaet.  Vrvtm  Mr.  C9idce  (t?  *ltot  tMrnrnm- 
tiona  I  know  not)  fear  of  Ldand't  works  cbbb  IM* 
Uie  {Msevioa  of  William  Bniton.  as  he  iiiBfiiB^fc 
in  bb  doKripUno  of  L^lirw^l^l■lli^e^  and  hj  Mm 
wera  bestowed  on  tbe  pnbBo  librai7  at  OzfaC 
where  tbe  nrifinal  remainoth,  and  eearoe  «d  wamj 
eopic*  of  them  ait  properly  may  be  called  wanm  m» 
at  thu  day  in  private  men'*  piwewioni. 

9.  Thi*  I^IukI,  afWr  tbe  ikath  of  ki^  H«Hi7 
the  Eighth,  his  Umnti^l  {Mtrnii,  fell  dutnctcd,  aal 
•0  died ;  iiiirertaui  whether  bin  brum  wnr  IwiitiB 
with  weight  of  work  iir  want  of  wages :  Ibe  Inttv 
more  likelr.  because  after  the  death  of  king  llewj 
hto  sodeaToon  met  not  with  projKtrtioDable  wirc> 
ngemenL  Bj  tbe  wijr  we  mar  aadly  observe  tkit 
two  of  ibo  beat  achoUt*  in  this  king's  reign,  laswl 
and  pnTferrcd  hy  him,  died  both  nad,  and  bervA 
of  their  wiu :  RirhsDl  Pace,  dean  of  St.  PaaTs*. 
and  this  Lolaod ;  wbk-h  !  mark  not  oat  of  ill  will 
to  the  dead,  to  lessen  their  memory  amongst  mm. 
bat  of  good  will  to  the  liTing,  to  gn«u*o  tbeir 
gimtitude  to  God ;  espee'talty  tn  srholan,  that  God 
may  prraerve  them  in  a  aommj  miinf^  Ixtih  hi  tlk* 
afMMtJe's  high  sense  and  in  the  eommun  arreptio* 
tberaof :  tbe  father  heeanie  tbe  tner  tbe  rtring.  tW 
If  oTcfstithied,  is  it  biokoo. 

■  Oad«in    in    H  ~     ' 

•  Oad«»    in    llMtr  Vlll.         k   iTin.i.j. 

BOOK  VI.  in  England,  447 

10.  He  maintained  many  learned  youths,  on  great  inteUi- 
cost  and  charges,  in  all  foreign  courts  and  countries  ;b^b"  him 
for  this  was  the  fashion  in  his  reign,  to  select  yearly  ^°"**  ^® 
one  or  moe  of  the  most  promising  pregnancies  out 

of  both  universities,  and  to  breed  them  beyond  the 
sous  on  the  king's  exhibitions  unto  them.  Sir  Tho- 
mas Smith  ',  bred  in  Queen's  College  in  Cambridge, 
and  afterward  principal  secretary  to  queen  Elizabeth, 
was  one  of  the  last  educated  in  this  manner.  These 
young  men  proved  afterwards  the  picklocks  of  the 
cabinet  councils  of  foreign  princes,  no  king  having 
better  intelligence  than  king  Henry  from  beyond 
the  seas. 

11.  Lastly,  he  justly  paid  a  great  yearly  sum  of 
money  to  many  monks  and  nuns  during  their  lives, 
the  manner  and  condition  of  which  pensions  we  will 
now  at  large  relate. 


It  was  in  those  days  conceived  highly  injurious  to  The  good- 
thrust  monks  and  nuns   out   of  house  and  home,  king  Hemy 
without   assigning   them    any   allowance   for   their  ^'"^ 
subsistence.     Alas!    many  of  them  dig  they  could 
not,  and   to  heg  they  were   ashamed;   their  fingers 
were  either  too  stiff,  by  reason  of  their  old  age,  to 
begin  now  to  bow  to  a  manual  trade ;  or  hands  too 
soft,  because  of  their  tender  breeding,  to  take  pain 
in  a  lal)orious  vocation.    And  although  there  wantinl 
not  some  to  persuade  the  king  to  out  them  without 
any   maintenance,  (it    being  but  just    they  should 

'  Caind.  Eliz.  in  anno  1577. 

M«  The  Hhlmyi^AUftgt 

pmoti«>  real  who   hiul   jirofened 
yet  the  kiiif;,  better  nntuivil  herdn  I 
tiory,  nllowcd  and  *\\\\j  [«i(l  U.*  mam 
cotnpfU'i)!,  to  alt  n-iiiiiti  antmitit*. 
Sllf^'i!**      ^  Indeed   thero   roimot   be   au  btgbar  ] 
ui«r»-    atvmtioe   titan   f<ir  a  king  or   atale    poUidijr  t*  ' 
dna*.  ^™  proiniie  pemioiu  to  twcewtiHU  panow.  and  i 
peribnn  the  fane;  wo  titat  poor  pfmple  dull  I 
Mmio  hundreds   iii   common   ro|>ort,  and 
penny  la  real  and  i-flVi-tual  lAjnoeot:  for,  I 
giant  niacth  and  vKctetli  tliu  ijiirita  of  i 
^nen  for  thi>  prenmt,  whirii  aoon  after  (Ijfi 
to  toriuro  thorn)  sink  and  Acttlo  dovn  on  \ 
pcrformancp  thereof;    ■owindly,   nich 
ofti<n  make  (x^^plc  pntiHirtion  their  pmvnt  pxpi 
acronllng  tti  thoao  their  hope*,  to  their  frreal  d 
and  doirimenL,  jrva,  •oaieCfanfla  to  llidr  otter  n 
tlunll;.  uiclt  noise  of  peaiiuaa  Krant«d 
from  them  tfao  charity  of  their  kindred  aw 
aa  Dccdluai  to  pcraona  premmefl  alilo  to  I 
themwlTM :  not  lu  ^Hsak  hov  much  it  I 
reputation  of  a  iitatc,  rendering  them  jostlj  c 
able,  cither  uf  Indiscretion  in  granting  pcntinw 
not  ilfMmrnl,  or  ii\fiutlc(<  in  not  payiiig  them  i 

TWftm  ^-  Vet  all  pemita  were  not  ptufflbcuouily  e 
J^''^'^  of  the  king's  iM*nH<>n«.  Itut  nnljr  thow  nbit  wtme 
P"^'""*'  qualifiiHl  nccftrdingly ;  uamL-lv,  iinrt,  «irli  u  at  tb* 
diiKihttion  of  their  abbej*  «-en<  n»t  prrfiTml  to  uy 
other  dignity  or  lienefice.  By  the  war.  this  waa  a 
t(>mplaliiMi  to  the  king  and  clumcellor  nfttinn*  u» 
pivfer  moan  men  (whirh  foniieriy  bad  1 
■nd  Mm)  to  DO  mvnn  living*,  becanae 
fnwml  want  of  able  miuistcn)  mdi   inrnmliffc  I 

vt  England. 


being  BO  provided  for,  their  pensions  ceased,  and  the 
exchequer  was  disburdened  from  future  paying  them 
any  exhibition. 

4.  These  pensions  of  the  king  were  confirmed  to  ■*  "njy  ^ 
the  monks  and  nuns  by  hia  letters  patent  under  the  le'ueri'^- 
broad  seal,  and  registered  in  the  Court  of  Augmen-| 
tations ;  one  copy  whereof  we  here  insert,  having 
seen  some  hundreds  of  them,  all  the  same  in  essen- 
tials, not  conceiving  it  impertinent  to  translate  the 
same,  desiring  the  lawyers  not  to  laugh  at  us  if  we 
miss  the  legal  terms,  whilst  we  hit  the  true  meaning 

Hbnrici;s  Octayus,  Dei 
gratia  Anglim  et  Francite 
R«x,  lidei  defensor,  Dominus 
Hil>erniic,  et  in  terra  bu- 
premum  caput  Anglicunir 
EccleMH!,  omnibua  nd  qtioa 
prKsentes  litters  pervene- 

rint,  salutem.     Cum  i 

"  Urnsy  thb  Eiobth.  Iiy  i\w 
"  grace  of  God,  king  of  England 
"  ond  France,  defender  of  ijje 
"  faith,  lord  of  Ireland,  and  bu- 
"  preme  head  of  the  English 
■'  cLiirck  on  earth.  To  all  to 
"  whom  our  present  letters  Hlinll 
"  come   greeting,     Wherens   the 

monasterium  de  Carthus  dc     "  monastery  of  the   Cortbii^ 

Hinton,  in  com'  nostro  80- 
mer.  jam  di&solvatur,  unde 
(]uidain  Edmundus  Horde 
tempore  dissolutionis  illius 
et  diu  antea  Prior  iode  fuit ; 
Nos  volentes  rationabileui 
annualem  pensionem,  sive 
promotionem  t»ndigaam, 
eidem  Edmnado  ad  victum, 
exhibition  em  et  sustenta- 
tionem  suam  melius  susti- 
nendum  provider! ;  Sciatis 
igiturquod  nos  in  consider- 
atiunepriuniissorumde  gratia 
nostra  speciali  uc  ex  ccrta 
scientia  et  mero  motu  nos- 
tris,  |>er   adviaamcntum    et 

Fl'I.LEB,  VOL.  III. 

of  Hinton,  iu  our  county  of 
'■  Somerset,  is  now  lately  dis- 
■•  solved,  whereof  Edmund  Horde 
'■  was  prior  at  the  time  of  the 
"  dissolution  thereof,  and  long 
"  liefore ;  We  are  willing  that  a 
"  reasonable  pension  annuiil,  or 
"  suitable  promotion  should  be 
"  provided  fur  the  said  Edmund, 
"  the  better  to  maintain  and  bus- 
"  tain  biui  in  diet  and  maiute. 
"  nance.  Know  therefore  that  we. 
"  in  consideration  of  the  premises, 
"  out  of  our  special  grace  and 
"  favonr,  certain  knowledge,  and 
'  our  mere  motion,  by  the  adrice 
"  and  consent  of  the  cAoncellur 

450  The  Hittmy  rfAihtyi  Mas  n. 

nmmmum  cwnlkrii  M  "  mJ  cmbcU  vt  dw  Caot  ^ 
ooMiUl  CbHs  AiipMiiu-  "  AupaMUlioM  td  iIh  pot^b* 
Uoonn  nvMlimuB eotwui     -  rf  oor  <t«wb,  Imtc  giiM  imk 

(aloB  rira  ■nrnilUm  pea.  ••  ptwiMi  of  fovtj<AM>    piiH^ 

■Immbi,  qvadf^blt'  qiutaor  ••  ocrUaii ;   UiM  1^  ^d  faf^- 

m,    te-  ..  ^,  ^,„_,,  mj  b.  tai  — 

^  "  .faraaU  EaawaL  lU  la  a. 

Mill  Mk  ■  hrto  Aanwida.  "  ^■mtaAHwi    of    tW 

doakkUaMiiteriifiaii  «  Vii(i>  May  la>  pal 

'lib  of  Ik*  aid 

■fanaapn  andaiTlia 

dombaallnpnaalidMa     "  adaiatiall  11  it  1 1 1,  » 
■lajlf  a  da*  i"^  •^     ■'  wiabb  pcaMfai  ef  iW 

■*  or  upwad^  a  wdl  by  iW  I 


«».     "  atiaa  of  A*  iiiiBWW  « 

iilnailli.  <U  It  I  am  II  w».    M^jf  m,  tna 

IM  h  MMiblH  nk  4*  t^     -  ilmii  i 

whatapaUakaa.-    .  rf  u.  ma 

■  blikl 

I  iliiii  fi 

of  lb 
oT  Iba  I 

„j,U„    -oal  af  Iba   aU   pnta  i 
-aiwaaaiba  faal  af  k 

«  England. 


MariwVir^nis,  per  Kquoles 
portiones.  £t  ulterins  de 
uberiori  gratia  nostra,  de- 
dimus  et  pro  considerHtione 
prtedicta  per  prKseotes  con- 
cedimus  priefato  Edtnundo 
Horde  undecim  libras  ster- 
lingonunhabend.eidem  Ed- 
mundo  ex  dono  nostra  per 
moDua  tbesauraiii  precdicti 
do  thtaauro  prsdicto,  vcl 
per  monus  dicti  receptoris 
de  exitibus  et  reventionibus 
maneriorum.  terrarum  et 
tenementorum  dicti  nuper 
monasterii  aolvend'.  £o 
(|Uod  cxpreasa  inentio  de 
vero  valore  annuo,  aut  de 
certitudine  pnemissorum, 
(dve  eorum  altcujua  not  de 
aliis  donis  sive  concesaioni- 
bus  per  noB  priefato  Ed- 
mundo  ante  bate  tempora 
fact'  in  pnesentibus  tninitne 
&ct'  eustit.  aut  aliquo  sta- 
tnto  actn  ordinatione  pro- 
visione,  aive  reitrictione  in 
coutrarium  inde  habit',  foct'. 
ordinal'  seu  provis',  aut  ali- 
(loa  alia  re  cauw,  vel  mate- 
ria qnacunque  in  aliquo  non 
obstante.  In  cujus  rei  tes- 
timonium bas  literas  noctru 
fieri  fecimus  patentea.  Teste 
Ricardo  Rich,  milite  apud 
Westmonasterium  vicesimo 
septimo  die  Aprihs,  anno 
repni  nostri  tricwimo  primo. 

'  Virgin  Mary,  by  equal  portions. 
'  And  furthermore,  of  our  more 
plentiful  grace,  we  Iiave  given, 
'  and  for  the  consideration  afore- 
'  said  by  these  presents  do  grant 
to  the  aforesaid  Edmund  Horde 
eleven  pounds  sterling,  that  the 
'  said  Edmund  may  have  it  from 
'  our  gift  by  the  hands  of  our 
'  foresaid  treasurer  of  our  fore- 
'  said  treasure,  or  by  tbe  hands 
'  of  our  foresaid  receiver  to  be 
'  paid  out  of  the  jirofits  and  reve- 
'  noes  of  the  manors,  lands,  and 
'  tenements  of  the  said  late  mo- 
'  noatcry.  — 

'  any  statute,  act,  ordinance,  pro- 
'  mission,  or   restriction   to  the 

■  contrary  had,  made,  ordained, 
'  or  provided,  or  any  other  mat- 
'  ter,  cause,  or  thing  whatsoever 

■  in  any  wise  notwithstanding. 
'  In  testimony  whereof  we  have 

■  made  these  our  letters  patents. 
'  Witness  Richard  Rich,  knight, 
'  at  Westminster,  the  twenty. 
'  seventh  day  of  April,  in  the 
'  one  and  thirtieth  of  our  reign. 



Th4  HUfofy  t^AUfy 

dUotn  Coriat  Aaftnum. 
f  tiwinm  RflTraiioDam 
CbrooK  Ra^M.  virtutr 
wamnd  n«i. 

"  of  iba  CtawB,  \f  ti 

Soe  we  here  the  jiajmient  to  tfah  Prior  soariMil 
of  two  fonu  uf  euvoiml  nstures  or  oonttlaa*; 

I  The  fbrtjr-four  ponndi  being  properij  ihm  ^m^ 
■ion  paid  Tcwiy  unto  him. 

ii.  Tb(>  aclditiunal  eloTcu  poands,  gimntcd  witk  •■ 
mUeritu,  paid  bat  once  u  ndnncie-^nooejr,  t*  it 
htm  with  Docewarios  at  liin  dofMUtote  out  of  ike 

Hup  is  obterrablu  in  all  the  patent*  I  haw  Mcik 

Uwt  constantly  ttie  kinj^'i  grmtuitj  for  tbvir  fiafe. 

gome  nnall  ftsctions  excepted,  bevt  the  propottaoa 

of  a  fnnrtb  i«rt  of  their  yearly  pentioa. 

Il"  5.  Suppose,  tbt-n.  tliu  uiir  prior  pfefatreJ  lo  • 

■  ■w»  churah  di^iity  or  liviDg  amounting  tcij  bmt  bM 

hfw   not  to  the  fuil  taIqci  of  forty-fnur  pooadt 

"^        this  did  not  avuid  hii«  pensinii,  but  that  be 

hold  it  and  bi«  living  Uigetfacr.     W 

WM  the  doiire  and   oudearoor  of  enay 

advanced  to  beat  down   the  raloe  of  fa 

llTing  aa  low  a*  might  be,  thereby  to 

capable  of  it  and  his  peoMOO,  to  wm  H 

worlc  of  tht>  king'*  officen  In  the  Ai 

Conn  truly  to  utatu   the  vatoalion  of  the  Uvingt  if 

■urb    pcraHiinen,    that    the    rruwn    might    nol   be 

dcAaoded:  where,  by  the  way,  I  roucviire  Ovl^i 

mn  Mthnated  not  aecording  to  the  bfouiahle  hCh 

BOOK  VI.  in  Englamt.  WS 

in  the  king's  book,  (where  few  of  forty-four  pounds 
per  annum,)  but  according  to  the  ordinary  value,  as 
they  were  wortli  to  be  let  and  set  in  that  age. 

6.  Here    fain    would  F  be    Batisfied,  from   some  a  ^uere 
learned  in  the  laws,  that  whereas  provision  is  made  pounded, 
in  this  patent  for  the  Prior  to  enjoy  his  pension 
until  per  nos,  by  the  king's  self,  or  his  under-officers, 

he  was  preferred  to  promotion  of  ecjual  value,  whe- 
ther or  no  this  pension  determined,  if  not  the  king 
but  some  inferior  patron  provided  such  preferment 
for  him ;  seeing,  in  a  general  sense,  all  may  be  said 
presented  by  the  king,  as  patron  paramount  of  the 
churcli  of  England,  who  by  virtue  of  his  law  have 
institution  and  induction  into  any  ecclesiastical  ])ro- 

7.  That  effectual  passage  is  inserted  in  all  patents  scnioniy  in 
of  abbots,  priors,  and  monks,  that  they  were  in  the  ndvimuge." 
convent    diu    antea,   long    before    the    dissolution 
thereof;    otherwise   many  young    folk    who    lately 

came  in  even  barely  went  out,  without  any  pensions. 
Such  novices  and  probationers,  whose  cowls  came 
but  yesterday  out  of  the  draper's  shop,  having  youth 
and  strength  to  provide  for  themselves,  were  left  to 
the  choice  of  their  own  calling,  without  any  other 
amiuity  allowed  them. 

8.  Their   pensions,    though    seeming   but   small,  Mmij'  pm- 
being  many  in  number,  made  a  deep  bole  in  thej^''muai 
king's   revenue,    insomuch    that  he    received    from"™"''' 
some  houses  but  small  profits  de   claro  until  the 

said  pensions  were  extinguished ;  as  will  appear 
(guess  Hercules  from  his  foot)  by  comparing  the 
profits  arising  from,  with  the  pensions  allotted  to, 
the  monks  in  the  aforesaid  priory  of  Ilintou  in 




•  *«  « 

*  >J  » 

a    ■    « 

(  ■!    4 
■  *>   « 

TW  »«1  MM  rf  «MMh«  «i<.  ifc  fA 

Now  whemt8  the  prionr  of  IlinUtn.  nt  tbe  dfai^ 
liitiuti  thi-roor,  was  %-nlucd  nt  ik»  niorv  than  !«■ 
htinclrtil  sixtjr-two  pounds  twdvc  i>hi1Hng«*,  if  Ite 
ofittnuiit)  nim  of  Tmrlr  (lenainttt  bi'  tlimM  dedacto^ 
the  rk-or  rvnuiiiitler  to  tbe  king  ww  bat  nine^-ctea 
poumU  fivo  sbilUngi  fbtupMioe.  But  the  tromn  Im4 
It  douhlt!  lulTuitagn:  one,  that  pHoiy  1>»I«  w«pe 
lactin^,  whilst  ponriooi  expired  iritli  hmmiIw*  hT«»; 
■ad  the  other,  that  the  fMnriom  were  bat  bnc 
pouijr-rait,  whiUc  abbey  buidi  were  lowly  rated,  fi» 
bmaatli  their  true  valoatlnu. 

9-  Now  beoaoM  *mr  band  is  in.  and  I  fcr  Um 

'  prMunt  rma  make  use  of  ui  autbontic  iMiiiMiil|rt 

(once   lieitry  bamn   Htnwdoa's,  lord  dia»b<vlata| 

•  HpMri  in  hi*  CatologM  ot  RaligiM 


in  England. 


kindly  communicated  to  me  by  a  worthy  friuiid  of 
all  the  pensiotis  in  Somersetshire ",  it  will  not  be 
amiss  to  excm;)Uty  euch  as  were  lUlotted  to  the 
several  abbots  and  priors  therein. 


R.  HamlvQ. 
Johu  Ely. 
John  Stoneiuii. 

I.     :    d. 

It  I  I 

60    o    o 

Tbo  prebend  of  Sutlon. 





WilHara  Gibby. 
John  MidieU. 

I   ..  a. 
80    0    0 
60    0    0 
33    6    8 

(.    ..    d. 
Au  bouw  ia  Bull. 

1  \  \ 



Robert  Wiilihe. 

Tl«e  two  1 


1.    t.    d. 

^i  11 

ut  vere  hopluUj 

16  1.1'    4' 

The  aforesaid  book  reacheth  not  Bristol,  because 
not  properly  in  Somersetshire,  but  a  county  incor- 
porate by  itself.  As  for  ^Vhiti^g,  late  abbot  of 
Glastonbury,  lie  was  executed  for  a  traitor,  nnd  so 
bis  pensions  paid.  No  mention  therein  of  the  prior 
of  Michelney,  whose  j>lace  may  be  prtsuiued  void 
by  his  death,  or  he  otherwise  preferred. 

10.  We  may  observe  great  inequality  in  these  P«u>aiu  go 
pensions,  not  measured  as  the  Jews'  manna,  by  one 
and  the  same  homer,  but  increased  or  diminished — 
1.  According  to  the  wealth  of  the  house  dissolved  ; 
for  where  more  profit  accrued  to  the  king  by  the 

by  fovour. 

■>  Sir.  Edward  Pc{if  e. 

■  BcsiJea  tbe  capital  mcs&u- 
in  East  Cbynuck. 


The  JTumrf  ofAU^i 

,  I  heir  larger 


mippriMBiora,  I 

tliL>  iirior  or  monk  thenof.     ft.  AeeotdiBf  to  tt* 

merits  of  tho  man.     3.  Aeoordiny  to  fab  ■(•  tmi 

im|»>tency  nocditif^  ruliof.     LmUj,  and  chicttf,  wm- 

corriiug  08  tlic  [mrtii>8  were  befrieoiled  hf  the  fcii^ 

officers  in  tbo  Anfpn(.<ntatiaD  Coort;  wheniB.  ■■  m 

all  otbor  courts,  favour  ever  «■■,  in,  and  wffl  W  b 


^ffjf  11.  Out  of  all  pctuioiii,  the  lusMt  b  | 

dMMitu  ind  strongest  in  ocmrejrance  (as  |MMwd.  oo<  as  A* 

^''"       ifBt,  bjr  lotten  pntcnt,  bat  by  art  of  | 

were  those  aalgneil  to  tbo  late  lord  prior,  and  thaas 
of  the   order   of   tb^   knigbts  bospltmllera. 
beinj;  men  (if  higit  birtb  and  bonoumhle  I 
tbe  king  no  k*a8  )>olitirly  ttuui  ririlly  th< 
enlarge  tltoir  allowance,  (a  main  motive  i 
them  so  quietljr  to  surrender  tbdr  ttnag  t 
hospitals.)  as  in  the  printed  statute  doth  i 

V  Anno  3 a  Hen.  VIII.  o^  "  ind  bc^  >  iliif*,  in tsnUk^*- 

S4.     [Tlw^  dU  nut  ndipi  w  "  atlra  a«l  of  M««j  p^^ 

rMdO;  M  iwtl.     AaM»dl«|t  W  "  akw  aad   ]w   at   tfc*   ^Mtf"* 

Wwv«r,  "  tbe  niigimit  cnar  "  botct  for  mmm  nnar  nan 

••  of  Sl  Joha'a  of  JiiiimIim.  -  poUoa ;  (m  liU  Ml  •£ 

-  wkoM  ibM  ■Msriiw  liiiii—  -  Un  *>od  DM  i^^  ay 
"  WM  is  tbs  mmIwMi  of  "  tta  dMocbt  to  asriA  1k^ 
-Ca^lnawfa  pvUi.  wttUs  «  mI««  whTtMr  Mffa  mw. 
'  tlw    osaatf   at   MUdUmx.  -  ms^  mfl  ^  Msa  ^ 

-  «OMhtii«  of  iMllMMB  sad      "  Wit   of  lfa»   slsfi—   ^». 

*■  ooldkra  of  radnt  fiwriUoa  -  taim    ^    sfl    «lfc«  tfdh 

-  sai  Uriiifiriti.  soaU  bf  as  -mMm."  lis  ika  ndte 
"  sMHo  hs  bnM(hl  is  to  ps-  |art  of  ifcs  act  spisM  Ah^ 
■*  MM  to  Ua  sMiJMtT  sav  of  Mssd  te  s  M>iH|aMl  psA^ 
"  thsM  poUas  IMUom  (Wh  -   -  ....-.■  ,^ 

«  thsM  poUas  IMUom  Cm**  "     '  -j    -■    -  '       ■  '  i< 

"  M  thaw  of  Bt.  FMoaia  la  of  kslAto  ww  iliMlirf,  ^ 

-StaMfdnDaadpaUkMasib-  htmitt  aaJarhMTya^^M 

'   smnitW^.  to  MM  aST  aT  lb  ta^fe  «« 

Utoglvsabar  iWrardM.  FsB.Maa.f.ii< 


"  Bb  iIm  Mal,li 

in  Engfand. 

Cmfnrn.  Ptnn 

L  I 

Clnnent  WeM  lOO  < 

John  Sutum  )00  i 

Richard  Poole  1.13 

Jnlin  Rsmnn  133 

Uila  Rii*m41  100 

(>F<ir|^  Aylmer         ico  ■ 

Edwanllttdlinghunioo  ' 

Thomu  Pemberttm  80  ■ 



AmbnHie  Cave  6 

Richard  Broke  6 
Cuthben  ladBhtoo  6 
Thomaa  Copied  ike  £ 
Edwsrd  Bmwn  5 
M'UliMU  Tyrell        3 

To  Anthony  Rogers,  Oswald  Massingberd,  &c. 
ten  pounds  apiece  yearly  to  be  paid,  as  all  tlie  for- 
mer pensions,  during  their  natural  lives.  In  the 
same  statute  it  is  provided,  that  John  Ma|ileston, 
clerk,  sub-prior  of  the  said  hospital ;  William  Erm- 
Bteii,  clerk,  master  of  the  Terajde  in  London  ;  Walter 
Lymsey,  and  John  Winter,  chaplains  there,  sliould 
every  one  of  them  have,  receive,  and  enjoy  (the  said 
master  and  two  chaplains  of  the  Temple  doing  tlioir 
duties  and  services  there  during  their  lives)  all  such 
mansion-houses,  stipends,  wages,  with  all  other  pro- 
fits of  money  in  as  large  and  ample  manner  as  they 
were  accustomed  to  do '. 

■I  He 
ham  i 

'  [In  addition  to  these  in- 
stances of  pensions  granted  on 
the  suppression  of  religious 
houses  to  some  of  the  inmates, 
I  mil  add  one  from  the  Cotton 
M8S..  Cleopatra  p.  306: 

"  An  order  taken  the  second 
"  day  of  March,  the  twenty- 
"  ninth  year  of  the  reign  of 
"  oursovereign  lord  king  Henry 
"  the  Eighth,  by  his  highness' 
"  commisdoners.  with  the  rdi- 

"  gious  of  the  late  monastery 
"  of  St.  Andrews  the  Apostle, 
"  in  Xorthampton,  for  their 
"  annual  pensions  given  unto 
"  them  only  of  his  grace's  cha- 
"  rity  during  the  term  of  their 
"  natural  lives,  to  begin  at  the 
"  feast  of  the  Annunciation  of 
"  our  Lady  nent  ensuing,  as  on 
"  his  grace's  behalf  is  to  tfaen 
"  promised  by  the  said  tn 

"  First,  Francis    Leycesler, 
'  late  prior,  and  Thomas  Betts. 

iS8  Tht  mitory  y^Uqw 

IS.  No  mention  (n  fa  otbar  patcnti)  of  mmj  p^ 
"tnitiM  iu  roadj  rooneTt  givm  onto  thwm^  sliA 
probably,  cut  into  tbeir  penikMU,  made  Ibea  wm^ 
to  bif()i.  As  for  tb(^  thouwud  pottmls  fituAj  i 
t(ir  WUliam  Weston,  not  one  penoT'  thereof  «i 
he  djring  the  next  dajr,  (the  hoDM  of  hit  1 
and  of  hia  vorthljr  tabeniBcle  bcfaf  diaohned  hoA 
togetber  *,)  Mul-cmittcn  with  sorniw :  gol^  thowgfc  a 

"  Mb-pricr  of  tbc    Mdd   bi«  -  of  t<mt]r-HlM  pai^  tm  h» 

**  BNMuulvrT,  bra  (7  dw  mU  "  jawl;  pnuiaa,  sJL  ibL  4A 

"aommfaAam  rawiiKJ  ttpm>  ••  Timb—  <  ihfi .  J  *■  y 

'*  MTtain  eMMidflnlMMH  till  mj  "af  iwioty  «»t«»yiM^lirl» 

**  lord    privT    mhI'i    plcwara  "  rnrif  niiwiiiM.  >/.  1  u.  4A 

» dur^  bf  known.  •'  WOlIni  Wiiii*iHi.  Wife 

**  ThooMi  SM7t]i,frf  Um  ■tr*  "  ifR  irf  tyrty  I—  m«  In 

"of  ftftf-two   jrnua,  fur   hu  "  Iimt— riy[i«nMn«.iJ.ij*.^* 

**  JMtljr  makMi.  4i.  TI1H  ig»i«nt1  b  i%iHilf 

•"n«natCoiri«h»s.Wik«  Um     i  ■■■■itaJiiain.    BMM 

*'^«  of  iftr  r<nn.  lor  hb  Uyf.  lUhwt  SMifci  ■■.  m| 

"  Mrir  pMHlaa.  4/.  TliontM  MfUMMy.    Tkn  «• 

-Rah«tHutln.artbaM  |q«»l«ftWyii  1  11  ll      |iM 

"  of  fbctjr-oaa  ycum,  tot  m  bkI  palil  to  •  ncy  fcw  yi^l^ 

"  jmAj  pwMiaB,  V-  Hneuto  la  54/.  i^.  4i<. 

J«aMHaiik]m«.afth«it*  nmanl  hM«M  of  t 

"of  ftftjr-two  jmn,  fix  Ut  MriMnwd tniWUnashMfeft 

**  nwlT  Binriow.  4!  wl>bfc  var  b«   BnaiiiwJ  « 

«  IUAm4  Bnbvry,  at  Mm  umkm  ralWr  ihan  vw  mmA 

"  i«»  af  totj  jraaiK  (or  hb  to  tejl.  ?•.  irf.    AMtlMr  «». 

**  jrauhr  pMnba,  4JL  cnnMlMMi   WMt  kIm  b*  a^ 

"  Jobn  Rot*.  o(  tW  M*  of  wrvai  in  rwrd  u»  tfav*  ft^ 

••  tUrtr^s  jmn.  k  mam$m»i  rioM.  UmI  Uwy  wvn  wak  fM 

"  by  O*  Mid  conaiWMwn  to  to  all  th*  iamriM  in  paniA 

"  IM  lionnfi  of  (ft.  Giln  in  mr  irt  Mcnrding  m  •  tmri 

*•  NonlttptoB,  hriag  of  tlw  novuL     By   »bat  |  lii^fc. 

"  yvnriy  nint  of  7I.,  and  of  tlM